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1.
Farm. hosp ; 44(3): 109-113, mayo-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192343

RESUMO

Existen dimensiones relevantes desde una perspectiva de género relaciona-das con el esfuerzo terapéutico. Se pretende ilustrar y traer a debate posibles sesgos de género relacionados con los medicamentos, mediante el análisis del consumo en las mujeres, la prescripción de fármacos biológicos según sexo, la potencial desigualdad de género en las reacciones adversas a los medicamentos y la investigación con ensayos clínicos, así como las decisiones de las instituciones internacionales en la comercialización de medicamentos. mSe observa una mayor tendencia a prescribir analgésicos, con independencia del dolor, y fármacos para síntomas depresivos de baja intensidad en mujeres que en hombres. Lo contrario sucede en la prescripción de estatinas y dosis adecuadas, y con la mayor probabilidad de prescripción de antifactor de necrosis tumoral en hombres que en mujeres con espondilitis anquilosante, pese a la similar carga de la enfermedad. Las reacciones adversas a los medicamentos se observan con más frecuencia en mujeres que en hombres, donde determinantes como el peso corporal están influyendo poco en la dosificación. En la actualidad se considera escasamente en la prescripción que las mujeres presentan diferencias en la actividad de las enzimas del citocromo CYPP450, que puede afectar a la velocidad del metabolismo hepático. Incluso hay efectos inmunológicos, genéticos y epigenéticos (por la herencia y la dosificación desigual de los genes ubicados en los cromosomas X e Y) que pueden influir en estas diferencias por sexo. Por último, mediante los casos de ensayos clínicos de la terapia hormonal, un fármaco para el deseo sexual inhibido de las mujeres y un anticonceptivo para hombres, se muestran sesgos y estereotipos de género que influyen en una potencial generación de desigualdades, especialmente en las reacciones adversas a los medicamentos en perjuicio de las mujeres. Concluyendo, los profesionales sanitarios atribuyen con frecuencia a la emocionalidad de las mujeres lo que son síntomas físicos, influyendo en la mayor prescripción de fármacos sintomáticos en ellas. Debe analizarse si la misma razón influye en la menor prescripción de fármacos terapéuticos en mujeres que en hombres. Existen determinantes biológicos a considerar por su influencia en una mayor toxicidad farmacológica en las mujeres. Los ensayos clínicos deben mejorar atendiendo a las recomendaciones de género de la Food and Drug Administration


There are relevant dimensions from a gender perspective related to the-rapeutic effort. To illustrate and discuss possible gender bias related to medicines, through the consumption analysis in women, the prescription of biological drugs according to sex, the potential gender inequality in adverse drug reactions, and research with clinical trials, as well as the decisions of international institutions in the marketing of medicinal products.There is greater tendency to prescribe pain relievers, regardless of pain, and drugs for low intensity depressive symptoms in women than in men. The opposite occurs in the prescription of statins and adequate doses, and with the greater probability of prescribing anti-tumor necrosis factor in men than in women with ankylosing spondylitis, despite a similar disease burden. Adverse drug reactions are observed more frequently in women than in men, where determinants such as body weight are having little influence on the dosage. It is currently scarcely considered in the prescrip-tion that women have differences in the activity of cytochrome CYPP450 enzymes, which can affect the liver's metabolism rate. There are even immunological, genetic and epigenetic effects (due to heredity and une-ven gene dosing located in the X and Y chromosomes) that can influence these differences by sex. Finally, through cases of hormonal therapy clini-cal trials, a drug for women's inhibited sexual desire and a contraceptive for men, gender bias and stereotypes are shown to influence a potential generation of inequalities, especially in adverse drug reactions to the de-triment of women. In conclusion, health professionals frequently attribute physical symptoms to women's emotionality, influencing their greater prescription of sympto-matic drugs. Whether the same reason influences the lower prescription of therapeutic drugs in women than in men should be analyzed. There are biological determinants to consider due to their influence on a greater pharmacological toxicity in women. Clinical trials should improve accor-ding to the gender recommendations by the Food and Drugs Administration


Assuntos
Humanos , Iniquidade de Gênero , Pesquisa Biomédica , Terapêutica/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Preconceito , Estereotipagem de Gênero , Prescrições de Medicamentos
2.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 31(1): 2-5, mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192205

