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1.
Pap. psicol ; 40(3): 217-225, sept.-dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186997

RESUMO

Las historias sociales, como técnica de intervención psicoeducativa, constituyen un elemento recurrente en la práctica de los profesionales responsables de la intervención con personas con Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA). Este trabajo presenta una revisión de la literatura científica de la última década en torno a la efectividad de la aplicación de las historias sociales en la intervención en habilidades comunicativas y sociales en personas con TEA. Se seleccionaron 29 trabajos empíricos bajo criterios específicos, analizados en función de seis categorías: edad de los participantes, objetivo de la intervención, contexto de aplicación, persona que aplica la intervención, validez social y comparación con otras estrategias de intervención. Aunque los resultados sobre su efectividad no son concluyentes, las historias sociales son valoradas como una herramienta significativa para implementar o desarrollar conductas en niños y preadolescentes con TEA en sus principales contextos de socialización y por parte de personas allegadas


Social stories, as a technique of psychoeducational intervention, constitute a recurring element in the practice of professionals responsible for intervention with people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This work presents a review of the scientific literature of the last decade about the effectiveness of the application of social stories in the intervention in communication and social skills in people with ASD. Twenty-nine empirical studies were selected according to specific criteria, analyzed according to six categories: age of the participants, objective of the intervention, context of application, person applying the intervention, social validity, and comparison with other intervention strategies. Although the results about the effectiveness of this intervention are not conclusive, social stories are valued as a significant tool to implement or develop behaviors in children and preadolescents with ASD in their main socialization contexts and with people close to them


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Comportamento Social , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Efetividade , Comportamento de Ajuda
3.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(1): 41-49, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183541

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe and compare the educational, social, and family profiles of adults with and without ADHD from two different settings: a prison and an outpatient psychiatric setting. A total of 542 participants, aged between 17 and 69 years, took part in the study. The participants consisted of four groups: a prison sample with ADHD (n = 69) and without ADHD (n = 183), and an outpatient psychiatric sample with ADHD (n = 218) and without ADHD (n = 72). The results showed that, firstly, there were some statistically significant differences between the groups in academic history, social and family situation, and the adoption of risk behaviors during adolescence and early adulthood. Secondly, some of these differences were related to diagnosis (ADHD versus non-ADHD) while others were related to the sample being examined (prison versus psychiatric). The findings from the study showed the presence of significant implications in social, family, educational, and employment achievements both for adults with ADHD (both prison and psychiatric samples) and for adults without ADHD


Este estudio tiene como objetivo describir y comparar los perfiles educativos, sociales y familiares de un grupo de adultos con y sin TDAH de dos muestras diferentes: una de carcelarios y una población clínica. Formaron parte del estudio 542 participantes, con edades comprendidas entre los 17 y 69 años. La muestra se dividió en cuatro grupos, un grupo de carcelarios con TDAH (n = 69) y sin TDAH (n = 183) y un grupo clínico con TDAH (n = 218) y sin TDAH (n = 72). Los resultados apoyan la hipótesis inicial, que establece que, primero, hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en cuanto a historial académico, situación social y familiar y la adopción de conductas de riesgo durante la adolescencia y la adultez temprana; en segundo lugar, algunas de las diferencias se relacionarán con el diagnóstico de TDAH, mientras que otras estarán más vinculadas a la población examinada. Los hallazgos del estudio mostraron la presencia de consecuencias significativas para los contextos sociales, familiares, educativos y laborales tanto en poblaciones adultas con TDAH (pacientes en carcelarios y clínicos) como aquellas sin TDAH


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Jurisprudência , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Características da Família , Habilidades Sociais , Escolaridade , Condições Sociais , Comportamento Perigoso , Prisioneiros/psicologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183852

RESUMO

This paper presents an interbehavioral conceptualization of interpersonal relationships, emphasizing both interpersonal closeness and conflict. In doing so, processes of association and subsequent substitution of stimulus function are described, setting the foundation for an analysis of how relationships are formed from an interbehavioral perspective. Specific attention is given to factors that impact intimacy and closeness in relationships, especially ways in which closeness may be fostered and conflict made more likely. The topic of communication is addressed, and possible therapeutic targets are highlighted from a novel conceptual context. The analysis is contrasted with more traditional ways of thinking, including more common behavior analytic perspectives. The implications of adopting the proposed interbehavioral conceptualization are provided


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Conflito Psicológico , Comportamento Social , Amigos/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Condicionamento Psicológico
5.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 70-82, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-183270

