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1.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(8): 634-640, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189034

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: El papel del entorno en la salud cardiovascular ha ganado protagonismo en el contexto del cambio global. Este trabajo persigue analizar la relación de la temperatura aparente (TA) y los contaminantes atmosféricos con los ingresos por infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM) y realizar un análisis temporal de la enfermedad y la mortalidad asociada. Métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio de serie temporal de los ingresos por IAM en Cantabria entre 2001 y 2015. La asociación entre las variables ambientales (entre ellas, se estimó un índice biometeorológico, la TA) y los ingresos por IAM se analizó mediante una regresión de cuasi-Poisson, y se creó un modelo no lineal de retardo distribuido dentro de un modelo generalizado aditivo, con el fin de atender el efecto retardado y la presencia de relaciones no lineales de las variables ambientales. Resultados: La tasa de incidencia y la mortalidad por IAM siguieron una tendencia descendente durante el periodo de estudio (CC=-0,714; p=0,0002). Los ingresos por IAM tenían un patrón anual con máximos en invierno (p=0,005); había diferencias intrasemanales, y los mínimos se registraron durante el fin de semana (p=0,000005). Se encontró una asociación inversa entre la TA y el número de ingresos por IAM y una relación directa y estadísticamente significativa con las concentraciones de partículas de diámetro<10 μm en la atmósfera. Conclusiones: Hay una tendencia descendente en los IAM en el periodo 2007-2015. La mortalidad asociada con los ingresos por este diagnóstico se ha reducido. La TA y las partículas de diámetro <10 μm en la atmósfera son factores predictores de esta enfermedad


Introduction and objectives: The role of the environment on cardiovascular health is becoming more prominent in the context of global change. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between apparent temperature (AT) and air pollutants and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to study the temporal pattern of this disease and its associated mortality. Methods: We performed a time-series study of admissions for AMI in Cantabria between 2001 and 2015. The association between environmental variables (including a biometeorological index, AT) and AMI was analyzed using a quasi-Poisson regression model. To assess potential delayed and non-linear effects of these variables on AMI, a lag non-linear model was fitted in a generalized additive model. Results: The incidence rate and the mortality followed a downward trend during the study period (CC=-0.714; P=.0002). An annual pattern was found in hospital admissions (P=.005), with the highest values being registered in winter; a weekly trend was also identified, reaching a minimum during the weekends (P=.000005). There was an inverse association between AT and the number of hospital admissions due to AMI and a direct association with particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 10 μm. Conclusions: Hospital admissions for AMI followed a downward trend between 2007 and 2015. Mortality associated with admissions due to this diagnosis has decreased. Predictive factors for this disease were AT and particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 10 μm


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Temperatura , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Estudos de Séries Temporais , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Int. microbiol ; 22(1): 59-68, mar. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184814

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to isolate arsenic-resistant bacteria and to further exploit it for remediation purposes. In the present study, we have isolated arsenic-resistant strain from ground water of Pakistan AT-01. The strain was cultivated at 37°C in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with different concentrations of arsenate and arsenite. The minimum inhibitory concentration of arsenic against the bacterial isolate was 7 g/L (7000 mg/L) for arsenate and 1.4 g/L (1400 mg/L) for arsenite salt. The bacterial isolate was also characterized both on molecular and biochemical basis. The isolated strain belonged to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The high resistance against arsenic offered by the bacteria was exploited further for bioremediation purposes. The bacterial biomass generated from AT-01 strain was able to efficiently remove arsenic with 98% efficiency. Arsenic contamination of ground water is a widespread worldwide problem. The present study shows the potential of high arsenic-resistant bacteria for efficient arsenic removal


No disponible


Assuntos
Adsorção , Arsênico/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Arsênico/toxicidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Arseniatos/toxicidade , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Temperatura
3.
Int. microbiol ; 22(1): 103-110, mar. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184818

