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1.
Ansiedad estrés ; 26(1): 33-38, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192299

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La ansiedad escénica musical (AEM) es una sintomatología que afecta a un gran número de músicos y que afecta a su ejecución. Los rasgos de personalidad así como variables sociodemográficas parecen influir en este padecimiento. OBJETIVO: Analizar qué rasgos de personalidad influyen en la AEM y determinar si puede ser predicha por el sexo, la familia del instrumento practicado, actuar como solista o el tipo de formación recibida. Materia y método: La muestra estuvo compuesta por 72 músicos, entre 16 y 54 años (M = 24.11; DE = 9.03). Se les administró el KMPAI-E para medir la ansiedad escénica y el NEO-FFI para medir la personalidad. Se realizó una correlación bivariada y un análisis de regresión múltiple. RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron una correlación positiva entre la AEM y el neuroticismo (p < .01) y negativa con la extraversión (p < .01) y la responsabilidad (p < .05). Asimismo, se determinó como variables predictivas de la AEM, la familia instrumental y el sexo. Según el sexo, hubo diferencias significativas (p < .01) en AEM, siendo las mujeres quienes obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones. Respecto a la familia instrumental, existió diferencia significativa con la cuerda pulsada (p < .05). Ser solista y el tipo de formación no predijo la AEM. CONCLUSIONES: Una personalidad con tendencia al neuroticismo e introversión parece tener influencia en la AEM. Asimismo, el hecho de ser mujer y practicar los instrumentos de cuerda pulsada podrían predecir la AEM


INTRODUCTION: Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is a symptomatology that affects a large number of musicians and their execution. Personality traits such as sociodemographic variables seem to influence this condition. OBJECTIVE: Analyze which personality traits influence the MPA and determine whether it can be predicted by sex, the family of the instrument practiced, acting as a soloist, or the type of training received. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The sample was composed of 72 musicians, between 16 and 54 years old (M = 24.11, SD = 9.03). They were administered the KMPAI-E to measure stage anxiety and NEO-FFI to measure personality. A bivariate correlation and a multiple regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: The results showed a positive correlation between MPA and neuroticism (p < .01) and a negative correlation with extraversion (p < .01) and responsibility (p < .05). Likewise, the instrument family and sex were determined as predictive variables of MPA. In terms of sex, there were significant differences (p < .01) in MPA, with women obtaining the highest scores. Regarding the instrument family, there was a significant difference with the plucked string (p < .05). Being a soloist and the type of training did not predict MPA. CONCLUSIONS: A personality prone to neuroticism and introversion seems to have an influence on the MPA. Likewise, the fact of being a woman and practicing plucked string instruments could predict MPA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Ansiedade/psicologia , Música/psicologia
2.
Pap. psicol ; 41(1): 43-53, ene.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190931

RESUMO

El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una reflexión sobre la evaluación, seguimiento y apoyo psicológico de los pacientes obesos mórbidos que han sido sometidos a cirugía bariátrica. Para ello hemos realizado una revisión bibliográfica de la situación actual del tema, exponemos nuestro modelo de seguimiento, definimos qué aspectos son necesarios evaluar y en qué áreas necesitan apoyo estos pacientes. El número de publicaciones sobre estos aspectos está en aumento y cada vez encontramos mayor evidencia de patología alimentaria que se desarrolla tras la cirugía bariátrica y que compromete la pérdida de peso esperada. Por último tratamos de justificar la necesidad del seguimiento de estos pacientes tras la cirugía más allá de limitarnos a la selección y preparación prequirúrgica, siendo también necesario adaptar los criterios diagnósticos y los instrumentos de evaluación a esta población


The aim of this paper is to reflect on the evaluation, follow-up, and psychological support of morbidly obese patients who have un-dergone bariatric surgery. We have carried out a bibliographic review of the current situation on this subject and we present our monitoring model, defining the variables that it is necessary to evaluate and the areas in which these patients need support. The number of publications on these aspects is increasing, and there is growing evidence of the emergence of an eating pathology af-ter bariatric surgery, which hinders the expected weight loss. Finally, this work attempts to justify the importance of the follow-up of these patients after surgery, beyond limiting ourselves to presurgical selection and preparation, as well as the need to adapt di-agnostic criteria and evaluation instruments to this specific population


Assuntos
Humanos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ideação Suicida , Personalidade , Imagem Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Qualidade de Vida
3.
An. psicol ; 36(1): 64-73, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192042