RESUMO

Comportamentos antissociais tornaram-se recorrentes no ambiente escolar e se manifestado por meio de agressões físicas, verbais e simbólicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito de uma intervenção, fundamentada no atendimento das necessidades psicológicas básicas (NPB), nos comportamentos pró e antissociais em aulas de Educação Física escolar. Participaram deste estudo 45 alunos e 2 professores de educação Física (PEF) divididos em Grupo Controle (GC) e Grupo Intervenção (GI). Os alunos responderam o Questionário de Atitudes no Esporte (QAE-23) e uma entrevista semiestruturada nos momentos pré e pós intervenção. A intervenção consistiu em uma orientação semanal com o PEF do GI durante 10 semanas, com objetivo de realizar adaptações na aula a fim de levar ao cumprimento das NPB. Para verificar diferença entre os grupos, em relação às respostas do QAE-23, nos momentos pré e pós, foi utilizado o teste T de Student e adotado nível de significância 5%. Na análise qualitativa, as entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e, posteriormente, categorizadas e analisadas. Mediante análise dos relatos obtidos pela entrevista foi possível observar percepção do atendimento das NPB e redução de comportamentos antissociais. Contudo, não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos para as respostas do QAE-2. Conclui-se, por meio dos relatos obtidos na entrevista, que a intervenção pautada no cumprimento das NPB possibilitou um efeito positivo em relação à redução dos comportamentos antissociais, porém, os dados quantitativos sugerem que a duração do estudo pode ter sido um fator limitante de maior efeito em relação à ausência internalização dos comportamentos


Los comportamientos antissociales se tornaron recurrentes en el ambiente escolar y se manifestaron por medio de agresiones físicas, verbales y simbólicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el efecto de una intervención, fundamentada en la atención de las necesidades psicológicas básicas (NPB), en los comportamientos pro y antisociales en clases de Educación Física escolar. En este estudio participaron 45 alumnos y 2 profesores de educación Física (PEF) divididos en Grupo Control (GC) y Grupo Intervención (GI). Los alumnos respondieron el Cuestionario de Actitudes en el Deporte (QAE-23) y una entrevista semiestructurada en los momentos pre y post intervención. La intervención consistió en una orientación semanal con el PEF del GI durante 10 semanas, con el objetivo de realizar adaptaciones en la clase a fin de llevar al cumplimiento de las NPB. Para verificar la diferencia entre los grupos, en relación a las respuestas del QAE-23, en los momentos pre y post, se utilizó la prueba T de Student y se adoptó un nivel de significancia del 5%. En el análisis cualitativo, las entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y posteriormente clasificadas y analizadas. Mediante el análisis de los relatos obtenidos por la entrevista fue posible observar percepción de la atención de las NPB y reducción de comportamientos antisociales. Sin embargo, no se observó diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos para las respuestas del QAE-2. Se concluye, por medio de los relatos obtenidos en la entrevista, que la intervención pautada en el cumplimiento de las NPB posibilitó un efecto positivo en relación a la reducción de los comportamientos antisociales, sin embargo, los datos cuantitativos sugieren que la duración del estudio puede haber sido un factor limitante de mayor efecto en relación a la ausencia de internalización de los comportamientos


The objective was to verify the effect of an intervention, based on the attendance of the basic psychological needs (NPB) and pro and antisocial behaviors in school physical education classes. Thirty-five students and two teachers of Physical Education, divided into Control Group (CG) and Intervention (GI) participated in this study. The students answered the Attitudes Questionnaire in Sport (QAE-23) and participated in a semi-structured interview in the pre-and post-intervention moments. The intervention was performed with the GI teacher for 10 weeks, aiming to promote NPB during class. The Student's t-test was used and adopted p <0.05. The interviews were categorized and analyzed. It was observed perception of NPB care and reduction of antisocial behaviors. It was concluded that intervention based on NPB compliance enabled a reduction of antisocial behavior, but the duration of the study may have been a limiting factor of greater effect in relation to the internalization of these behaviors


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Educação Física e Treinamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Técnicas Psicológicas/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 259-268, mayo 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181696

RESUMO

The main purpose of this research is to examine the mediating role of the perception of school experiences in the relationship between interpersonal competence and happiness in adolescent. The participants in the study consisted of a total of 268 students, 104 females (39%) and 164 males (61%), attending various high schools in a city in the mid-Black Sea region. The participating students’ ages ranged between 14 and 18, with an average age of 16.22 (SD = 1.2). In order to gather data the "Interpersonal Competence Scale", "Perceived School Experience Scale" and "Oxford Happiness Scale" were used as measures. According to the results of the research, interpersonal competence predicts perceptions of school experience and happiness, perception of school experience predicts happiness. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that the perception of school experience has a partial mediating role in relationship between interpersonal competence and happiness in adolescents. The research findings are discussed within the context of the related literature and some suggestions are provided for researchers and practitioners in the field of mental health


El objetivo principal de esta investigación es examinar el papel mediador de la percepción de las experiencias escolares en la relación entre la competencia interpersonal y la felicidad en los adolescentes. Los participantes en el estudio eran un total de 268 estudiantes, 104 mujeres (39%) y 164 hombres (61%), que asistían a varios centros de secundaria en una ciudad en la región del Mar Negro medio. Las edades de los estudiantes participantes oscilaron entre 14 y 18 años, con una edad promedio de 16.22 (SD = 1.2). Para recopilar datos, se utilizaron como medidas la "Escala de competencia interpersonal", la "Escala de experiencia escolar percibida" y la "Escala de felicidad de Oxford". De acuerdo con los resultados de la investigación, la competencia interpersonal predice las percepciones de la experiencia escolar y la felicidad, la percepción de la experiencia escolar predice la felicidad. El análisis mediante modelos de ecuaciones estructurales reveló que la percepción de la experiencia escolar tiene un papel mediador parcial en la relación entre la competencia interpersonal y la felicidad en los adolescentes. Los resultados de la investigación se discuten en el contexto de la literatura relacionada y se proporcionan algunas sugerencias para los investigadores y profesionales en el campo de la salud mental