RESUMO

Two ascomycete strains were isolated from creosote-contaminated railway sleeper wood. By using a polyphasic approach combining morpho-physiological observations of colonies with molecular tools, the strains were identified as Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. (IBPPM 543, MUT 4558; GenBank accession no. MG593980) and Lecanicillium aphanocladii Zare & W. Gams (IBPPM 542, MUT 242; GenBank accession no. MG593981). Both strains degraded hazardous pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, anthraquinone-type dyes, and oil. Oil was better degraded by F. oxysporum, but the aromatic compounds were better degraded by L. aphanocladii. With both strains, the degradation products of anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluorene were 9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and 9-fluorenone, respectively. During pollutant degradation, F. oxysporum and L. aphanocladii produced an emulsifying compound(s). Both fungi produced extracellular Mn-peroxidases, enzymes possibly involved in the fungal degradation of the pollutants. This is the first report on the ability of L. aphanocladii to degrade four-ring PAHs, anthraquinone-type dyes, and oil, with the simultaneous production of an extracellular Mn-peroxidase


No disponible


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hypocreales/isolamento & purificação , Óleos/metabolismo , Madeira/microbiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Enzimas/análise , Hypocreales/classificação
4.
Int. microbiol ; 22(1): 155-167, mar. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184823

RESUMO

Lindane contamination in different environmental compartments is still posing a serious threat to our environment and effective measures need to be taken for the detoxification of lindane. Soil bacteria isolated from agricultural fields are known to possess certain plant growth promoting traits like the production of phytohormones, production of ammonia, nitrogen fixation and solubilization of phosphorus, etc. In the present study, an indigenous bacterial strain Paracoccus sp. NITDBR1 have been isolated from an agricultural field in Manipur, India which could grow on 100 mg L−1 lindane as the sole source of carbon and could degrade up to 90% of lindane in mineral salt media under liquid culture conditions in 8 days. The strain NITDBR1 was able to form biofilm in lindane media and the addition of substrate like glucose and sucrose enhanced the biofilm formation by 1.3 and 1.17-fold respectively in 3 days. The strain NITDBR1 could produce glycolipid and glycoprotein based biosurfactants. It was also found to possess plant growth promoting traits like nitrogen fixation and indole-3-acetic acid production to assist crop production. The phytotoxicity studies carried out on mustard seeds revealed that the degradation products formed after treatment with NITDBR1 could lower the toxicity of lindane for root elongation by 1.3-fold. Therefore, strain NITDBR1 could be useful for the bioremediation of soil contaminated with lindane with lesser damage to the environment, biofilm forming ability may help the bacteria survive under stressed environmental conditions, and biosurfactant production will help in increasing the bioavailability of contaminants. The plant growth promoting traits can be beneficial for agriculture. With such soil friendly activities coupled with pesticide degradation, this strain can be used for environmental as well as agricultural applications


No disponible


Assuntos
Hexaclorocicloexano/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paracoccus/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biotransformação , Índia , Microbiologia do Solo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Paracoccus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paracoccus/isolamento & purificação , Tensoativos
6.
Acta pediatr. esp ; 76(3/4): 44-49, mar.-abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177392

RESUMO

Introducción: Es conocido el efecto perjudicial de la contaminación atmosférica sobre la salud. Este estudio tiene como objetivos evaluar si los niveles de contaminantes atmosféricos en nuestro entorno cumplen lo recomendado por la Organización Mundial de Salud (OMS) y valorar su posible relación con los ingresos pediátricos. Métodos: Como variables dependientes se han estudiado los ingresos pediátricos y, entre ellos, los producidos por patologías respiratorias (bronquiolitis, crisis asmáticas y neumonías) durante 49 meses en un hospital situado en el centro de una gran ciudad. Como variables independientes se estudiaron los valores de contaminación atmosférica. Se estimaron los coeficientes de correlación y regresión lineal múltiple. Se realizó un análisis mediante la prueba de la t de Student del promedio de ingresos cuando los valores de dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2) eran superiores e inferiores a 40 μg/m3. Resultados: Durante el periodo estudiado hubo 7.103 ingresos en pediatría general, 3.645 de ellos (51,32%) causados por procesos respiratorios. Se encontró una correlación entre el NO2 y los ingresos totales (0,771) y los de causa respiratoria (0,784), ambos con un valor de p < 0,0001. Al superar los niveles de NO2 por encima de 40 μg/m3, el número de ingresos es mayor para todos los grupos estudiados. En la regresión lineal los ingresos totales y los causados por crisis asmáticas se incrementan con los niveles de NO2 y disminuyen con la temperatura (p < 0,0001). Conclusiones: Se encontró una relación entre los ingresos estudiados y los niveles de contaminación atmosférica, fundamentalmente de NO2, cuyos niveles sobrepasan los establecidos por la OMS. La disminución de estos niveles podría evitar un número significativo de ingresos pediátricos