RESUMO

Determinadas variables psicológicas y la personalidad son consideradas como factores predisponentes o influyentes para el posterior desarrollo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, así como también la puesta en práctica de determinados comportamientos de riesgo, como los atracones, vómitos o la práctica de ejercicio físico excesivo para la pérdida de peso. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las diferencias en personalidad y variables psicológicas relevantes relacionadas con los TCA, en mujeres y hombres, a partir del cumplimiento de criterios específicos a partir de los cuales se recomienda la derivación a un especialista en patologías alimentarias. En el estudio participaron 604 estudiantes universitarios, y se emplearon el Inventario de Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (EDI-3) y su cuestionario de remisión (EDI-3 RF), y el Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Los resultados mostraron que hasta el 58.5% de mujeres y 49.5% de hombres cumplen criterios de remisión. Tanto en mujeres como en hombres, existen diferencias entre los grupos con criterios y quienes no los presentan, principalmente en neuroticismo, obsesión por la delgadez, bulimia, insatisfacción corporal y ascetismo. Las puntuaciones en el factor neuroticismo y en la gran mayoría de escalas psicológicas son también superiores en los sujetos que cumplen con mayor número de criterios


Certain psychological variables and personality are considered as predisposing or influential factors for the subsequent development of eating disorders. Also the implementation of some risk behaviors, such as binge eating, vomiting or excessive physical exercise for weight loss. The aim of the study was to compare the differences in personality and relevant psychological variables related to eating disorders, in women and men, based on compliance with specific criteria to help identify individuals with potential eating disorders. Participants were 604 university students. The Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) and Referral Form (EDI-3 RF), and the Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) were used. The results showed that up to 58.5% of women and 49.5% of men met remission criteria. In both women and men, there are differences between groups with criteria and those who do not, mainly in neuroticism, drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction and asceticism. The scores in the neuroticism factor and in the great majority of psychological scales are also higher in students that accomplish the highest number of criterio


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Características Humanas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância
4.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(1): 9-18, ene. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190381

RESUMO

New intervention approaches are required for dating violence (DV) prevention, given the limited results of existing programs in achieving behavioral changes. The main objective of this study was to explore the effect of a brief, single-session intervention aimed at promoting an incremental theory of personality (ITP) on dating violence perpetration (DVP) and dating violence victimization (DVV). A double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel groups (experimental vs. control) was conducted. Participants were 123 adolescents (53.7% females, Mage = 15.20, SD = 0.99). Assessment measures were administered one week prior to the intervention, and six months and one year after the intervention. The results of the hierarchical linear models showed that the interaction between time and condition was statistically significant for DVP, showing a significant decrease both in traditional and cyber dating abuse in the experimental condition. The ITP intervention had no effect on DVV. Our findings suggest that the ITP intervention decreases the perpetration of aggressive acts toward the dating partner and support the idea that strategies aimed at preventing peer conflict may also prevent DVP. Increasing our empirical evidence about the efficacy of a one-hour self-applied intervention is of great relevance for moving forward in the prevention of DV


La necesidad de nuevos enfoques de intervención para la prevención de la violencia en el noviazgo (VN) deriva de las limitaciones de los programas existentes para lograr cambios conductuales. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue examinar el efecto de una intervención breve -de una sesión- dirigida a promover una teoría incremental de la personalidad, sobre la perpetración (PVN) y victimización (VVN) de violencia en el noviazgo. Se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado doble ciego con dos grupos paralelos (experimental vs. control). Los participantes fueron 123 adolescentes (53,7% mujeres, Medad = 15.20, DT = 0.99). Las medidas de evaluación se administraron una semana antes de la intervención, seis meses después de la intervención y un año después de la intervención. Los resultados de los modelos lineales jerárquicos mostraron que la interacción entre el tiempo y la condición fue estadísticamente significativa para la PVN, mostrando una disminución significativa tanto en el abuso tradicional como en el ciberacoso en la pareja en la condición experimental. La intervención no tuvo ningún efecto para la VVN. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que la intervención disminuye la perpetración de actos agresivos hacia la pareja y apoyan la idea de que las estrategias dirigidas a prevenir conflictos entre iguales pueden también prevenir la PVN. El incremento de evidencia empírica sobre la eficacia de una intervención autoaplicable de una hora de duración es de gran relevancia para avanzar en la prevención de la VN


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Personalidade , Psicoterapia Breve/instrumentação , Cyberbullying/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Determinação da Personalidade , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
5.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(1): 19-28, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190382

RESUMO

Positive and negative-worded items affect respondents' answering style in attitude surveys and have psychometric implications. This research was conducted to assess the wording effect on the validation of the Spanish adaptation of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised (IPVAS-R). Five competing models were tested with confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of young people between 15 and 25 years old (sample A, n = 402, Mage = 17.5, SDage = 2.21, 60.4% girls; sample B, n = 451, Mage = 19.55, SDage = 3.11, 57.6% girls). An outstanding method effect related to the writing of items in a positive (acceptance) versus negative (rejection) sense affecting the original three-factor structure of the IPVAS-R was supported by this research. The wording effect produced inconsistent factorial loadings and flawed internal consistency. Most of the relationships with other criterion measures, after controlling for the method effect, were moderate, in line with previous studies. Our results imply that the wording effect should be considered both in the building and the validation of instruments on attitudes towards dating violence