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Felicidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Competitivo , Psicometria/instrumentação , Habilidades Sociais , Relações Interpessoais , Características da Família , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Desejabilidade Social
7.
Enferm. glob ; 18(54): 353-363, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183487

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre la satisfacción laboral y la felicidad en el personal de enfermería del Hospital Nacional Alberto Seguín Escobedo EsSalud de la ciudad de Arequipa (Perú).Métodos: Mediante el método cuantitativo y el diseño no experimental, transversal-correlacional, se aplicó la escala de Satisfacción Laboral SL-SPC de Palma (1999) y la escala de Felicidad de Alarcón (2006) a una muestra de 83 trabajadoras, entre los 25 a 65 años de edad, que laboran como enfermeras.Resultados: Se encontró que las dimensiones presentan mayor satisfacción laboral en las enfermeras son el "desarrollo personal" y "desempeño de tareas" (≥70, en ambos casos). En el caso de la variable Felicidad, se identificó que la dimensión "Satisfacción con la Vida", es la que presenta mayor valoración (≥90, en los tres casos). Por otra parte, el estudio identificó la existencia de correlaciones directas e inversas entre las variables de estudio. Conclusión: Se observaron asociaciones positivas entre dimensiones de la satisfacción laboral y factores de felicidad. El compañerismo y el deseo de alcanzar una meta de desarrollo personal y profesional aumenta el sentido de felicidad que las enfermeras perciben en su vida laboral


Objective: To analyze the relationship between job satisfaction and happiness in the nursing staff of the Alberto Seguín Escobedo EsSalud National Hospital in the city of Arequipa (Peru).Methods: Using the quantitative method and the non-experimental, transversal-correlational design, the SL-SPC Labor Satisfaction Scale of Palma (1999) and the Happiness Scale of Alarcón (2006) were applied to a sample of 83 workers, among the 25 to 65 years old, who work as nurses.Results: It was found that the dimensions with higher job satisfaction in nurses are "personal development" and "task performance" (≥70, in both cases). In the case of the Happiness variable, it was identified that the "Satisfaction with Life" dimension is the one with the highest valuation (≥90, in all three cases). On the other hand, the study identified the existence of direct and inverse correlations between the study variables.Conclusion: Positive associations were observed between dimensions of job satisfaction and happiness factors. The companionship and the desire to achieve a goal of personal and professional development increases the sense of happiness that nurses perceive in their work life


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação no Emprego , Felicidade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Objetivos
8.
Enferm. glob ; 18(54): 410-417, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183489

RESUMO

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud se entiende como el efecto funcional y anímico que una enfermedad produce en una persona, incluyendo el tratamiento y cómo este proceso es percibido por la persona, el cual puede estar influido por el género.Objetivo: Determinar la percepción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud entre hombre y mujeres adultos mayores en la Comarca Lagunera de Coahuila.Método: Estudio cuantitativo y descriptivo de corte transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 100 adultos mayores seleccionados a conveniencia en la escuela de Lic. en Enfermería, U.T. de la Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila y un hospital público de la localidad. Los datos se analizaron en el programa SPSS v22 para Mac, se utilizó estadística descriptiva y la prueba U de Mann-Withney.Resultados: El análisis entre el género y la percepción de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud no observó diferencia significativa (U= 922.00, p=.178); sin embargo, al analizar la calidad de vida por dimensiones, existe diferencia significativa en tres componentes que son movilidad física (U= 812.00, p>.05), dolor (U= 816.00, p>.05) y energía (U= 807.50, p>.05).Conclusiones: En la presente investigación, se puede observar que los hombres y mujeres adultos mayores perciben la calidad de vida relacionada a la salud de una forma muy parecida, sin embargo, se encontró diferencia en algunos componentes que desde el punto de vista de los autores están muy ligados al rol social que cumple una mujer o un hombre adulto mayor


Introduction: The quality of life related to health is understood as the functional and emotional effect that a disease produces in a person, including treatment and how this process is perceived by the person, which may be influenced by gender.Objective: To determine the perception of quality of life related to health among men and older women in the Comarca Lagunera of Coahuila.Method: Quantitative and descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was 100 old adults selected at convenience in the Nursing School, U.T. from the Autonomous University of Coahuila and a public hospital in the town. Data were analyzed in the SPSS v22 program for Mac, descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U test were used.Results: The analysis between gender and health-related quality of life perception did not observe a significant difference (U=922.00, p=.178); However, when analyzing the quality of life by dimensions, there is a significant difference in three components that are physical mobility (U= 812.00, p< .05), pain (U= 816.00, p< .05) and energy (U= 807.50, p< .05).Conclusions: In the present investigation, it can be observed that older men and women perceive the quality of life related to health in a very similar way, however, a difference was found in some components that from the point of view of the authors, they are closely linked to the social role played by a woman or an older adult man