Introduction: There is a well known relationship between air pollution and health. In this study, we aimed to establish a relationship between air pollution and pediatric hospital admissions. Methods: Admissions to the pediatric ward have been studied as dependent variables and within those admissions due to respiratory diseases: bronchiolitis, asthma and pneumonias, during 49 months at a hospital located in the center of a big city. As independent variables, air pollution values were studied. Reciprocity coefficients and multiple lineal regression were performed. A T Student analysis was applied regarding the average of admissions when values of NO2 were over and under 40 μg/m3. Results: During the length of our study there were 7,103 pediatric admissions, 3,645 (51.32%) of those were respiratory diseases. The strongest relationship was found is between levels of NO2 and total admissions (0.771), as well as with the admissions by respiratory causes (0.784), both with p < 0.0001. For NO2 levels higher than 40 μg/m3, the number of admissions was higher for every researched group. Conclusions: Levels of air pollution, mainly NO2, were associated with the amount of pediatric hospital admissions. Since NO2 levels exceed those established by the World Health Organization, the compliance of those levels could avoid pediatric admissions


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Modelos Lineares , Poluentes Ambientais , Bronquiolite/diagnóstico , Asma
7.
Rev. esp. drogodepend ; 43(1): 77-88, ene.-mar. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171745

RESUMO

Reflexionamos en este artículo sobre el desenvolvimiento y el proceso de crecimiento personal, de unos sujetos que desarrollan su existencia en ambientes, la gran mayoría de los casos, proadictivos y patogénicos. Al mismo tiempo, se ofrecen algunos, de entre tantos, testimonios reales extraídos de las experiencias compartidas con los hijos/as de alcohólicos/as, en los años en los que se desarrolló el programa preventivo/asistencial. Igualmente, se hace referencia, someramente, al modelo de actuación, plasmado en un programa de intervención, en el cual se plantearon medidas consideradas necesarias y directrices básicas para atender a esta población que estando inmersa en el proceso adictivo y contaminada por la misma adicción, no recibían respuestas a sus necesidades afecto emocionales y conductuales o las respuestas eran mínimas


In this article we consider the development and process of personal growth of certain people whose existence develops in environments which are, in the vast majority of cases, pro-addictive and pathogenic. At the same time, we give some of the many real testimonies drawn from experiences shared with the children of alcoholics, over the years in which the preventive-assistance programme was carried out. It likewise makes a brief reference to the performance model, materialising in an intervention programme, in which measurements considered to be necessary were brought up along with basic guidelines to assist this population, immersed in the addictive process and contaminated by the same addiction, who did not receive answers to their affective, emotional and behavioural necessities, or only minimal answers


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluentes Ambientais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/complicações , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Luto
10.
Sanid. mil ; 73(3): 153-157, jul.-sept. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167407

RESUMO

Introducción: La ricina es una toxina muy potente que ha adquirido importancia por su potencial uso como arma biológica, fundamentalmente en forma pulverulenta. El desarrollo de métodos que permitan una detección rápida y temprana tras la exposición a la toxina permitiría reducir las tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas. Ante una alerta/amenaza biológica con una muestra sospechosa de contener ricina, la Red de Laboratorios de Alerta Biológica (RELAB), infraestructura de naturaleza científico-técnica creada mediante la Orden PRE/305/2009, autoriza el envío de la muestra al Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospacial (INTA), uno de los laboratorios de referencia que integran esta Red. Objetivos: Desarrollo de un protocolo para la detección de ricina basado en una doble detección, un ensayo inmunológico y un análisis proteico, para aumentar la fiabilidad del diagnóstico además de acortar sensiblemente el tiempo de respuesta del laboratorio. Material y Métodos: El diagnóstico inmunológico con anticuerpos in house combinados en un ELISA tipo Sandwich. El diagnóstico proteico mediante la técnica SDS-PAGE (electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida con dodecilsulfato sódico) para determinar el tamaño y la estructura de las distintas proteínas de la muestra. Resultados: La optimización del marcado de los anticuerpos de detección, así como la preparación y almacenamiento de placas previamente tapizadas/bloqueadas permite conseguir un ensayo muy sensible (<1 ng/mL) en un tiempo inferior a cuatro horas. Conclusión: La realización de ambos ensayos en paralelo permite disponer de un método diagnóstico robusto, sensible y rápido (AU)