La redacción de los ítems en sentido directo e inverso afecta al estilo de respuesta de los encuestados en las escalas de actitud y tienen implicaciones psicométricas. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para evaluar el efecto de la redacción en sentido directo o inverso en la validación de la adaptación española de la Escala de Actitud hacia la Violencia en la Pareja-revisada (IPVAS-R). Se probaron cinco modelos competitivos con análisis factorial confirmatorio en dos muestras de jóvenes entre 15 y 25 años de edad (muestra A, n = 402, Medad = 17.5, DTedad = 2.21, 60.4% chicas; muestra B, n = 451, Medad = 19.55, DTedad = 3.11, 57.6% chicas). Un notable efecto del método relacionado con la redacción de los ítems en un sentido positivo (aceptación) frente a negativo (rechazo) que afectaba a la estructura original de tres factores del IPVAS-R fue avalado por esta investigación. El efecto de la redacción produjo cargas factoriales incongruentes y una consistencia interna defectuosa. La mayoría de las relaciones con otras medidas criterio, tras controlar el efecto del método, fueron moderadas, en línea con estudios anteriores. Nuestros resultados implican que el efecto de la redacción debe ser considerado tanto en la construcción como en la validación de los instrumentos que miden actitudes hacia la violencia en el noviazgo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Personalidade , Psicoterapia Breve/instrumentação , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Inventário de Personalidade , Semântica , Psicometria , Determinação da Personalidade , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia
6.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(4): 407-413, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personality and emotional factors may be contributing to the emergence of somatic complaints. The purpose of this study was to analyse the combined contribution of emotional awareness, moods and personality to somatic complaints in children and adults. METHOD: Participants were 1,476 children (M = 9.90 years, SD = 1.27, 52.10% girls) and 940 adults (M = 32.30 years, SD = 11.62, 64% women) who were administered self-reports. Analysis was performed using fuzzy qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), an analytical technique that enables in-depth analysis of how a series of causal conditions contribute to a given outcome. RESULTS: Emotional awareness, moods and personality account for 59% of high levels of somatic complaints in children and 69% in adults. In both samples, interaction between low levels of emotional awareness, high levels of negative moods and low levels of positive mood, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of the other personality factors appear to lead to high levels of somatic complaints (children: raw coverage = .18, consistency = .95; adults: raw coverage = .15, consistency = .97). CONCLUSION: A similar contribution of emotional and personality components was found to explain somatic complaints in children and adults


ANTECEDENTES: la personalidad y los factores emocionales pueden estar contribuyendo a la aparición de quejas somáticas. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la contribución combinada de la conciencia emocional, los estados de ánimo y la personalidad, a las quejas somáticas en niños y adultos. MÉTODO: los participantes fueron 1.476 niños (M = 9.90 años, DT = 1.27, 52.10% niñas) y 940 adultos (M = 32.30 años, DT = 11.62, 64% mujeres) y completaron auto-informes. Se utilizó fuzzy qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), una técnica analítica que permite un análisis en profundidad de cómo una serie de condiciones causales contribuyen a un resultado dado. RESULTADOS: la conciencia emocional, los estados de ánimo y la personalidad explican el 59% de los altos niveles de quejas somáticas en niños y el 69% en adultos. En ambos, la interacción entre bajos niveles de conciencia emocional, altos niveles de estados de ánimo negativos y bajos niveles de estados de ánimo positivos, altos niveles de neuroticismo y bajos niveles de los otros factores de personalidad, parecen conducir a altos niveles de quejas somáticas (niños: raw coverage = .18, consistency = .95; adultos: raw coverage = .15, consistency = .97). CONCLUSIÓN: se encontró una contribución similar de los componentes emocionales y de personalidad a la explicación de las quejas somáticas en niños y adultos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consciência , Emoções , Personalidade , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Neuroticismo , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/etiologia , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
An. psicol ; 35(3): 506-513, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested a relationship between certain personality variables and work addiction. In the present work we conduct a predictive study of the background variables of work craving through the variables Impulsivity, Personality, Perfectionism, Self-esteem and Self-efficacy. METHOD: The participants were 332 workers obtained by non-probability sampling. We used the FACTOR programs (version 7.2) and SPSS 23.0. RESULTS: The predictive capacity of personality variables and self-esteem is determined on the work craving. CONCLUSIONS: Work craving can be predicted through certain variables (Emotional Stability, Perfectionism and Self-esteem). This research contributes to greater knowledge of work addiction and to the empowerment of a healthy lifestyle that can be affected by addiction to work. No funding has been received to make this article