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Saúde do Idoso , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Percepção Social , Habilidades Sociais , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/epidemiologia , Polimedicação
9.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 15(2): 97-101, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184356

RESUMO

Introducción: El Consejo Mexicano de Reumatología certifica anualmente reumatólogos mediante una prueba teórica y un examen clínico objetivo estructurado (ECOE). Desde el año 2015, se evalúan las habilidades de comunicación (HC) de los candidatos. Los objetivos fueron comparar las HC evaluadas por el paciente (HCP) y por el médico (HCM) y correlacionarlas con el desempeño de los candidatos en el ECOE. Material y métodos: Durante los años 2015, 2016 y 2017, se evaluaron las HC en las estaciones dinámicas, mediante una escala de Likert aplicada a 8 áreas. Pacientes y evaluadores fueron entrenados cada año para calificar a los aspirantes, lo cual se realizó el día del ECOE, de manera ciega, por ambos. Se calcularon coeficientes de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: En general, a lo largo de los 3años, los candidatos obtuvieron puntajes altos en las HC. Los pacientes puntuaron mejor a los candidatos que los evaluadores médicos. Las HCP y las HCM correlacionaron entre sí (de leve a moderado) en la mayoría de las estaciones. El puntaje de las HC de cada candidato correlacionó con su desempeño en la estación correspondiente; se encontraron mejores correlaciones con las HCP. El promedio de las HC de cada candidato correlacionó con el desempeño global en el ECOE, pero no así con la prueba teórica (salvo en el año 2017, cuando hubo una correlación baja). Conclusiones: Las HC evaluadas durante un examen de certificación en Reumatología correlacionan con el desempeño de cada candidato en cada estación y en el ECOE global


Background: The Mexican Accreditation Council for Rheumatology annually certifies trainees in Rheumatology using a multiple-choice test and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Since 2015, candidate's communication skills (CS) have been rated by both patients and by physician examiners and correlated with results on the OSCE. This study compared the CS from candidates to annual accreditation in Rheumatology as rated by patients and by physician examiners, and assessed whether these correlated with candidate's performance in the OSCE. Material and methods: From 2015 to 2017, 8areas of CS were evaluated using a Likert scale, in each OSCE station that involved a patient. Both patient and physician evaluators were trained annually and their evaluations were performed blindly. The associations were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: In general, candidates were given high CS scores; the scores from patients of the candidate's CS were better than those of physician examiners; within the majority of the stations, both scores were found to correlate moderately. In addition, the scoring of CS correlated with trainee performance at the corresponding OSCE station. Interestingly, better correlations were found when the skills were rated by the patients compared to physician scores. The average CS score was correlated with the overall OSCE performance for each trainee, but not with the multiple-choice test, except in the 2017 accreditation process, when a weak correlation was found. Conclusions: CS assessed during a national accreditation process correlated with the candidate's performance at the station level and with the overall OSCE


Assuntos
Humanos , Habilidades Sociais , Reumatologia/educação , Especialização/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Certificação/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/organização & administração
10.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 39(1): 32-40, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176638

RESUMO

Introducción: La interacción temprana madre-hijo es crítica para el desarrollo adecuado del lactante; sin embargo, la interacción de los padres con los lactantes prematuros presenta una dificultad particular por las circunstancias que acompañan un nacimiento prematuro, como son los factores de riesgo de daño cerebral, y la necesidad de estimulación temprana tanto motora como cognitiva que demandan estos bebés. Se ha observado que los programas educativos tienen efectos positivos en los padres de lactantes prematuros ya que mejoran los resultados de sus hijos en evaluaciones motrices, cognitivas y del lenguaje. Método: En este trabajo se examina el efecto de un programa de educación para padres para estimular el desarrollo de las habilidades comunicativas de los lactantes prematuros. Se examinó cómo cambió la interacción padres-hijo después del programa de intervención. Adicionalmente, se compararon los resultados de las evaluaciones de lenguaje de los niños, hijos de los padres que participaron en el programa de intervención comparados con niños pares, hijos de padres que no participaron en dicho programa. Resultados: El programa contribuyó a cambiar la interacción de los padres con los lactantes y a mejorar los puntajes en las evaluaciones posteriores del lenguaje de sus hijos. Conclusión: Se recomienda la participación de los padres de niños prematuros en programas de educación para padres para estimular el desarrollo del lenguaje de sus hijos


