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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(1): 33-39, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185851

RESUMO

Objetivo. Identificar los factores asociados con una respuesta inicial inmediata a los síntomas en los pacientes que han padecido un ictus isquémico. Método. Estudio observacional transversal en el que se incluyeron a todos los pacientes con ictus isquémico ingresados de forma consecutiva en el Hospital Universitario de Burgos (España) durante 1 año. Se recogieron parámetros sociodemográficos, clínicos, conductuales, cognitivos y contextuales, y se estudió su posible relación con el tiempo de reacción del paciente (TR) mediante análisis univariante y multivariante. Resultados. Se incluyeron 425 pacientes (mediana del TR de 140 minutos). El TR supuso un 72,6% del tiempo prehospitalario total (TPH), con una respuesta inmediata si el paciente se encontraba acompañado (OR 9,57; IC95% 3,89-23,52), si los síntomas se iniciaban durante el día (OR 8,77; 3,40-22,63), si el paciente sabía cómo actuar ante un posible ictus (OR 3,84; 2,77-7,09), si el primer contacto médico era con el servicio de emergencias médicas (SEM) (OR 3,03; 1,62-5,68), si el paciente percibía la situación como grave o muy grave (OR 2,38; 1,17-4,83) o si el ictus ocurría en el ámbito urbano (OR 2,17; 1,16-4,06). Conclusión. El intervalo de tiempo entre el inicio de los síntomas y la respuesta inicial del paciente se relaciona con factores conductuales, cognitivos y contextuales, los cuales deberían ser considerados en la planificación de futuras campañas educacionales


Objective. To identify factors related to a rapid response to the onset of symptoms and a call for help for patients with ischemic stroke. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study of all patients with ischemic stroke admitted consecutively to Hospital Universitario de Burgos in Spain during 1 year. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral, cognitive, and contextual data for all patients and applied uni- and multivariate analysis to explore possible associations with the patient's response time. Results. A total of 425 patients were included. The mean patient response time was 140.00 minutes. Patient delay accounted for 72.6% of the total prehospital response time. Factors associated with a rapid call for help were the presence of an accompanying person (OR, 9.57; 95% CI, 3.89-23.52), daytime onset of symptoms (OR, 8.77; 3.40-22.63), patient knowledge of how to act in case of stroke symptoms (OR, 3.84; 2.77-7.09), first medical contact through the public health system's emergency medical service (OR, 3.03; 1.62-5.68), patient perception of symptoms as severe or very severe (OR, 2.38; 1.17-4.83), and stroke onset in an urban area (OR, 2.17; 1.16-4.06). Conclusions. The patient's response time between onset of symptoms is related to behavioral, cognitive and contextual factors that should be taken into account when planning future patient education campaigns


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Estudos Transversais , Análise Multivariada , Assistência Pré-Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda
2.
Ansiedad estrés ; 24(1): 47-52, ene.-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173017

RESUMO

Objetivos: Describir cuáles son los tipos de afrontamiento (coping) que se utilizan frente a los eventos estresantes que ocurren al envejecer y analizar cuáles son las variables asociadas al uso de estos tipos de afrontamiento, considerando el tipo de evento estresante -problema, pérdida, conflicto o problema de otro- y recursos individuales y sociales. Método: Datos de una encuesta representativa aplicada a 1,431 personas entre 60 y 94 años de edad (media = 71.9; DE = 7.9), residentes en sus viviendas en Santiago de Chile. Dos fases de análisis: análisis factorial exploratorio de una lista de posibles formas de afrontamiento, donde se identificaron 3 dimensiones: activo, evasivo y búsqueda de ayuda; y análisis de regresión logística multivariada sobre cada uno de estos 3 tipos de afrontamiento. Resultados: Para los problemas se usó más el afrontamiento activo y la búsqueda de ayuda, frente a los conflictos se utilizó más el evasivo. Con la edad disminuyó la búsqueda de ayuda; a mayor educación más afrontamiento activo y menos evasivo; a mayor autoeficacia mayor afrontamiento activo; a menor disponibilidad de apoyo social mayor evitación. No hubo asociación con género controlando por las otras variables de los modelos. Conclusiones: Se confirma la pertinencia de distinguir estos 3 tipos de afrontamiento, ya que los predictores se comportaron de distinta manera en cada uno de ellos


Objective: To describe the strategies of coping with the stressful events that occur when aging and to analyze the variables associated with them, considering the type of stressful event -problem, loss, conflict or problems with others- and individual and social resources. Method: Data from a representative survey applied to 1,431 elderly people (60-94 years old; mean age = 71.9; SD = 7.9), residing in their homes in Santiago, Chile. Two phases of analysis: Exploratory factor analysis of a list of possible forms of coping, where three dimensions were identified: active, evasive and seeking help; and multivariate logistic regression analysis on each of these 3 types of coping. Results: Regarding problems, older people used more active coping, including the search of help, whereas in the face of conflict, they were more evasive. With age, the search for help diminished; the higher the education, the more active and less evasive coping; with higher self-efficacy, greater active coping; with less availability of social support, greater avoidance. There was no association with gender when controlling for other variables of the models. Conclusion: The relevance of distinguishing these 3 types of coping is confirmed, since predictors behaved differently in each case