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar el nivel de negatividad de los estereotipos de la vejez en estudiantes de establecimientos rurales, Región de Ñuble, Chile. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal sobre una muestra de 114 estudiantes de 5.º a 8.º básico de dos establecimientos rurales en Chile. La información fue recolectada mediante la aplicación del cuestionario de estereotipos negativos de la vejez (CENVE). RESULTADOS: El 53,5% (n = 61) de los estudiantes obtuvo un alto nivel de estereotipo negativo, donde la dimensión más negativa fue salud en todas las variables estudiadas. CONCLUSIÓN: Los estudiantes percibieron un alto nivel de estereotipo negativo hacia la vejez, por lo que resulta necesario realizar intervenciones que se enfoquen en cambiar la visión negativa que poseen respecto a este grupo etario y, de esta manera, lograr que los ancianos se sientan integrados y valorados en la sociedad actual


OBJECTIVE: to determine the level of negativity of stereotypes of old age in students of rural establishments, Ñuble Region, Chile. METHODOLOGY: descriptive cross-sectional study on a sample of 114 students from 5th to 8th grade of two rural establishments, in Chile. The information was collected through the application of the questionnaire of negative stereotypes of old age (CENVE). RESULTS:53.5% (n = 61) of the students obtained a high level of negative stereotype, where the most negative dimension was health in all the variables studied. CONCLUSIONS: the students perceived a high level of negative stereotype towards old age, therefore, it is necessary to carry out interventions that focus on changing the negative view they have regarding this age group; and in this way, make the elderly feel integrated and valued in today's society


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Estereotipagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Instalações de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Ageismo , Envelhecimento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Preconceito , Estudos Transversais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
An. psicol ; 35(1): 75-83, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181026

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate stereotypes and prejudices among children and schoolteachers toward overweight/obesity. Two thousand fifty-five 8- to 12-year-olds and their teachers took part in the study. Children’s body mass index, children’s perceptions of overweight/obesity and teachers’ assessment of school adjustment were measured. Students, particularly younger children, ascribed less positive attributes and more negative attributes to fat figures. Furthermore, in a task to assess their behavioral intentions to participate in social and recreational activities according to target’s body size, the fat figure was the least frequently chosen. Teachers reported lower overall school adjustment for overweight/obese students. Both children and teachers showed anti-fat bias. Future research should examine cost-effective interventions to prevent anti-fat bias and to promote healthy school climate


El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los estereotipos y prejuicios de los niños y maestros hacia el sobrepeso/obesidad. Dos mil cincuenta y cinco niños de 8 a 12 años y sus profesores participaron en el estudio. Se midió el Índice de Masa Corporal y la percepción hacia el sobrepeso/obesidad en los niños, y la evaluación de ajuste escolar por parte de los profesores. Los escolares, particularmente los más jóvenes, eligieron menos atributos positivos y más negativos para las figuras gruesas. Además, en una tarea para evaluar su disposición a participar en actividades sociales y recreativas en función del tamaño corporal, la figura gruesa fue la elegida con menos frecuencia. Los profesores puntuaron con un menor ajuste escolar a los estudiantes con sobrepeso/obesidad. Futuras investigaciones deberían centrarse en intervenciones de prevención eficaces y en promover un clima escolar saludable


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estereotipagem , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Antropometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Dados
4.
Span. j. psychol ; 22: e14.1-e14.8, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-188854

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to construct and validate an Attitude Scale relating to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) old age (EAFV-LGBT). The first study, consisting of 29 items in its preliminary version, counted on 266 individuals from the public in general with an average age of 28.6 years (DP = 9.70), exploratory factor analysis was undertaken and EAFV-LGBT consisted of twelve items, with eigenvalues of 5.08, accounting for 43.8% of total variance. The second study consisted of 261 individuals from the general public with an average age of 23.18 years (DP = 8.25), confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken and psychometric parameters by means of Item Response Theory and conformation of the EAFV-LGBT structure. After this analysis, two items were excluded due to lower psychometric values, in which the 10 item scale proved to be valid and precise in evaluating individuals with varying levels of the latent trait. An adequate fit of the model to the data was verified, CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.6; RMSEA, 90% CI = 0.05 [0.01, 0.07]. Lastly, the EAFV-LGBT has valid psychometric properties to evaluate attitudes towards LGBT old age


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atitude , Preconceito , Psicometria/instrumentação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sexualidade , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Psicol. conduct ; 26(3): 529-546, sept.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176050