Estudios recientes has sugerido que hay relación entre algunas variables de personalidad y la adicción al trabajo. En el presente trabajo nos hemos planteado el objetivo de realizar un estudio Predictivo de las variables antecedentes del Work Craving a través de las variables Impulsividad, Personalidad, Perfeccionismo, Autoestima y Autoeficacia.: Los participantes han sido 332 trabajadores, obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Para analizar los datos se ha utilizado el programa SPSS 23.0. Los resultados del análisis de correlación nos muestran asociaciones tanto positivas como negativas con las variables estudiadas. El análisis de regresión determina la capacidad predictiva de las variables Estabilidad emocional, Perfeccionismo y Autoestima que explican el 24.40 % de la varianza de los Sentimientos Generados por el Trabajo (WCS.FW). Y las variables Estabilidad emocional y Autoestima explican el 14.0 % de la Necesidad de trabajar (WCS.NW). Se puede concluir que el Work Craving puede predecirse a través de determinadas variables (Estabilidad emocional, Perfeccionismo y Autoestima), contribuyendo la presente investigación a un mayor conocimiento de la Adicción al Trabajo. Los resultados poseen implicaciones prácticas importantes que debe considerarse para la gestión estratégica adecuada de los recursos humanos dentro de las organizaciones. Los más notables entre ellos son la necesidad de promover la mejora de la autoestima y la estabilidad emocional


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Perfeccionismo , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Trabalho/psicologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Personalidade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Satisfação no Emprego
8.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 239-245, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185349

RESUMO

Background: Experimental substance use among young people is related to individual factors including personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between these three sets of variables. Methods: Volunteer undergraduate students (N = 861, 76% female, M = 20.7 years) completed an ad hoc questionnaire on variables related to their consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, synthetic drugs and cocaine. In addition, 591 of them completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). All participants were genotyped in FAAH C385A SNP and its proxy variant rs12075550. Results: Consistent with previous data, both impulsivity and sensation seeking were associated with most of the variables related to experimental substance use. In addition, we found the first evidence of an association between the rs12075550 SNP and some of these consumption phenotypes. However, no significant association was found between either of the two SNPs and impulsivity or sensation seeking. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of considering both personality and genetic differences, together with contextual factors, in the analysis of substance use


Antecedentes: el uso experimental de sustancias en los jóvenes está relacionada con factores individuales que incluyen rasgos de personalidad, como impulsividad o búsqueda de sensaciones, y variaciones genéticas, como polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido (SNPs) del gen amida hidrolasa de ácidos grasos (FAAH). El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la relación entre estos tres conjuntos de variables. Método: estudiantes universitarios voluntarios (N = 861, 76% mujeres, M = 20,7 años) rellenaron un cuestionario ad hoc de variables relacionadas con el consumo de alcohol, tabaco, cannabis, drogas sintéticas y cocaína. Además, 591 de ellos rellenaron las escalas BIS-11 y SSS-V. Se genotipó a todos ellos en SNP FAAH C385A y su variante proxy rs12075550. Resultados: como se esperaba, la impulsividad y la búsqueda de sensaciones estuvieron asociadas con la mayor parte de las variables relativas al uso experimental de sustancias. Además, encontramos por primera vez evidencia de una asociación entre rs12075550 y algunos de estos fenotipos de consumo. Sin embargo, no encontramos asociaciones significativas entre SNPs e impulsividad o búsqueda de sensaciones. Conclusiones: los resultados resaltan la importancia de tener en cuenta las diferencias genéticas y las de personalidad, junto con los factores contextuales, al analizar el uso de sustancias


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Amidoidrolases/genética , Comportamento Impulsivo , Personalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sensação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Alelos , Variação Genética , Testes de Personalidade , Fenótipo , Assunção de Riscos , Saliva , Sensação/genética , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/enzimologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 54(3): 168-180, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188965

RESUMO

La etiología de los síntomas psicológicos y conductuales de la demencia (SPCD) es multifactorial y existe una línea creciente de investigación de la personalidad premórbida como factor de riesgo para estos síntomas. El objetivo de la revisión es conocer la relación entre los SPCD y la personalidad premórbida. Los estudios se buscaron en PsycInfo, MedLine y PubMed a partir de la combinación de diversos términos relacionados con demencia, personalidad premórbida y SPCD. Diez estudios fueron incluidos en la revisión. Ocho de los diez estudios sugieren asociaciones entre la personalidad premórbida y los SPCD. Neuroticismo se relaciona positivamente con alteración de la conducta y ansiedad. Extraversión se relaciona positivamente con deambulación. Amabilidad se relaciona negativamente con alteraciones afectivas y síntomas de comportamiento agresivo y, positivamente con deambulación. Para apertura a la experiencia y responsabilidad no se muestran resultados congruentes. La personalidad premórbida puede incrementar el riesgo de manifestar SPCD durante el curso de la enfermedad. Aun así, la relación entre personalidad y SPCD es compleja debido a la etiología multifactorial de los síntomas