Introduction: Early mother-child interaction is critical for proper infant development; however, the interaction of parents with preterm infants presents a particular difficulty due to the circumstances that accompany premature birth, such as risk factors for brain damage and the early motor and cognitive stimulation that these infants demand. It has been observed that educational programmes have positive effects on the parents of preterm infants as they improve the outcomes of their children in motor, cognitive and language assessments. Method: This paper examines the effect of a parent education programme designed to stimulate the development of the early communicative skills of preterm infants. We examined how the parent-child interaction changed following the intervention programme. In addition, the results of the language evaluations of the children whose parents participated in the intervention programme and those whose parents did not participate were compared. Results: The programme helped to change the interaction of parents with their infants and to improve scores in the children's subsequent language assessments. Conclusion: Parents of premature children are encouraged to participate in parent education programmes to encourage the development of their child's language abilities


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Dano Encefálico Crônico/reabilitação , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/reabilitação , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/tendências , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Pais/educação , Relações Pais-Filho , Habilidades Sociais
11.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 17(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184614

RESUMO

Objective: To characterize the inclusion of the teaching of communication skills in the curriculum of Pharmacy Schools of Federal Institutions of Higher Education. Methods: An exploratory study of documental analysis of curriculum of Pharmacy Schools was carried out. A convenience sample was selected from undergraduate pharmacy courses of Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES). The variables collected were related to the identification of the course, its nature (elective or mandatory), workload, semester, and program content. Results: Among the 49 undergraduate pharmacy courses of IFES, 35 (71.4%) had their curriculum available online. The teaching of communication in health was identified in 26 (74.3%) curriculum. In this study, three courses (7.2%) specifically aimed at teaching communication skills, while 39 (92.9%) had content related to this subject. Most courses (22; 52.4%) belonged to the field of Social, Behavioral, and Administrative Sciences. As for the course period, there was a concentration in the third (19%) and fourth (28.6%) years. The main content present in the curriculum was related to the principles and techniques of health communication (42.8%). Conclusions: Data obtained enabled the identification of gaps in the curricula of undergraduate courses in pharmacy concerning the inclusion of the teaching of communication skills. These results can be used to reflect the current models adopted in Brazil for the teaching of this skills, especially after the recent publication of the new curricular guidelines for undergraduate pharmacy courses


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Farmácia/tendências , Habilidades Sociais , Comunicação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Avaliação Educacional , Relações Profissional-Paciente
12.
Rev. Soc. Esp. Dolor ; 26(1): 52-58, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182835

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) is a long known neuropeptide, and it's uses in clinical practice, mainly those regarding obstetrics have been thoroughly studied. However, there's been an increasing interest in identifying other roles OT plays in emotion, cognition, perception and higher cognitive processing. OT is also believed o have a mayor role in the physiology and physiopathology of pain. We have reviewed existent literature and current human studies on the relationship between OT and chronic pain. The present work compiles a significant number of research papers and may cast some light on a remarkably interesting and promising matter


La oxitocina (OT) es un neuropéptido conocido desde hace mucho tiempo, y sus usos en la práctica clínica, principalmente los relacionados con la obstetricia, se han estudiado en múltiples ocasiones. Sin embargo, ha habido un creciente interés en la identificación de otros roles que la OT pudiera tener en la emoción, la cognición, la percepción y otras funciones cognitivas superiores. También se cree que la OT es de gran importancia en la fisiología y la fisiopatología del dolor. Hemos revisado la literatura existente y los estudios actuales en humanos sobre la relación entre la OT y el dolor crónico. El presente trabajo compila un número significativo de trabajos de investigación y pudiera arrojar alguna luz sobre un asunto sumamente interesante y prometedor


Assuntos
Humanos , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ocitocina/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Ocitocina/análise , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Habilidades Sociais
13.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(1): 10-16, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183621

RESUMO

Objective: We implemented and evaluated the Parenting Skills Program for families in Spain 1) to examine differences in parenting skills, social support, children's behaviours and parental stress pre, immediately post and six months post intervention and 2) to identify mechanisms by which the intervention is related to changes in the four outcomes examined. Methods: Quasi-experimental study design with pre (T0), post (T1), a follow-up (T2) and no control group, complemented by a qualitative study was used. The outcome variables were social support, parenting skills, parental stress and children's behaviours. 216 parents completed pre and post questionnaire and 130 parents the follow-up questionnaire. 39 professionals and 34 parents participated in 17 interviews and 5 discussion groups. Results: Compared with T0, all four outcomes improved significantly at T1. 76% of the participants improved parenting skills and 61% social support. 56% reduced children's negative behaviours and 66% parental stress. All outcomes maintained this significant improvement at T2. Parents and professionals describe different changes in parents' parenting skills, stress and social support after participation in the PSP, and in their children's behaviours. Some subcategories emerged after analysing parents' and professionals' discourses. Conclusions: This study describes positive parenting effects on participants of a parent-training program in Spain, which is a country where implementation and evaluation of these kind of interventions is an incipient issue