Introduction: Ricin is a powerful toxin wich has gained importance due to its potential use as biological weapon, essentially in powder form. The development of methods that promote a rapid detection after the toxin exposure will allow us to reduce its associated rates of both mobility and mortality. In the face of biological threat with samples suspected of containing ricin, the Biological-Alert-Laboratory-Network (RELAB), which is a scientific-technical infrastructure created by the Order of the Ministry of the Presidency PRE/305/2009, authorizes the shipment of this type of samples to the National Institute of Aerospace Technique (INTA), one of the Reference Laboratory belonging to this Network. Aim: Development of one protocol to detect ricin based on both an immunological assay and a protein analysis focused to reduce noticeably the response time of the laboratory. Material and Methods: The Immunological diagnosis of ricin uses in house antibodies combined in an ELISA sandwich. Protein diagnosis through the SDS-PAGE technique defines the size and structure of different proteins contained in the sample. Results: The optimization of detection antibody labelling and the development of precoated-and-preblocked stored plates has allowed us to achieve a very sensitive assay (<1 ng/mL) less than four hours. Conclusion: Carrying out both assays in paralell enables us to have a hardy, sensitive and rapid method to identify ricin (AU)


Assuntos
Ricina/isolamento & purificação , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação Química , Noxas/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 65(5): 203-208, 1 sept., 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-166955

RESUMO

Introducción. Existen discrepancias en los diversos estudios que intentan correlacionar los factores de riesgo de desarrollar esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA) y el impacto en su pronóstico. Algunos de dichos factores son intrínsecos al medio de vida rural. Por ello, proponemos estudiar si alguno de éstos influye sobre el inicio o el pronóstico de la enfermedad en la región sanitaria de Lleida, un ámbito predominantemente rural. Pacientes y métodos. Se recogieron y analizaron variables relacionadas con factores generales, clínicos, ambientales y de laboratorio en el momento del diagnóstico de ELA en 38 pacientes, y se relacionaron retrospectivamente con el inicio de la enfermedad y su supervivencia. Resultados. Los antecedentes familiares de ELA (p < 0,02) y la creatincinasa elevada (p < 0,0001) se asociaron a mayor supervivencia. El tabaquismo (p < 0,04), el trabajo físico (p < 0,03), la creatinina baja (p < 0,03) y la creatincinasa elevada (p = 0,0005) se asociaron a un inicio precoz de la enfermedad de modo estadísticamente significativo. La forma de inicio bulbar se relacionó significativamente con un inicio tardío de la enfermedad (p < 0,01). El colesterol total y la proteína C reactiva no influyeron en el inicio ni en el curso de la ELA en nuestra muestra. Existe una tendencia estadísticamente no significativa a favor de que el ejercicio físico moderado se asocia con un inicio más tardío, mientras que el ejercicio intenso se asocia con un inicio precoz de la ELA. Conclusiones. Los resultados apuntan a que existe una serie de factores que influye en el desarrollo y pronóstico de la ELA, y alguno de éstos es más prevalente en el ámbito rural, como el trabajo físico (AU)


Introduction. There are discrepancies in the different studies that attempt to correlate the risk factors of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the impact on their prognosis. Some of these factors are intrinsic to the rural livelihood. Therefore, we propose to study if any of these influence the onset and/or prognosis of the disease in the health region of Lleida, a predominantly rural area. Patients and methods. Variables related to general factors, clinical, environmental and laboratory were collected and analyzed at the time of diagnosis of ALS in 38 patients and were retrospectively related to the onset of the disease and its survival. Results. The family history of ALS (p < 0.02) and elevated CK (p < 0.0001) were associated with increased survival. Smoking (p < 0.04), physical work (p < 0.03), low creatinine (p < 0.03), elevated CK (p = 0.0005) were associated with an early onset of the disease. The bulbar onset form was significantly related to a late onset of the disease (p < 0,01). Total cholesterol and PCR did not influence the onset or course of ALS. There is a non-significant trend at statistical level in favor of moderate physical exercise being associated with a later onset, while intense exercise at an early onset of ALS. Conclusions. The results suggest that there are a number of factors that influence the development and prognosis of ALS, some of which are more prevalent in rural areas, such as physical work (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Progressão da Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Poluentes Ambientais/análise
12.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 86(4): 188-196, abr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-161541