The aetiology of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is defined by a diversity of factors, and recent studies suggest that premorbid personality could be a risk factor for BPSD. This study aimed to review studies on the relationship between premorbid personality and BPSD. Studies were identified using PsycInfo, MedLine, and PubMed. The searches combined terms for premorbid personality, dementia and BPSD. Ten studies have been included in this review. Eight out of ten studies show a relationship between premorbid personality and BPSD. Neuroticism is associated with behavioural disturbances and anxiety. Extraversion is associated with wandering. Low agreeableness is associated with affective disturbance and aggression-related behaviours and high agreeableness is associated with wandering. The studies found no congruent results for openness and conscientiousness. In conclusion, premorbid personality may increase the risk of developing BPSD during the course of the disease. Even so, the relationship between personality and BPSD is complex due to multifactorial aetiology


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Demência/complicações , Demência/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Personalidade , Demência/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
10.
Span. j. psychol ; 22: e37.1-e37.11, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190188

RESUMO

Anger has been closely related to risky behavior, and this last has been related to road accidents. The current research aimed to develop and validate a self-report questionnaire to measure anger in pedestrians (n = 550, 40.73% male) of a wide age rage (14-65 years, M = 27.91, SD = 13.21). The Parallel Analysis showed that the 15 items of the Pedestrian Anger Scale fitted satisfactorily in a four-factor solution: Anger because of obstructions or slowdowns caused by other pedestrians (α = .79), Anger because of hostility from drivers (α = .64), Anger because of bad conditions of the infrastructure (α = .62), and Anger because of dangerous situations caused by vehicles (α = .71). The global scale had also a good internal consistency (α = .83). Further analyses suggested convergent, divergent and incremental validity by correlating the global score of the questionnaire with both risk and anger measures. Middle-aged people (19-30 years) scored higher in anger as pedestrians than eldest (> 45 years), η2 = .02, but no significant effect were obtained by gender. Practical implications from both clinical and road safety viewpoints are discussed, and both future research proposals and limitations of the current study are also commented


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Ira/fisiologia , Pedestres/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Etários , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Autorrelato/normas
11.
Span. j. psychol ; 22: e42.1-e42.9, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190193

RESUMO

The aim of this piece of research was to study the existence of clusters based on anger, empathy and cortisol and testosterone measures associated with aggressive behavior in school-aged children. The sample group comprised 139 eight-year-old children (80 boys and 59 girls). Aggressive behavior was measured using the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scale. Both psychological and biological variables were used to determine psychobiological profiles. The psychological variables considered were trait anger, measured using the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory for Children and Adolescents, and empathy, measured using the Empathy Quotient-Child Version. Testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured through saliva samples and analyzed using an ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). A Cluster Analysis revealed three clusters which were clearly different as regards their psychological and biological characteristics. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the cluster characterized by having higher anger levels, lower empathy levels and higher testosterone and cortisol levels was more aggressive than the other two (p < .0001, η2 = .19). The results indicate that studying psychological and biological variables together may help establish differentiated aggression patterns among children


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Agressão/fisiologia , Ira/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/classificação , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Personalidade/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo
12.
Span. j. psychol ; 22: e62.1-e62.14, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190213

RESUMO

Anger is defined as a psychobiological emotional state that consists of feelings varying in intensity from mild irritation or annoyance to intense fury and rage. Dysfunction in anger regulation is marker of most psychiatric disorders. The most important point about anger regulation by the individuals is how to express anger and control it. The purpose of the present study is to predict the anger expression from the anger experience in individuals with psychiatric disorder for assessment of how to express and control the anger. To this end, the number of 3,000 subjects of individuals with clinical disorders had filled in the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II (STAXI-II). After removing the uncertain diagnoses (900 subjects), the number of 2,100 data was considered in the analysis. Then, the computational codes based on three soft computing algorithms, including Radial Basis Function (RBF), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Decision Tree (DT) were developed to predict the scales of anger expression of the individuals with psychiatric disorders. The scales of anger experience were used as input data of the developed computational codes. Comparison between the results obtained from the DT, RBF and ANFIS algorithms show that all the developed soft computing algorithms forecast the anger expression scales with an acceptable accuracy. However, the accuracy of the DT algorithm is better than the other algorithms