Objetivo: Se introdujo y evaluó el Programa de Habilidades Parentales para familias a fin de: 1) examinar las diferencias en cuanto a habilidades parentales, apoyo social, comportamientos infantiles y estrés parental preintervención, inmediatamente después y 6 meses después de la intervención, y 2) identificar los mecanismos que explican los cambios generados por la intervención para las cuatro variables examinadas. Método: Estudio cuasiexperimental con pre (T0), post (T1) y seguimiento (T2), sin grupo control, complementado con un estudio cualitativo. Variables: apoyo social, habilidades parentales, estrés parental y comportamientos infantiles. Completaron el cuestionario pre y post 216 padres/madres, y 130 el de seguimiento. Treinta y nueve profesionales y 34 padres/madres participaron en 17 entrevistas y cinco grupos de discusión. Resultados: Comparado con T0, las cuatro variables mejoraron significativamente en T1. El 76% de los participantes mejoraron las habilidades parentales y el 61% el apoyo social. El 56% redujo los comportamientos infantiles negativos y el 66% el estrés parental. Las variables mantuvieron significativa la mejora en T2. Padres/madres y profesionales describieron cambios en las cuatro variables tras participar en el Programa de Habilidades Parentales. Surgieron subcategorías tras el análisis discursivo. Conclusiones: Este estudio describe efectos positivos en la parentalidad de los participantes en un programa de educación parental español, siendo este un país donde la introducción y la evaluación de este tipo de programas son incipientes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/educação , Poder Familiar , Educação Infantil/tendências , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Apoio Social , Habilidades Sociais , Adaptação Psicológica
14.
Psicol. conduct ; 27(2): 217-238, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186602

RESUMO

This study tested the cross-cultural robustness of the Adolescent Multidimensional Social Competence Questionnaire (AMSC-Q) and examined the relationship between social competence (SC) and bullying involvement. The sample was composed of 4207 secondary school students from Spain, Colombia and Ireland. The analyses revealed that the AMSC-Q showed five factors (social and normative adjustment, prosocial behaviour, social efficacy and cognitive reappraisal) which were invariant across participants in the three countries. SEM revealed an inverse relationship between normative and social adjustment and a direct relationship of social efficacy with bullying aggression. Victimization was explained by the direct influence of prosocial behaviours and social efficacy and the inverse influence of social and normative adjustment. Although the models were homogeneous between countries, the relationships between SC dimensions and bullying aggression and victimization were stronger in Colombia


En este estudio se analizó la robustez transcultural del "Cuestionario multidimensional de competencia social para adolescentes" (AMSC-Q) y se examino la relación entre la competencia social (CS) y la implicación en el acoso escolar. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 4207 estudiantes de educación secundaria de España, Colombia e Irlanda. Los análisis revelaron que el AMSC-Q se compone de cinco factores (ajuste social y normativo, conducta prosocial, eficacia social y reevaluación cognitiva) que se mostraron invariantes entre los participantes de todos los países. Un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) indico una relación inversa entre el ajuste social y normativo y la agresión, y una relación directa entre la agresión y la eficacia social. La victimización fue explicada por la influencia directa del comportamiento prosocial y la eficacia social, y la influencia inversa del ajuste social y normativo. Aunque los modelos fueron homogeneos entre paises, las relaciones entre las dimensiones de la CS y la agresión y victimización en el acoso escolar fueron mas fuertes en Colombia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Habilidades Sociais , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Vítimas de Crime , Agressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Rev. psiquiatr. infanto-juv ; 36(3): 6-20, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187863

RESUMO

El propósito de la presente investigación fue estudiar el perfil psicológico de los adolescentes con riesgo de adicción a las redes sociales. Participaron 240 individuos de un instituto público de la localidad burgalesa de Aranda de Duero con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 18 años. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Cuestionario de Evaluación de Dificultades Interpersonales (CEDIA), la adaptación española de la Fear of Missing Out scale (FoMO; miedo a perderse algo) y la Escala de Riesgo de Adicción-adolescente a las Redes Sociales e Internet (ERA-RSI). Se encontró que existe una relación estadísticamente significativa entre FoMO y el riesgo de adicción a RSI (p<0.05). Las dificultades en las relaciones interpersonales no se asociaron con mayor riesgo de adicción, a excepción de las relaciones familiares, que sí lo hicieron. Por lo tanto, FoMO podría emplearse como predictor del riesgo de adicción a RSI. La investigación en los factores de alarma de adicción a las redes sociales requiere una atención especial, ya que su conocimiento permitiría prevenir el desarrollo de conductas desadaptativas en los adolescentes


The purpose of this research was to study the psychological profile of teenagers with a risk of addiction to social networks. 240 volunteers, aged between 12 and 18 years old from a public high school in Aranda de Duero, Burgos took part in the project. The tools used were the Cuestionario de Evaluación de Dificultades Interpersonales (CEDIA), the spanish adaptation of the Fear of Missing Out scale (FoMO) and the Escala de Riesgo de Adicción-adolescente a las Redes Sociales e Internet (ERA-RSI). It was found out that there is a statistically significant relation between FoMO and the risk of addiction to RSI (p < 0,05). The difficulties encountered in the personal relationships were not associated to a mayor risk of addiction, except for the familiar relations that were indeed associated. Therefore, FoMO could be used as a predictor of the risk of addiction to RSI. The research in the risk factors of addiction to social networks requires a special attention because its knowledge could allow the development of disadaptative behaviors in teenagers