RESUMO

Este trabajo tuvo como propósito evaluar el efecto mediador del malestar psicológico entre la homofobia interiorizada y el riesgo suicida en una muestra de hombres que pertenecen a minorías sexuales en Arica (Chile). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 157 hombres de entre 18 y 53 años de edad (M= 24,4; DT= 5,49), reclutados por disponibilidad y técnica de bola de nieve, a los que se administraron la "Escala de homofobia interiorizada", el "Inventario breve de síntomas" y la "Escala de riesgo suicida". Los resultados obtenidos dan cuenta de un efecto mediador del malestar psicológico entre la homofobia interiorizada y el riesgo suicida. Es decir, se incrementa el riesgo suicida, en la medida que se incluyen en el modelo la homofobia interiorizada y el malestar psicológico como tercera variable. Se destaca la importancia de que en las intervenciones psicosociales con hombres chilenos de minorías sexuales se consideren la disminución de la homofobia interiorizada y el malestar psicológico, con el propósito de hacer aportaciones al desarrollo de la salud mental de este colectivo


The aim of this research was to evaluate the mediating effect of psychological distress, between internalized homophobia and suicidal risk in a sample of men belonging to sexual minorities in the city of Arica (Chile). The sample consisted of 157 men between 18 and 53 years of age (M= 24.4, DT= 5.49), recruited by availability and snowball technique. The Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Symptom Inventory and the Scale of Suicide Risk were applied. The results obtained account for a mediating effect of psychological distress between internalized homophobia and suicidal risk, that is, the suicidal risk increases when internalized homophobia and psychological discomfort as a third variable are included in the model. In conclusion, the importance of the reduction of internalized homophobia and psychological distress should be emphasized in psychosocial interventions with men of sexual minorities with the purpose of contributing to the development of their mental health


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Homofobia/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Chile/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Dados , Psicopatologia , Preconceito/psicologia
6.
Span. j. psychol ; 21: e12.1-e12.11, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189097

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to assess the discourse of people with disabilities regarding their perception of discrimination and stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten adults with physical disabilities, ten with hearing impairments and seven with visual impairments. The agreement between the coders showed an excellent reliability for all three groups, with kappa coefficients between .82 and .96. Differences were assessed between the three groups regarding the types of discrimination they experienced and their most frequent emotional responses. People with physical disabilities mainly reported being stared at, undervalued, and subtly discriminated at work, whereas people with hearing impairments mainly reported encountering barriers in leisure activities, and people with visual impairments spoke of a lack of equal opportunities, mockery and/or bullying, and overprotection. Regarding their emotional reactions, people with physical disabilities mainly reported feeling anxious and depressed, whereas people with hearing impairments reported feeling helpless, and people with visual impairments reported feeling anger and self-pity. Findings are relevant to guide future research and interventions on the stigma of disability


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Emoções , Emprego/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Preconceito , Estigma Social , Relações Interpessoais , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia
7.
Span. j. psychol ; 21: e40.1-e40.9, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189122

RESUMO

The Protestant work ethic (PWE), or the belief that hard work leads to success, is a popular belief across cultures. Much work indicates that PWE contributes to negative evaluations of disadvantaged groups presumably through the notion that they deserve their disadvantage for not working hard enough ("PWE-Justifier"). But there is another dimension of PWE that expresses the belief that everyone could succeed through hard work ("PWE-Equalizer"). We propose that the PWE-Justifier is meaningful in cultures that emphasize individualism and personal responsibility, but not in others. In a cross-cultural study, we compare how PWE-Justifier relates to evaluations of poor persons in the USA (individualist culture) and the Philippines (low individualist culture). In the USA sample, regression analysis indicated that internal attributions of poverty mediated the relationships of PWE-Justifier with negative stereotypes (R2 = .32) and with negative attitudes towards poor persons (R2 = .13). Bootstrapping analysis indicated that both indirect effects of PWE-Justifier were significant: Negative stereotypes, B = .17, SE = .03, p < .0001, 95% CI [.11, .24]; negative attitudes, B = 2.52, SE = 1.11, p = .014, 95% CI [0.49, 4.84]. The results were not found in the Philippine sample, where instead, PWE-Equalizer negatively predicted negative attitudes (R2 = .05) and positively predicted empathy (R2 = .05) for poor persons. The results are discussed in terms of how the negative consequences of PWE may derive from the cultural syndrome of individualism that emphasizes personal control and responsibility