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Algoritmos , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções Manifestas/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
13.
Span. j. psychol ; 22: e6.1-e6.10, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-188846

RESUMO

Our study explores the validity of a game-based assessment method assessing candidates' soft skills. Using self-reported measures of performance, (job performance, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), and Great Point Average (GPA), we examined the criterion-related and incremental validity of a game-based assessment, above and beyond the effect of cognitive ability and personality. Our findings indicate that a game-based assessment measuring soft skills (adaptability, flexibility, resilience and decision making) can predict self-reported job and academic performance. Moreover, a game-based assessment can predict academic performance above and beyond personality and cognitive ability tests. The effectiveness of gamification in personnel selection is discussed along with research and practical implications introducing recruiters and HR professionals to an innovative selection technique


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Adaptação Psicológica , Aptidão , Emprego , Jogos Experimentais , Personalidade , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Desempenho Profissional
14.
Span. j. psychol ; 22: e32.1-e32.8, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-188872

RESUMO

The categorical definition of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and exclusive focus on thoughts and behaviors, have constrained the study and treatment of its symptoms. The present study's aim was to search for relationships among emotional processing dimensions, five major personality dimensions, and self-perceived obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The participants were 100 college students, and the questionnaires used were a selection of images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), the Self-assessment Manikin (SAM), the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS), and the NEO-FFI. We found differences in emotional processing dimensions between participants with high and low DOCS scores, grouped according to sex (d = .56); and evidence that the neuroticism and agreeableness dimensions predict self-perceived obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Emotional processing dimensions and personality are considered useful to comprehending obsessive-compulsive symptoms, which lends support to dimensional models of OC symptomatology, as well as planning and developing psychological interventions


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Neuroticismo , Autoavaliação , Universidades
15.
Psicooncología (Pozuelo de Alarcón) ; 15(2): 373-384, jul.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178680

RESUMO

Objectives: The objectives of the present study are to investigate the association among symptoms of depression and anxiety, sociodemographic variables and personality factors and also verify the predictive power of these variables in cancer outpatients. Method: The sample was composed by 220 individuals, 138 (62.7%) women and 82 (37.3%) men. The instruments used were: Questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical data; NEO-FFI Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-FFI-R) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The t test and the Spearman correlation were used to verify the relation between sociodemographic and clinic variables and symptoms of anxiety and depression. A Multiple Linear Regression analysis was made to verify the predictive power of sociodemographic and clinic variables and personality factors. Results: The personality factor neuroticism was predictor of anxiety symptoms. The variable previous psychiatric history and the personality factors neuroticism and extraversion were predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with some sociodemographic variables and personality factors, and these variables can be deemed risk factors for the development of these symptoms. It is important that health professionals who follow-up this population design strategies to collect this information, in order to help patients manage treatment the best way possible


Objetivos: Los objetivos del presente estudio son investigar la asociación entre síntomas de depresión y ansiedad, variables sociodemográficas y factores de personalidad y también verificar el poder predictivo de estas variables en pacientes con cáncer. Método: La muestra estuvo compuesta por 220 individuos, 138 (62,7%) mujeres y 82 (37,3%) hombres. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: Cuestionario sobre datos sociodemográficos y clínicos; NEO-FFI Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-FFI-R) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). La prueba t y la correlación de Spearman se usaron para verificar la relación entre las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión. Se realizó un análisis de Regresión Linear Múltiple para verificar el poderpredictivo de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y los factores de personalidad. Resultados: elfactor de personalidad neuroticismo fue predictor de síntomas de ansiedad. La variable antecedentespsiquiátricos previos y los factores de personalidad neuroticismo y extraversión fueron predictores desíntomas depresivos. Conclusión: Los síntomas de depresión y ansiedad están asociados con algunasvariables sociodemográficas y factores de personalidad, y estas variables pueden considerarse factoresde riesgo para el desarrollo de estos síntomas. Es importante que los profesionales del campo de la saludque hacen el seguimiento de esta población proyecten estrategias para colectar esta información, a finde ayudar a los pacientes a administrar el tratamiento de la mejor manera posible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade , Personalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 34(3): 181-193, dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176737

RESUMO

Personality traits and work values are important characteristics in personnel selection. Studies on their associations show limited agreement. In order to clarify, this paper investigates their association on a personality facet level. Work values are differentiated in intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This paper adds the role of age to the association. Earlier studies on traits and values about the influence of age on their development and associations are reviewed. Then the moderating influence of age in the association between facets of the Five-Factor Model and work values of the Universal Values Model of 465 Dutch bankers is studied. The results elucidate the association between personality facets and work values and the role of age in their associations. Considering this in personnel selection might contribute to sustainable employability of both the young as well as the older worker. Therewith, the study contributes to the debate of ageing in recruitment and selection