RESUMO

Introducción: La vitamina D es una prohormona esencial en la homeostasis del calcio y el fósforo. Estudios recientes muestran una elevada frecuencia de insuficiencia/deficiencia de vitamina D en población general a nivel mundial. Nuestro objetivo ha sido estimar la prevalencia de deficiencia e insuficiencia de vitamina D sérica [25(OH)D3] y examinar sus factores asociados en la infancia. Material y métodos: Se ha estudiado a 283 niños participantes en la cohorte INMA-Asturias. Se determinó la 25(OH)D3 mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Se han estimado las prevalencias de deficiencia ([25(OH)D3 < 20 ng/ml) e insuficiencia (20-29,9 ng/ml) de vitamina D y se ha analizado la distribución de 25(OH)D3 por mes de extracción, ingesta y otros factores. Resultados: La 25(OH)D3 media fue 20,1 ng/ml (rango 2,7-49,8). El 8,8% tenía 25(OH)D3 ≥ 30 ng/ml, el 38,5% entre 20-20,9 ng/ml y el 52,7% < 20 ng/ml. Se halló variación estacional con menores valores en invierno. No se encontró relación entre los niveles plasmáticos y la ingesta de vitamina D (mediana 2,7 g/día, rango 0,81-12,62), el tiempo al aire libre (mediana 3 h, rango: 0:21-6:55), el índice de masa corporal, ni el sexo, pero sí con los niveles de sus madres durante la gestación. Conclusiones: Existe una elevada prevalencia de deficiencia/insuficiencia de vitamina D a los 4 años. La exposición solar podría no ser suficiente en nuestra región. Se deberían promover actividades al aire libre con una adecuada exposición a la luz solar. Dado el déficit de ingesta en la infancia, es necesario hacer recomendaciones de una alimentación variada rica en vitamina D en este periodo especialmente durante el invierno, valorando la necesidad de suplementar con vitamina D en los niños de riesgo (AU)


Introduction: Vitamin D is an essential prohormone in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Recent studies show a high frequency of insufficiency/deficiency of vitamin D in the general population worldwide. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of circulating vitamin D [25(OH)D3] deficiency and insufficiency in children and examine the associated factors. Material and methods: A total of 283 children, participants in the cohort INMA-Asturias, were studied. The 25(OH)D3 concentrations were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of deficiency [25(OH)D3 < 20 ng/ml] and insufficiency [20-29.9 ng/ml] of vitamin D was estimated. Distribution of 25(OH)D3 for month of extraction of specimen, ingestion, and other factors were analysed. Results: The mean 25(OH)D3 was 20.1 ng/ml (range 2.7-49.8), with 8.8% ≥ 30 ng/ml, 38.5% from 20-20.9 ng/ml, and 52.7% < 20 ng/ml. Seasonal variation was found, with lower values in winter. There was no relationship between plasma levels and intake of vitamin D (median 2.7 g/day, range 0.81-12.62), time outdoors (mean 3 hours, range: 0:21-6:55), or BMI or gender, but there was one found with the mother’s levels during gestation. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in children at 4 years. Solar exposure might not be enough in our region. Healthy children should be encouraged to follow adequate outdoor activities with associated sun exposure. Due the deficit of intake in childhood, recommendations are needed about a varied diet with vitamin D-containing foods in this age group, especially during the winter, and assessing the need of vitamin D supplementation in children at risk (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Efeito de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Antropometria/métodos
13.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(1): 18-24, ene.-feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-158970

RESUMO

Background: Studies indicate that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is associated with adverse respiratory and allergy outcomes. Exposure to PAH may impair the immune function of the foetus and, subsequently, be responsible for an increased susceptibility of children to allergic diseases. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the association between mother’s exposure to PAH during pregnancy and allergy diseases in their infants. We also assessed the above associations using measured PAH exposure in children’s urine during the first two years of life. Methods: The current analysis was restricted to 455 mothers and their children from Lodz district. The women were interviewed three times during the pregnancy in order to collect demographic, socio-economic and medical history data. Children’s health status was assessed at the age of 10-18 months and repeated at two years of age. The associations between dependent dichotomous variables and urine concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) were analysed using logistic regression. Results: We showed that higher urine concentrations of 1-HP in mothers at 20-24 weeks of pregnancy increased the risk of more frequent respiratory infections (p = 0.02) in children during their first year of life. Higher 1-HP concentrations in children’s urine increased the risk of food allergy (p = 0.002) in children during their first two years of life. Conclusions: This study suggests awareness of environmental factors, which may affect children’s health since PAH showed to be a risk factor for airway infections and food allergy in children after adjustment for other risk factors (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna , Fatores de Risco , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Polônia/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos
14.
An. R. Acad. Farm ; 82(n.extr): 206-214, oct. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-157626