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Atitude/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Empatia , Pobreza/etnologia , Preconceito/etnologia , Protestantismo/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
8.
An. psicol ; 33(2): 283-291, mayo 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-161583

RESUMO

Allophilia may be defined as the positive attitudes toward different out-groups. The aim of this study is to translate and validate the Allophilia Scale to Spanish population. Method: Participants were 960 individuals from all over Spain. Questionnaires to measure prejudice toward North African people, stress and empathy were used to analyze the convergent and divergent validity of the Allophilia scale. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the items of the questionnaire fit a model with five factors, corresponding to the dimensions proposed by the original authors (Affection, Comfort, Kinship, Engagement, Enthusiasm), and that they were inter-related. Cronbach’s alpha of the Allophilia scale and the five factors were high. In addition, it has been found that the different subscales of the Allophilia scale were related with other variables such as prejudice toward North African people (cognitive, emotions and behaviours), stress (interaction, resources, identity) and empathy. Discussion: In light of these results, we conclude that the questionnaire is methodologically valid and can be used by the scientific community to measure cooperative and participatory intergroup behaviour as a complement to traditional measures of prejudice and negative intergroup behaviours


Introducción: La Alofilia puede definirse como las actitudes positivas hacia diferentes exogrupos. El objetivo de este estudio es traducir y validar la escala de Alofilia en población española. Método: 960 participantes de todo el territorio nacional formaron parte de la muestra. Se usaron cuestionarios sobre el prejuicio hacia los magrebíes, estrés y empatía para medir la validez convergente y divergente de la escala de Alofilia. Resultados: El análisis factorial confirmatorio puso de manifiesto que los ítems ajustaban un modelo de 5 factores que corresponden a las dimensiones propuestas por los autores originales (Afecto, Comodidad, Afinidad, Compromiso, Entusiasmo) y que éstos están relacionados. También se halló que los alphas de Cronbach de las diferentes sub-escalas, así como de la escala total, eran elevados. Además, se encontró que la escala de Alofilia se relacionaba con el prejuicio hacia los magrebíes (cognitivo, emociones y comportamientos), el estrés (interacción, recursos e identidad) y la empatía. Discusión: A la luz de estos resultados se concluye que el cuestionario es metodológicamente válido y que puede ser usado por la comunidad científica para medir comportamientos intergrupales cooperativos y participativos y como un complemento a las medidas tradicionales que se centran exclusivamente en el prejuicio y otras actitudes negativas


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Permissividade , Processos Grupais , Empatia , Preconceito/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Discriminação Social/psicologia
9.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 25(3): 149-158, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-161114

RESUMO

Se presupone que el perfil de los profesionales que trabajan con personas en exclusión social es incompatible con el mantenimiento de prejuicios hacia el colectivo al que sirven y, en todo caso, la elevada homogeneidad en los niveles de prejuicio y sus causas apenas permitiría confirmar modelos explicativos. El presente estudio puso a prueba esta hipótesis en relación con el modelo cognitivo-motivacional de proceso dual de Duckitt (2001) y Duckitt y Sibley (2010). Se recogieron datos de 565 profesionales andaluces en un estudio transversal basado en encuesta en el que se midieron variables sociodemográficas, de personalidad, valores, actitudes ideológicas, posicionamiento político y prejuicio. El modelo ajustado a los datos reprodujo las relaciones más básicas del modelo hipotético, si bien su capacidad explicativa fue limitada. Por otra parte, las vías del autoritarismo y la dominancia incidieron significativamente sobre el prejuicio, lo que sugiere que el ligero sesgo identificado en los profesionales correspondería a la percepción de las personas en exclusión social como pertenecientes a un colectivo disidente. Se sugiere la introducción de la identidad profesional como un macroconstructo modulador de la varianza explicada de prejuicio, así como, en el plano aplicado, la conveniencia de avanzar en el desarrollo profesional de estos trabajadores


It is assumed that the professional profile of those who work with socially excluded people is not compatible with the maintenance of prejudices against the group they help. The current study tested this hypothesis regarding the Dual Process Cognitive-Motivational Model of Duckitt (2001) and Duckitt and Sibley (2010). Data from 565 Andalusian professionals were collected in a cross-sectional survey, using measures of socio-demographics, personality, values, ideological attitudes, political position, and prejudice. The model fitted to data reproduced the basic relations in the hypothesized model, although its explanatory power was limited. Prejudice was significantly explained by both paths (authoritarianism and dominance), leading to the conclusion that the reduced level of prejudice held by professionals corresponds to the perception of socially excluded people as a dissident group. This suggests that professional identity as a broad construct may moderate the variance in prejudice. Finally, these findings also suggest that the professional development of social workers should be promoted