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Redes Sociais Online , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco
16.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 41(11/12,supl): 48-52, nov.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-179940

RESUMO

Effective communication promotes the quality of nursing healthcare; therefore, communication skills are considered a basic tool in nursing (Bloomfield & Pegram, 2015). One challenge nursing students and newly-graduated nurses encounter is to improve those skills (Sheldon & Hilaire, 2015; Theisen & Sandau, 2013). In Portu-gal, intervention programs addressing these competences among nurses are scar-ce (e.g., Torres, Soares, Ferreira & Graça, 2016; Lopes, Azeredo & Rodrigues, 2013). The purpose of our research is to assess the effectiveness of a communication skills program for nursing students, and also to analyze the impact of the following varia-bles: perceived importance of communication skills for nursing, perceived compe-tence on communicational skills, emotional intelligence, and empathy. To address these goals we will conduct a quasi-experimental study using a nonequivalent control group pre-posttest design. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention program, participants will complete a communication skills test (pre-test and post-test). Participants will rate the importance and self proficiency in communication skills using a 6-point scale. To measure emotional intelligence and empathy we will use Portuguese versions of the following scales: WLEIS - Wong and Law Emotional Scale (Carvalho, Guerrero, Chambel & Gonzáles-Rico, 2016; Wong & Law, 2002), and IRI - Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983; Limpo, Alves & Castro, 2010). The results we present here will contribute to the understanding of variables that in-fluence communication skills among nurses, as well as pedagogical strategies that can effectively enhance those abilities


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Comunicação Social , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Relações Interprofissionais , Habilidades Sociais , Inteligência Emocional , Empatia , Barreiras de Comunicação , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções
17.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 41(11/12,supl): 211-212, nov.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-179964

RESUMO

Communication is a dynamic, complex and permanent process, composed of ex-pressive discourse (production) and receptive (understanding), with the purpose of mutual understanding between its participants. This process, which in itself is already complex and where there are several failu-res in daily life, is often hampered by changes in the health of one of the actors. This is an increasingly present reality in hospital inpatient services either by functional or structural changes becoming a challenge for health professionals. For nurses communication is especially important because they are in constant relation/interaction with their clients and their families/caregivers. The quality of care is closely related to the quality of the relationship established and, consequently, to the respective communication. In this way, understanding and understanding are important aspects of the quality of care. These are central and essential to identifying the care needs of each client and their respective fa-mily/caregiver. However, its due value is not always attributed to it, and it should be a specialist nurses' concern to have a mastery of relational and communicational skills. This article of integrative review of the literature aims to identify how the com-munication within the scope of the Specialized Nursing Intervention can subsidize the quality and effectiveness of the care provided by nurses in a hospital context


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Enfermeiras Especialistas/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Comunicação em Saúde/tendências , Cuidados de Enfermagem/tendências , Recursos em Comunicações , Habilidades Sociais
18.
Enferm. nefrol ; 21(4): 394-401, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180186

RESUMO

Introducción: Los profesionales de enfermería de cinco servicios de nefrología recibieron entrenamiento en Entrevista Motivacional mediante un taller de ocho horas centrado en como promover la adhesión al tratamiento en el paciente renal y su familia. El objetivo fue evaluar cambios en: competencia percibida en habilidades comunicativas especificas, respuesta empática espontanea e implantación de las habilidades in vivo medido a través de una rejilla observacional. Material y Método: Diseño pretest-postest sin grupo control. La muestra estaba formada por 46 profesionales del ámbito de la enfermería nefrológica. Resultados: Los resultados muestran cambios en la capacidad percibida de validar al paciente (p<0,031), así como en autorregulación emocional (p<0,014). La respuesta empática espontánea aumentó en los cuatro casos clínicos presentados, pero no llegó a alcanzar significancia estadística (p>0,05). La rejilla observacional, implementada durante el entrenamiento, informó acerca de indicadores de éxito tales como: reducir el tono paternalista, mostrar calma, generar confianza y escuchar de manera activa. Conclusiones: Los resultados son consistentes con otros estudios que evalúan el impacto de los programas de entrenamiento en habilidades de comunicación en nefrología


Introduction: Nursing professionals from five nephrology departments received training in Motivational Interviewing through an eight-hour workshop focused on how to promote adherence to treatment in renal patients and their families. The objective of the present study was to assess changes in: perceived competence in specific communication skills, spontaneous empathic response and readiness to apply in vivo communicative skills measured through an observation grid. Material and Method: Pretest-posttest design without control group. The sample consisted of 46 nephrology nurses. Results: The results show changes in the perceived competence to validate the patient (p<0.031), as well as emotional self-regulation (p<0.014). The empathic spontaneous response increased in the four clinical cases presented, but no statistical significance was reached (p>0.05). The observation grid, implemented during the training, reported on indicators of success such as: reducing the paternalistic tone, showing calm, generating trust and active listening. Conclusions: The results are consistent with other studies that evaluate the impact of communication training programs in nephrology