RESUMO

La incidencia y prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad ha experimentado un gran incremento en las últimas décadas. Aunque el balance entre ingreso y gasto energético es clave en la inducción y establecimiento de la obesidad, otros factores parecen estar netamente implicados. A este respecto la hipótesis de los obesógenos ambientales, ha ganado credibilidad en los años recientes, al identificarse agentes químicos que promueven la adipogénesis y obesidad en animales y humanos. En esta revisión, se hace un estudio de los disruptores endocrinos que son sustancias químicas contaminantes del medio ambiente y su relación con la obesidad. Se revisan los principales tipos de obesógenos, p.ej. dietilestilbestrol, bisfenol A, los compuestos orgánicos derivados del estaño, la genisteína y los ftalatos y sus características diferenciales y mecanismos de acción. Se ultima con unas reflexiones sobre la necesidad de profundizar en el conocimiento de estos compuestos tan abundantes hoy en día (AU)


Overweight and obesity incidence and prevalence have increased during the last decades. Although the energy intake/expenditure balance is a key factor in the obesity induction and development, other factors seem clearly implicated. In fact the environmental obesogens hypothesis has gain importance in the last years, as different chemical agents have been found to adipogenics and obesogenics in animal models and humans. In this review we study the role of environmental chemical polluting as endocrine disruptors and their relationship with obesity. Major obesogen types, e.g. diethylstilboestrol, bisphenol A, tinorganic derived compounds, genistein and ftalates are described. Their differential characteristics and action mechanisms are defined. The review ends with some considerations on the need to get knowledge on such abundant compounds (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Epigênese Genética , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise
17.
Rev. esp. drogodepend ; 41(1): 56-66, ene.-mar. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-150890

RESUMO

Diferentes literaturas sugieren que el consumo de cannabis es un importante problema para la salud pública. El cannabis, por su naturaleza ilegal, llega a sus usuarios sin cumplimiento de normas adecuadas de cultivo, almacenamiento, procesamiento y tráfico; lo que puede generar diversos contaminantes, que pueden ser químicos, físicos o microbianos. La presencia de contaminantes microbianos es un riesgo para la salud de los usuarios, sobre todo en pacientes con el sistema inmune comprometido. Costa Rica no cuenta con estudios sobre la presencia de contaminantes microbianos en el cannabis comercializado, por lo que este estudio pretendía establecer si los hay en las muestras incautadas en seis regiones del territorio costarricense y relacionar este hecho con riesgos para la salud de sus consumidores. En dichas muestras se realizaron pruebas de conteo total de bacterias aeróbicas, levaduras y hongos según los procedimientos establecidos por la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos de América (USP). Para la identificación de microorganismos potencialmente patógenos, se realizaron los procedimientos descritos por la USP, el uso del sistema API y metodología de identificación morfológica de hongos. Los conteos totales de bacterias, de levaduras y hongos superan los límites establecidos por USP en la mayoría de las muestras. Se hallaron cuatro tipos de hongos: Aspergillus sp., Scopulariopsis sp, Fusarium sp y Penicillum sp y cinco especies bacterianas: Staphylococcus aureus, S. xylosus, S. lentus, Enterobacter cloacae y E. sakazakki. La contaminación hallada requiere de un debate para el establecimiento de una verdadera política de regulación, tanto para fin terapéutico como para fines recreativos