Assuntos
Humanos , Preconceito/psicologia , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Marginalização Social , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Autoritarismo , Condições Sociais , Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria/métodos
10.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 16(3): 123-136, sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-159947

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to find out which stereotypes prevail in future Physical Education (PE) teachers when asked about immigrant population and to see if within that stereotype, there are subtle or blatant racist attitudes, as well as egalitarian attitudes. A sample of 2524 volunteer pre-service Physical Education teachers (PPET) was used to participate in this study. A questionnaire on Racist Stereotypes in Initial Training of PE Teachers and a Subtle and Blatant Prejudice Scale were used. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate statistics were used to analyse the information gathered. Te data showed PPET with a false tolerant stereotype, where the contextual variables gender and religious preference were crucial, since the boys respect girls, as well as Catholics regard non-believers or other religions, they are reflected less egalitarian stereotypes (AU)


El propósito de este estudio fue descubrir los estereotipos que prevalecen en los futuros profesores de Educación Física (EF) cuando se les preguntó sobre la población inmigrante y observar si dentro del estereotipo, existen actitudes racistas sutiles, actitudes racistas explicitas, o actitudes igualitarias. La muestra que participó en este estudio fue de 2524 futuros profesores de educación física. Se utilizó un cuestionario para conocer los estereotipos racistas en la formación inicial de profesores de EF, así como una escala que distingue entre el prejuicio sutil y el prejuicio manifiesto. Para analizar los datos se hizo uso de estadística descriptiva, el análisis Univariado y Multivariado. Los resultados mostraron que los futuros docentes poseen un falso estereotipo tolerante, donde las variables contextuales de género y preferencia religiosa fueron cruciales, puesto que los chicos respecto de las chicas, así como los católicos respecto a los no creyentes o de otras religiones, reflejaron estereotipos menos igualitarios (AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os estereótipos que prevalecem nos futuros professores de Educação Física (EF) quando são perguntados sobre a população de imigrantes e observar se a partir deste estereótipo, existem atitudes racistas sutis, atitudes racistas explícitas, ou atitudes igualitárias. A amostra do estudo foi composta por 2524 futuros professores de educação física. Utilizou-se um questionário para avaliar os estereótipos racistas na formação inicial de professores de EF, assim como uma escala que distingue entre o prejuízo sutil e o explícito. Para análise dos dados foi empregada estatística descritiva, análise Univariada e análise Multivariada. Os resultados mostraram que futuros professores possuem um falso estereótipo de tolerância, onde as variáveis de gênero e preferência religiosa foram fundamentais, uma vez que meninos respeitaram as meninas, assim como os católicos respeitaram pessoas de outras religiões e pessoas sem religião, refletindo estereótipos menos igualitários (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/educação , Estereotipagem , Preconceito/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Span. j. psychol ; 19: e16.1-e16.9, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-159068

RESUMO

This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Preconceito/psicologia , Predomínio Social , Psicologia Social/métodos , Psicologia Social/normas , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Relações Raciais/psicologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia
12.
Span. j. psychol ; 19: e46.1-e46.9, 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-160261

RESUMO

The present study aims to understand the conditions where prejudice can be predicted by ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice. The data collecting was disseminated toward Muslim and Christian participants (N = 362) living in Maumere, Flores Island, Indonesia. In Flores, Christianity is the largest religion and Islam is the second. Across two samples, the effects of ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice on prejudice were found to be moderated by ingroup self-evaluation. It shows that at high level (but not low) of positive ingroup self-evaluation, ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice were found to predict prejudice. The results suggest that it is important to consider how group members evaluate their own group and how group members think what others are thinking, in the study pertaining to intergroup relations (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Preconceito/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Religião e Ciência , Relações Interpessoais , Conhecimento , Percepção/fisiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Cristianismo/psicologia
13.
Span. j. psychol ; 19: e76.1-e76.11, 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-160291