Los rasgos de personalidad y los valores laborales son características importantes en la selección de personal. Los estudios sobre sus asociaciones muestran un acuerdo limitado. Para clarificarlo, este artículo investiga su asociación en el nivel de facetas de la personalidad. Los valores laborales se diferencian en factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos. Además este trabajo añade el papel de la edad en esta asociación. Se revisan estudios previos de rasgos y valores sobre la influencia de la edad en su desarrollo y asociación. También se estudia la influencia moderadora de la edad en la asociación entre las facetas del modelo de los cinco factores y los valores laborales del modelo de valores universal en una muestra de 465 empleados de banca holandeses. Los resultados elucidan la asociación entre aspectos de personalidad y valores laborales, y el papel de la edad en dicha asociación. La consideración de esta asociación en selección de personal podría contribuir a la empleabilidad sostenible de los empleados jóvenes y de los de más edad. Por lo tanto, el estudio contribuye al debate de la edad en el reclutamiento y la selección


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Trabalhistas , Relações Interprofissionais , Cultura Organizacional , Personalidade , Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Emprego/ética , Efeito Idade , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/políticas , Descrição de Cargo , Determinação da Personalidade , Conta Bancária/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 34(3): 213-216, dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176740

RESUMO

This short research note reports on a study on the robustness of a quasi-ipsative forced-choice (FC) personality inventory for controlling the effects of faking. A sample of 126 active managers was randomly divided in three independent groups, with 42 individuals per group. We used an experimental three-group design in which the independent variable was the instructional set (faking, neutral, and honest), and the dependent variables were the scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. The results showed that the average effect sizes were .01, -.02, and 0 for the comparisons among faking-honest, faking-neutral, and neutral-honest groups. These findings showed that the quasi-ipsative FC format with algebraic non-dependence among the scales is a very robust way of controlling faking. We recommend practitioners to use this technology for making personnel selection decisions


Este breve nota de investigación se centra en un estudio sobre la fortaleza de un inventario de personalidad cuasi-ipsativo de elección forzosa para controlar los efectos del falseamiento. Se dividió aleatoriamente la muestra de 126 ejecutivos en activo en tres grupos independientes de 42 sujetos cada uno. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de tres grupos en el que la variable independiente era el conjunto de instrucciones (falseamiento, neutralidad u honestidad) y las variables independientes estaban constituidas por las puntuaciones de las dimensiones de personalidad de los cinco grandes. Los resultados mostraron que el tamaño medio del efecto era .01, -.02 y 0 para las comparaciones entre los grupos falseamiento-honestidad, falseamiento-neutralidad y neutralidad-honestidad. Estos resultados manifiestan que el formato cuasi-ipsativo de elección forzada sin dependencia algebraica entre las escalas es un modo muy sólido de controlar el falseamiento. Recomendamos a los profesionales que utilicen esta tecnología a la hora de tomar decisiones en selección de personal


Assuntos
Humanos , Personalidade/classificação , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Descrição de Cargo , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção de Mentiras
18.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 30(4): 357-363, nov. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several implicit measures have been proposed to overcome limitations of self-reports. The present study aimed to develop a new implicit association test (MFT-IAT) to assess enterprising-related traits, exploring its reliability and validity evidence. METHOD: A total of 1,142 individuals (Mean age 42.36 years, SD = 13.17) from the general population were assessed. Participants were asked about sociodemographic data, employment status, and personality traits using the Battery for the Assessment of the Enterprising Personality (BEPE). They completed an MFT-IAT designed to assess the BEPE's traits (achievement motivation, autonomy, innovativeness, self-efficacy, locus of control, optimism, stress tolerance and risk taking). Reliability was estimated using Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFAs) were performed to assess the internal structure of the MFT-IAT. Correlations and a Multiple Analysis of Variance were used to estimate validity evidence based on the relationship towith participants' employment status. RESULTS: EFAs provided validity evidence for all dimensions with high internal consistency (a = .92-.93). Correlations between implicit and explicit measures were non-significant. Non- implicit measures yielded significant differences between employment statuses. DISCUSSION: This is a pioneering study in this field and more research is needed to improve the feasibility and practicality of implicit measures in applied assessment settings