Different literature suggests that cannabis use is a major problem for public health. Cannabis, through its illegal nature, reaches its users without complying with any suitable standards of growth, storage, processing and transport, which may generate diverse pollutants, which can be chemical, physical or microbial. The presence of microbial pollutants is a risk for the user’s health, especially in patients whose immune system is compromised. In Costa Rica there are no studies on the presence of microbial pollutants in commercialized cannabis, which is why the aim of this study was to establish the presence of the aforementioned pollutants in cannabis samples seized in six regions of Costa Rican territory and to relate this fact to risks for the health of its consumers. These samples were tested for their total count in aerobic bacteria, yeast and fungi according to procedures established by the Pharmacopoeia of the United States (USP). Identification of potentially pathogenic microorganisms was performed using methods described by USP; using the API system and methodology for morphological identification of fungi. The total counts of bacteria, yeast and fungus exceed limits set by USP on most of the seized samples. Four types of fungus were found: Aspergillus sp, Scopulariopsis sp, Fusarium sp and Penicillium sp, and five bacterial species: Staphylococcus aureus, S. xylosus, S. lentus, Enterobacter cloacae and E. sakazakki. The contamination found requires a debate for establishing a genuine policy of cannabis regulation, both for therapeutic or recreational purposes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cannabis/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Risco , Infecções/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Poluentes Biológicos , Doença , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
18.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-154934

RESUMO

Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are a major problem for healthcare systems, regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry. DHRs are induced by various mechanisms and encompass a heterogeneous set of potentially life-threatening clinical entities. In addition to environmental effects, individual factors play a key role in this intricate puzzle. However, despite commendable efforts in recent years to identify individual predisposing factors, our knowledge of the genetic basis of these reactions remains incomplete. In this manuscript, we summarize current research on the genetics of DHRs, focusing on specific immune-mediated reactions (immediate and nonimmediate) and on pharmacologically mediated reactions (cross-intolerance to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). We also provide some thoughts on potential technological approaches that would help us to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying DHRs. We believe this manuscript will be of interest not only for allergists and basic researchers in the field, but also for clinicians from various areas of expertise who manage these reactions in their clinical practice (AU)


Las reacciones de hipersensibilidad a fármacos (RHFs) son un problema preocupante para los sistemas de salud, las agencias reguladoras y la industria. Además de la diversidad de mecanismos implicados, las RHFs incluyen un conjunto heterogéneo de entidades clínicas que pueden amenazar la vida del paciente. A esta complejidad se añade el hecho de que, además de factores ambientales, en ellas participan factores individuales. A pesar del considerable esfuerzo desarrollado en los últimos años en la identificación de los factores individuales que predisponen a la aparición de estas reacciones, nuestro conocimiento sobre la base genética de las RHFs es todavía limitado. En esta revisión se presentan los datos disponibles sobre la genética de las RHFs, tomando como modelo las reacciones mediadas por mecanismos inmunológicos específicos (anticuerpos IgE y células T, reacciones inmediatas y no inmediatas) así como las mediadas por mecanismos farmacológicos (intolerancia cruzada a anti-inflamatorios no esteroideos). También se destacan las aproximaciones tecnológicas que pueden proporcionar información fundamental sobre los mecanismos moleculares que subyacen en estas reacciones. Creemos que este manuscrito será útil no solo para alergólogos e investigadores básicos en éste área, sino también para otros profesionales de la medicina que pueden encontrarse con este tipo de reacciones en su práctica clínica (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/imunologia , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ambientais/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Genoma Humano/imunologia
19.
Rev. toxicol ; 33(1): 2-7, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-153967

RESUMO

Las micotoxinas son metabolitos fúngicos que aparecen comúnmente como contaminantes de muchos cereales y pueden causar una amplia variedad de efectos tóxicos. En el presente estudio, se analizó un total de 182 muestras de diferentes cereales (arroz, trigo, maíz, avena, espelta, soja y tapioca) obtenidos en establecimientos de la Comunidad Valenciana (España). Se examina la presencia de deoxinivalenol (DON) y se realiza un estudio estadístico de las muestras según el tipo de cultivo (orgánico o convencional), su composición, el tipo de producto y la marca (comercial o blanca) para estimar si estos parámetros influyen en la concentración de DON. Del total de muestras, 111 estaban contaminadas con DON, pero en concentraciones inferiores a los límites permitidos por la legislación europea. Se observó mayor incidencia de DON en muestras de trigo (80%) seguidas de maíz (35%) y arroz (13%), pero sin diferencia significativa (p>0,05) entre el tipo de cereal; ni con la práctica agrícola. Sin embargo, los resultados demostraron que el tipo de producto en el cereal procesado (p<0,001; los productos a base de lluvia y sémola presentaran valores mayores de DON que los fideos), los componentes del alimento procesado (p<0,01; los niveles de DON eran superiores en las rosquilletas de pan simples respecto a las rosquilletas con queso y con chocolate ) y la marca (p<0,05; las marcas blancas contienen más DON que las comerciales) si influyen en los niveles de DON hallados en las muestras de trigo (AU)


Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that commonly appear as contaminants in many cereals and can cause a variety of toxic effects. In this study, a total of 182 samples of different cereals (rice, wheat, corn, oats, spelt, soy and tapioca) obtained in establishments of Valencia (Spain) were analyzed. The presence of deoxynivalenol (DON) was determined and a statistical study of the samples was performed according to the type of crop (organic or conventional), its composition, the type of product and brand (commercial or white) to estimate whether these parameters influence DON concentration. Of the total samples, 111 were contaminated with DON, but their concentration were below the limits allowed by European legislation. Higher DON concentration was observed in wheat samples (80%) followed by corn (35%) and rice (13%), but no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the type of cereal; or harvest conditions. However, the results showed that the type of product in the processing cereal (p <0.001; the rain-based products and grits presented higher values of DON than noodles), processed food components (p <0.01; DON levels were higher in simple snacks than snacks bread with cheese and chocolate) and brand (p <0.05; white brands contain more DON than commercial ones) have related to DON concentration found in wheat samples (AU)


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/análise , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Alimentos/toxicidade , Amostras de Alimentos , Composição de Alimentos , Oryza/toxicidade , Triticum/toxicidade , Zea mays/toxicidade , Limites Permissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia/métodos , Cromatografia
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 32(1): 394-402, jul. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-141385

RESUMO

Objetivo: contribuir a la armonización europea de la biovigilancia en humanos (proyecto DEMOCOPHES) demostrando la utilidad de los estudios de biovigilancia para valorar la influencia de la dieta y los estilos de vida como vía de exposición a contaminantes ambientales. Métodos: se adaptó el protocolo europeo a las necesidades nacionales, siguiendo los controles de calidad definidos en él y sin comprometer la obtención de datos comparables entre los países participantes. Resultados: la adaptación nacional del protocolo europeo no presentó grandes dificultades y, salvo mínimas modificaciones, se respetó el diseño original del estudio. Participaron 134 parejas madre-hijo, seleccionados en un colegio de Añover de Tajo (Toledo) y tres colegios de Madrid. Los voluntarios donaron una muestra de pelo y de orina y contestaron a las preguntas del cuestionario epidemiológico. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la participación de los voluntarios en las dos localizaciones de muestreo. Discusión: la estandarización de todas las etapas de un estudio de biovigilancia en humanos es esencial para su desarrollo armonizado a escala internacional. Los resultados obtenidos han contribuido a la obtención de datos sobre exposición ambiental, por primera vez comparables en 17 países europeos, y han permitido observar diferencias relacionadas con la dieta y los hábitos de vida. Las experiencias y el material de trabajo desarrollado para el estudio piloto serán aplicables al diseño e implementación de futuros estudios de HBM (AU)


Objetive: contributing to demonstrate of the feasibility of a coordinated action on human biomonitoring in Europe (DEMOCOPHES project) and demonstrate the utility of HBM studies to assess the influence of diet and lifestyle in environmental exposures. Methods: the EU protocol was adapted to the national requirements. The quality controls defined herein were followed and special care was taken to ensure the comparability of the results among participating countries. Results: the protocol adaptation did not shown significant difficulties. Only minor changes were applied, so the original design of the study was respected. 134 mother-child pairs were selected in one school in Añover de Tajo (Toledo) and three schools in Madrid. All volunteers donated a urine and hair sample and complete the epidemiological questionnaire. Significant differences were found in the participation rates between the sampling locations. Discussion: standardization of all steps in a human biomonitoring study is essential for its harmonized development in Europe. The results has contributed to obtain for the first time comparable data about environmental exposure in the general population within 17 EU countries showing the differences associated with diet and lifestyles. The experiences and materials developed in the fieldwork could be applied to the design and implementation of HBM studies in the future (AU)


Assuntos
Biovigilância/métodos , Programa Nacional de Inspeção de Alimentos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados/normas , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Cotinina/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/análise
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