RESUMO

This study examines the role that motivational values play in the experience of discrimination in young immigrants in Spain and how this role is mediated by parental values. Participants in the study were 193 dyads of pre-adolescent to young adult first and second generation immigrants and one of their parents. All participants were either of Moroccan or Romanian ascent, the two largest immigrant groups in Spain. The proposed SEM model had an adequate fit, χ2(2, N = 193) = 2.272, p = .321, RMSEA = .027, CFI = .999, NFI = .994, and yielded a large R2, both for the Moroccan group (R2 = .79, p < .01), and the Romanian group (R2 = .80, p < .01). It showed that the value dimension openness to change vs. conservation is positively related to their experience of discrimination (β = .35, p < .01, for Moroccans group; and β = .29, p < .001, for Romanians). This relationship was mediated by parental values and their parents’ experience of discrimination. A possible explanation is that immigrants high in openness to change are likely to pursue contact with the host culture more intensely, and thus increase the probability of interactions involving discrimination. Additionally, parental values and their own experience of discrimination influences their children, making them more vulnerable to discrimination stress and more likely to perceive discrimination. While most research is focused on external or environmental variables, this study highlights the importance of value orientations and parental influences in immigrants’ experience of discrimination (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Valores Sociais , Motivação , Pais/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Marrocos/etnologia , Romênia/etnologia , Espanha/etnologia
14.
Span. j. psychol ; 19: e77.1-e77.11, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-160292

RESUMO

Social judgments are often influenced by racism. Voluntary crimes against life, and in particular the crime of homicide, may be the most critical situations of the impact of racism in social judgments. We analyzed 114 homicide trials conducted by the 1st Jury Court, in a Brazilian judicial capital, concluded between 2003 and 2007, for the purpose of investigating the effects of skin color and the socioeconomic status of the defendant and the victim of homicides in the jury trial court’s decision. The results indicate that the social and economic profile of defendants and victims of homicide is identical. They are almost all poor (more than 70%), with low education (more than 73%) and frequently non-Whites (more than 88%). We found that judges assign longer sentences to black (β = .34, p = .01) and poor defendants (β = .23, p < .05). We even verified that the poorer the defendant, the higher was the corresponding conviction rate (Wald’s Test = 5.90, p < .05). The results are discussed based on theories of social psychology and criminological sociology, which consider the relationship between skin color and socioeconomic status in social judgments and in discrimination (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Classe Social , Homicídio/etnologia , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Preconceito/etnologia , Racismo/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Punição , Pigmentação da Pele , Discriminação Social/psicologia
16.
An. psicol ; 31(3): 930-940, oct. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-143157

RESUMO

This study analyzes the cognitive representations of ethnic minorities in a sample of Spanish undergraduate students. As a general hypothesis it was predicted that perceived differences in social status shape these representations and expectations for contact. In consecutive group interviews, participants were quizzed about their knowledge, experiences and expectations associated with social interactions with people belonging to ethnic minority groups. The information obtained from the participants was analyzed by using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques in order to discover underlying dimensions in their responses. The results confirmed our prediction by displaying different associations between different types of contact (e.g., positive, negative) and the representations of minorities according to their position in the perceived social hierarchy. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential implications for contact interventions


El presente estudio hace un análisis de las representaciones cognitivas sobre minorías étnicas en una muestra de jóvenes universitarios españoles. Como hipótesis general se señala que las diferencias de estatus social percibidas ejercen un papel relevante en tales representaciones y en las expectativas de contacto. En varias entrevistas grupales los participantes fueron cuestionados sobre sus experiencias, conocimientos y expectativas asociadas a las interacciones con miembros de grupos étnicos minoritarios. La información recabada fue analizada a partir de un cruce de técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas para verificar las dimensiones subyacentes en sus respuestas. Los resultados confirmaron esta hipótesis mostrando distintas nociones de contacto (ej., positivo, negativo) asociadas a las representaciones de las minorías según su posición en la escala social percibida. Los hallazgos son discutidos en cuanto a su implicación para futuras intervenciones de contacto intergrupal


Assuntos
Humanos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Diversidade Cultural , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 41(1): 36-39, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132040