ANTECEDENTES: se han propuesto múltiples medidas implícitas para superar las limitaciones de los autoinformes. El presente estudio tiene por objetivo desarrollar un nuevo test de asociación implícita (MFT-IAT) para evaluar rasgos asociados a la emprendeduría, explorar su fiabilidad y evidencias de validez. MÉTODO: se evaluaron 1.142 personas (edad media 42,36, DT = 13,17) sobre información demográfica, de empleo y personalidad usando la Batería para la Evaluación de la Personalidad Emprendedora (BEPE). Completaron una tarea MFT-IAT para evaluar los rasgos del BEPE (motivación de logro, autonomía, innovación, auto-eficacia, locus de control, optimismo, tolerancia al estrés y asunción de riesgos). Se estimó la fiabilidad mediante el alfa de Cronbach. Se realizaron Análisis Factoriales Exploratorios (AFEs) para evaluar la estructura interna del MFT-IAT y correlaciones y análisis de varianza para estimar las evidencias de validez en la relación con el empleo. RESULTADOS: los AFEs ofrecieron evidencias de validez con alta consistencia interna (a = ,92-,93). Las correlaciones entre las medidas explícitas e implícitas fueron no significativas. Ninguna medida implícita mostró diferencias significativas entre los distintos estados laborales. DISCUSIÓN: este es un estudio pionero en el cambio y se necesita más investigación para mejorar la viabilidad de las medidas implícitas en evaluaciones aplicadas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Contrato de Risco , Personalidade , Testes Psicológicos , Estudos Transversais , Psicometria
19.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 18(1): 35-42, ene.-abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-169385

RESUMO

Background/Objective: Empathizing-Systemizing Theory suggests that low empathizing and high systemizing are linked to autistic traits in the general population. Evidence from autistic individuals is convincing, but more research in the normal population is needed. Method: We conducted two surveys (N = 3,345) investigating the relationships between empathizing, systemizing and autistic traits in the general population, using a large variety of self-report instruments and direct performance tests. Results: Strong connections between autistic symptoms, empathizing, and systemizing were found using commonly used measures (Autism Quotient, Systemizing Quotient and Empathizing Quotient). Other measures on empathizing and systemizing found the connections that E-S-theory predicts, but the correlations were a lot more modest. Weak empathizing was related to autism’s social difficulties, while systemizing was linked to non-social aspects of autism. Conclusions: The present results support the main tenets of empathizing-systemizing theory, but suggest that earlier findings might be inflated due to overlapping items in the most common assessment instruments (AU)


Antecedentes/objetivo: La Teoría de la Empatía-Sistematización (E-S) sugiere que la baja empatía y la alta sistematización se relacionan con rasgos autistas en la población general. La evidencia científica en sujetos autistas es consistente, pero es necesaria investigación en población normativa. Método: Se realizaron dos investigaciones basadas en encuesta (N = 3.345) sobre la asociación entre empatía, sistematización y rasgos subclínicos autistas en población general haciendo uso de gran variedad de mediciones auto-informadas y pruebas de rendimiento. Resultados: Se hallaron fuertes relaciones consistentes con la teoría E-S entre rasgos autistas, empatía y sistematización de uso común, medidas con índices de uso común (Coeficiente del Espectro Autista, Coeficiente de Empatía y Coeficiente de Sistematización). En otros indicadores de empatía y sistematización se encontraron relaciones en concordancia con la teoría E-S, pero las correlaciones fueron mucho más modestas. Se obtuvo una relación entre baja empatía y las dificultades sociales propias del autismo, mientras que la sistematización se relacionó con aquellos aspectos no sociales del autismo. Conclusiones: Este trabajo corrobora los principios esenciales de la Teoría de la Empatía-Sistematización, pero sugiere a su vez que resultados previos pudieran estar sesgados debido al solapamiento de ítems en los instrumentos de medición más comúnmente usados (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Personalidade/fisiologia
20.
Span. j. psychol ; 21: e15.1-e15.9, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189100

RESUMO

This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Dispositional Hope Scale (DHS) for the Brazilian sport context. The sample for construct validity consisted of 474 athletes; internal validity was assessed with 101 athletes; and external validity was tested in 81 athletes, from which, were 55 had further participated in the temporal stability assessment. Data analysis was conducted through the following tests: Cronbach's alpha, Composite Reliability (CR), Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Spearman Correlation Coefficient and intraclass correlation. Results had shown that the DHS presents satisfactory internal consistency (.79 ≤ α ≤ .83; .58 ≤ r ≤ .75). The EFA model revealed a two-factor solution to be the most adequate, while CFA confirmed such model (χ2= 59.88; p< .001; χ2/df = 3.15; CFI = .90; AGFI = .94; TLI = .90; RMSEA = .07 CI [.05, .08]). The hope dimensions were positively correlated with Self-esteem (r > .50). Temporal stability was achieved (ICC > .70). It was concluded that the DHS is a valid measure for the assessment of hope in Brazilian sports context; this instrument has potential practical applications for professionals working with Sport Psychology


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Atletas/psicologia , Esperança/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Psicometria/normas , Brasil , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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