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Autoeficácia , Ajustamento Social , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Análise Fatorial
3.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 28(4): 173-177, dic. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170191

RESUMO

Objetivo: analizar las relaciones entre algunas variables psicosociales y las implicadas en un modelo de burnout, y estudiar el papel mediador de la culpa entre indolencia y búsqueda de ayuda especializada. Método: diseño transversal, descriptivo y correlacional. Muestra: 272 gerocultoras. Variables: sobrecarga laboral, apoyo social en el trabajo, autonomía, desgaste psíquico, ilusión por el trabajo, indolencia, culpa y búsqueda de ayuda especializada. Análisis: descriptivos, consistencia interna, correlación, path análisis y bootstrapping. Resultados: las relaciones entre las variables muestran que las variables psicosociales determinan el síndrome de acuerdo con la literatura especializada y en línea con las hipótesis planteadas. La culpa media la relación entre indolencia y búsqueda de ayuda especializada. Discusión y conclusiones: se compara con la literatura en el campo, se aporta evidencia sobre la adecuación del modelo en el desarrollo del burnout y se destaca la importancia de los sentimientos de culpa en trabajos que requieren interrelación personal. Se ofrecen, además, orientaciones para la prevención e intervención, y limitaciones del estudio


Objective: To test relationship among some psychosocial variables involved in a model of burnout and study the mediating role of guilt between indifference and search for qualified help. Method. Cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational design. Sample: 272 geriatric nursing assistants. Variables: work overload, social support at work, autonomy, psychological exhaustion, eagerness to work, indifference, guilt and search for qualified help. Descriptive analysis, inner consistency, correlation, path analysis and bootstrapping. Results. Relationships between variables show that psychosocial variables determine the syndrome according to literature and in line with the raised hypotheses. Guilt mediates relationship between indifference and search for qualified help. Discussion and conclusions. Literature in this field is compared, evidences are provided to confirm that this model is suitable to develop burnout and it is highlighted the relevance of guilt feelings in jobs where personal interrelationship is needed. Guidelines for prevention and intervention, and limitations of the study are also provided


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Geriatria , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Apoio Social , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Culpa , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 31(1): 17-22, ene.-mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-179645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether help-negation (i.e. not accepting or accessing available helping resources) among suicidal youth could also be found in a Swiss sample. METHODS: Data from 7335 16-20-year olds, who participated in the 2002 Swiss Multicentre Adolescent Survey on Health, were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict if a person would generally talk with no one when having a mental health problem (e.g. feeling depressed or anxious). Not talking about such problems was interpreted as indicator for help-negation. The main predictor was suicide severity. Additionally, an indicator of depression and socio-demographic variables were included in the statistical models. RESULTS: People with higher levels of suicidality and depression were more likely to report that they would not talk about mental health problems. More non-Swiss (vs. Swiss) participants and apprentices (vs. students) reported high suicidality. Furthermore, these specific sub-groups seemed to be particularly likely to negate help. CONCLUSION: Help-negation can also be found in a Swiss sample of young people and seems to be particularly pronounced in some socio-demographic subgroups. By reducing this reluctance to seek help, premature death due to suicide might be reduced


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Modelos Logísticos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Span. j. psychol ; 19: e70.1-e70.9, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-160285

RESUMO

The present research, drawing on the Intergroup Helping as Power Relations Model (Nadler, 2002), investigated the ways in which different forms of helping behavior can strategically affect responses to women and men who display socially valued or devalued characteristics. Participants read scenarios about concrete problems faced by a woman or man in need, who displayed positive (i.e., prosocial) or negative (i.e., antisocial) characteristics, and indicated the extent to which they would be willing to support small tax increases if that money were used to help address the target’s issues. The predicted Target Gender × Target History × Type of Support interaction, controlling for political orientation, was obtained, F(1, 149) = 6.49, p = .012, ηp 2 = .04. Participants tended to give less autonomy-oriented (i.e., empowering) help to a man displaying antisocial (vs. prosocial) characteristics, F(1, 36) = 3.39, p = .074, ηp 2 = .09.; they also tended to off more dependency-oriented (i.e., disempowering) help to a woman women exhibiting prosocial (vs. antisocial) qualities, F(1, 38) = 3.42, p = .072, ηp 2 = .08. The role of seemingly positive forms of social behavior as a mechanism for social control and the relation of helping to processes of group-hierarchy and system-justifying processes are considered (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gênero e Saúde , Identidade de Gênero , Comportamento de Ajuda , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Codependência Psicológica/fisiologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia
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