Assuntos
Humanos , Habilidades Sociais , Comunicação em Saúde , Enfermagem em Nefrologia/educação , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
19.
Metas enferm ; 21(9): 63-69, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172983

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: describir aspectos relevantes relacionados con las habilidades comunicativas de las supervisoras de Enfermería. MÉTODO: revisión narrativa. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica de la literatura publicada desde el año 2013 al 2017. Para ello se han empleado como fuentes de información las siguientes bases de datos: Pubmed, Cinahl, Scopus, Cochrane Library y Cochrane Plus. La búsqueda se efectuó usando los términos en inglés "nurse manager", "nursing" y "communication skills". Se aceptaron los artículos que hablaran de la influenciade la comunicación de las supervisoras de Enfermería, tanto en el ámbito hospitalario como de Atención Primaria y/o psiquiatría. RESULTADOS: se encontraron un total de 150 artículos en las diferentes bases de datos consultadas. Se seleccionaron para la revisión narrativa un total de 15 artículos. Los principales aspectos relacionados con las habilidades de comunicación de las supervisoras enfermeras incluyen: el clima y satisfacción laboral, la resolución de conflictos,liderazgo, formación y seguridad del paciente. CONCLUSIONES: tanto para enfermeras como para las propias gestoras es muy importante disponer de habilidades comunicativas, puesto que ello puede mejorar el clima laboral y la eficaciade los equipos repercutiendo directamente en los pacientes


OBJECTIVE: to describe relevant aspects associated with the communication skills of Nurse Managers. METHOD: a narrative review. A bibliographic search was conducted in literature published between the years 2013 and 2017. To this aim, the following databases were used as information sources: Pubmed, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library and Cochrane Plus. The search was conducted using the following terms in English: "nurse manager", "nursing" and "communication skills". All articles accepted should discuss the influence of communication by Nurse Managers both in the hospital setting and in Primary Care and/or Psychiatry. RESULTS: in total, 150 articles were found in the different databases consulted; 15 articles were selected for the narrative review. The main aspects associated with the communication skills by Nurse Managers included: work environment and satisfaction, solution of conflicts, leadership, training, and patient safety. CONCLUSIONS: having communication skills is very important for nurses as well as for managers, because this can improve the work environment and team efficacy, with a direct impact on patients


Assuntos
Comunicação , Habilidades Sociais , Supervisão de Enfermagem , Relações Trabalhistas , Liderança , Conflito Psicológico , Capacitação Profissional , Segurança do Paciente
20.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 53(5): 268-273, sept.-oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178088

RESUMO

Introducción: Este artículo analiza los efectos de las relaciones sociales positivas como determinantes en el estado de salud de las personas mayores, desde un punto de vista interdisciplinar. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó en la provincia de Toledo un muestreo en el que participaron 2.332 sujetos, donde se aplicaron diversas escalas relacionadas. Para el análisis multivariable de los datos, se calculó la recta de regresión, junto a la bondad de ajuste con las pruebas de Cox, Snell y R-cuadrado de Nagelkerke, para averiguar la correlación entre las relaciones sociales, las redes y los contactos con la salud. Resultados: Las buenas relaciones sociales redundan en un mejor estado de salud, porque permiten sentirse bien y añadir vida a los años. El tamaño de la red social, y la frecuencia de los contactos, aunque disminuyen con la edad, cobran vital importancia en esta etapa de la vida. Todos estos factores constituyen estímulos para mejorar la percepción de salud y proporcionar apoyo social tanto en actividades de la vida diaria como en las instrumentales o de gestión de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: El principal resultado de este estudio es que las relaciones sociales positivas pueden considerarse como un determinante en la salud de las personas mayores, pero no todas estas interacciones influyen en la misma medida. El factor de la relación humana en cuanto a la proximidad emocional, junto con la frecuencia o cantidad de estos encuentros, también están correlacionados con la salud, debido al impacto emocional que implican


Introduction: This study presents an analysis on the effects of positive social relationships as determining factors on the health status of the elderly, from an interdisciplinary point of view. Materials and methods: A survey was carried out on a total of 2,332 subjects in the province of Toledo, Spain, using several scales related to the study objectives. For the multivariable analysis of the data, the linear regression, along with goodness of fit, as well as the tests of Cox, Snell and R-squared of Nagelkerke, were calculated to determine the correlation between the networks and the social contacts with the health. Results: Good social relationships result in better health, because they allow us to feel good and add life to the years. The size of the social network, and the frequency of contacts, although decreasing with age, become vitally important at this stage of life. All these factors constitute stimuli to improve the perception of health, to provide social support in activities of daily living, as well as for instrumental or disease management. Conclusions: The main outcome of this study is that positive social relationships can be considered as a determining factor in the health of the elderly, but not all these interactions influence the same extent. The factor of the human relationship in terms of emotional proximity, together with the frequency or quantity of these encounters, are also correlated with health, due to the emotional impact they imply


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoio Social , Habilidades Sociais , Nível de Saúde , Relações Interpessoais , Amigos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Idoso , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração
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