RESUMO

La violencia de género es un importante problema de salud pública que requiere la adecuada colaboración interdisciplinar de distintas especialidades médicas. La mutilación genital femenina en este contexto es muy infrecuente. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 30 años que, en el contexto de una supuesta relación sexual consentida con su pareja habitual, fue agredida mediante una mordedura, con arrancamiento parcial de los genitales externos. Se hace hincapié en el tratamiento quirúrgico llevado a cabo así como en la evaluación médico-forense posterior, con especial atención a la valoración del perjuicio estético resultante. El caso descrito se adecua a las características generales de la violencia de género en nuestro entorno en cuanto a mecanismos de producción (contusión compleja), mientras que diverge en su localización. La valoración del perjuicio estético tiene un gran componente subjetivo y es de difícil cuantificación. Se recomienda estimular la colaboración interdisciplinar, el cumplimiento del protocolo médico-forense de valoración urgente del riesgo de violencia de género, y el fomento de la investigación sobre la violencia de género (AU)


Gender-based violence is a major public health problem that requires interdisciplinary collaboration between several medical specialties. Female genital mutilation rarely affects victims of domestic violence. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with a female genital mutilation after being bitten by her regular partner after an 11-year-old relationship in the context of a supposed consented sexual intercourse, which resulted in partial avulsion of the external genitalia. We describe the reparative surgical procedure performed and the subsequent medico-legal evaluation, and the assessment of the resulting disfigurement. The case report described has the general characteristics of gender violence in our environment regarding the production mechanisms (complex contusion), although it diverges in the location. The assessment of the aesthetic damage has a large subjective component and is difficult to quantify. It is recommended to stimulate the interdisciplinary collaboration, the fulfillment of the medico-legal protocol that urgently stratifies the risk of gender violence patients, and the stimulation of research in this area (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Genitália Feminina/lesões , Genitália Feminina/cirurgia , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Violência contra a Mulher , Medicina Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Legal/métodos , Vulva/lesões , Vulva/cirurgia , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Aplicação da Lei , Preconceito/legislação & jurisprudência
19.
An. psicol ; 31(1): 155-171, ene. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131610

RESUMO

La inclusión de las personas con discapacidad es una de las prioridades de las sociedades avanzadas, y para conseguirla, la educación constituye un instrumento de primera magnitud. En este trabajo se estudia el apoyo a la inclusión de estudiantes con discapacidad en el entorno universitario. El modelo teórico de referencia es el propuesto por la Teoría del Comportamiento Planeado, que se ha aplicado utilizando los datos obtenidos a través de una encuesta realizada a 621 estudiantes de las titulaciones de Ciencias de la Educación en la Universidad de A Coruña, durante el curso 2010-2011. Los resultados muestran la importancia del género como factor diferenciador, revelando una mayor implicación de las mujeres que de los hombres para favorecer la inclusión de los compañeros universitarios con discapacidad. La relevancia de estos resultados aumenta si se considera la repercusión social que tiene esta mayor implicación del colectivo mayoritario en el ámbito de la educación en su fase más temprana, momento en el que se produce la formación de actitudes


The inclusion of people with disabilities is a priority in advanced societies. To get it, education is one of the best tools. In this paper, we have studied the support for the inclusion of students with disabilities in the university environment. Our work is related to the theoretical model proposed by the Theory of Planned Behavior and was performed by using data obtained through a survey conducted at the University of A Coruña(Spain) during the 2010-2011 academic year, to 621 students from all degrees in Education Science. The results show the importance of gender asa differentiating factor, revealing a greater involvement of women compared to men, in the stimulus of the inclusion of their university peers suffering disability. The relevance of these results increases if we consider the social impact of this higher involvement of this group (women), that is majority in the primary education, when the formation of attitudes is developed


Assuntos
Humanos , Ajustamento Social , Inclusão Escolar/tendências , Preconceito/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude , Discriminação Social/tendências , Docentes
20.
Span. j. psychol ; 18: e80.1-e80.9, 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-142794

RESUMO

The present research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate their ingroup from gay men moderates the link between egalitarianism and sexual prejudice. In two experiments conducted in Switzerland (N = 74) and Ecuador (N = 104), we assessed heterosexual men's endorsement of egalitarian values and experimentally manipulated scientific evidence supporting or refuting the existence of biological differences between heterosexual and gay men (the biological theory). The main dependent variable was attitude towards homosexuality. As predicted, the interaction between egalitarianism and the biological theory was significant in both experiments, t(67) = 3.18, p = .002, ηp 2 = .13, and t(100) = 2.26, p = .026, ηp 2 = .04, respectively. Egalitarianism increased positive attitudes towards homosexuality only when science supported the existence of biological differences between heterosexual and gay men. We discuss the relevance of this finding to intergroup relations (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito/psicologia , Testes de Hipótese , Sexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Determinismo Genético , Equador , Suíça
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