Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 47
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Filtros aplicados

Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(99): 149-156, mayo-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185231

RESUMO

Se analiza en primer lugar, la mutua interioridad que existe en toda acción humana entre su dimensión ética y técnica y más en concreto en la práctica sanitaria. Se establece que sólo con los hábitos técnicos o éticos o aplicando unas determinadas pautas deliberativas no se puede realizar un discernimiento sobre la bondad o no de una determinada acción. Para ello, se requiere adoptar una perspectiva personal, tanto para uno mismo como cuando se enjuician acciones de otros. Para ello en segundo lugar, es imprescindible la virtud de la prudencia para captar en el contexto concreto el bien a elegir. Esta cualidad ética está muy influida por el carácter ético global de la persona como por la capacidad deliberativa y el conocimiento de los principios éticos. Con respecto a lo segundo es necesario ejercitarse siguiendo las vías habituales por las que la persona toma decisiones y considera una acción determinada como buena o mala. Por ello, no se puede pretender que con métodos técnicos de decisión los profesionales sanitarios deliberen y tomen decisiones éticas. En conclusión es necesario que la prudencia de éstos, se apoye tanto en el carácter ético personal, como en el análisis de casos éticos en consonancia con el propio modo natural de actuar de la razón humana


First, the mutual interiority that exists in every human action between its ethical and technical dimen-sion is analyzed, more specifically in relation to health practice. It is established that by means of technical or ethical habits, or applying certain deliberative guidelines, alone it is not possible to discern between the goodness or not of a certain action. For this to be possible, it is necessary to adopt a personal perspective, both as regards oneself and when judging the actions of others. Secondly, then, the virtue of prudence is essential to choose the most best path in a specific context. This ethical habit is greatly influenced by the overall ethical character of the person and by their deliberative capacity and knowledge of ethical principles. With regard to the second, it is necessary to follow the usual ways by which the person makes decisions and considers a certain action as good or bad. Therefore, it cannot be pretend using technical decision-making methods health professionals will deliberate and make ethical decisions. In conclusion, it is necessary that the prudence of professionals be based both on the personal ethical character and on an analysis of ethical cases in consonance with the natural way in which human reason acts


Assuntos
Humanos , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Desenvolvimento Moral , Melhoramento Biomédico/ética , Justiça Social , Obrigações Morais , Moral , Estágio Clínico/ética
2.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(98): 43-53, ene.-abr. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180694

RESUMO

La actitud que se adopte sobre la licitud de la eutanasia depende de la posición que se mantenga acerca del valor y la dignidad de la vida humana terminal. Los debates morales en nuestro tiempo adolecen de una anomalía derivada de la falta de posiciones básicas compartidas por los que intervienen en ellos. Sin embargo, no es imposible, aunque sí difícil, mantenerlos. Sobre la dignidad de la vida humana disputan, al menos, dos actitudes. Para una, la dignidad de la vida depende del mantenimiento de alguna cualidad decisiva, como la autonomía, la autodeterminación o la ausencia de sufrimientos intensos. Para otra, la dignidad, inherente a la persona desde su nacimiento hasta su muerte, no depende de ninguna cualidad o propiedad. Para ella, el sufrimiento no constituye una negación de la dignidad de la vida. Esta última resulta filosóficamente más correcta. En cualquier caso, no debe dejarse de lado la distinción entre la moral y el derecho


The attitude we adopt towards the lawfulness of euthanasia depends on our position on the value and dignity of the life of the terminal ill patient. Contemporary moral debates lacks of a shared basic position, but it is not impossible to discuss. On human dignity there are two attitudes. For one of them, dignity depends on maintaining of one decisive quality, as autonomy, autodetermination or lack of intense suffering. For the other conception of dignity, it does not depend on any attribute of human life. Sufferance is not a refutation of dignity. This second idea of dignity is more correct in philosophical terms. Anyway, the difference between law and moral must be taken into account


Assuntos
Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/ética , Eutanásia/ética , Pessoalidade , Coragem/ética , Moral , Princípios Morais
3.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(98): 67-76, ene.-abr. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180696

RESUMO

Este artículo presenta un caso poco habitual de ruptura uterina durante la 19ª semana de gestación en el lugar de la cicatriz de una cesárea realizada dos años antes. El feto estaba todavía vivo, pero murió pocos minutos después debido a su inmadurez. Se consiguió preservar el útero, aconsejando vivamente a la mujer el no volver a quedar embarazada, y sugiriendo realizar la ligadura de trompas. En estas páginas se examina la literatura sobre la ruptura uterina, en concreto, la que se produce tras una intervención cesárea, valorando la posibilidad de calcular el riesgo de ruptura a través del estudio ecográfico. A continuación se ofrece el análisis moral del caso desde la perspectiva de la moral católica, preguntándose concretamente por la licitud de la histerectomía en ciertas condiciones. Se recuerda la ilicitud de toda esterilización directa, o sea, de aquellas intervenciones que se proponen impedir la procreación. Al mismo tiempo se explica que algunas operaciones en este ámbito pueden no configurarse como esterilización directa, cuando se llegue a la certeza moral de que el útero, por las condiciones en las que se encuentra, no será capaz de desarrollar un embarazo hasta la viabilidad del feto. En estos casos la intervención no puede decirse antiprocreativa porque el sistema reproductivo de la mujer es incapaz de cumplir su función natural


The article presents a rare case of uterine rupture at the 19th week of gestation, in the presence of a scar after a caesarean section practiced two years earlier. The fetus was pulled out alive, but given the gestational age, died within a few minutes. The uterus was preserved, but the woman was advised to proceed with tubal ligation and, in any case, to absolutely avoid a new pregnancy. The literature on uterine rupture is examined focusing on the problem of uterine rupture resulting after a caesarean section, analyzing the possibility of monitoring the risk of rupture through ultrasound evaluation. Finally, the article conducts a moral analysis of the case in the light of personal bioethics, questioning in particular the acceptability of a hysterectomy under certain conditions. The illegitimacy of direct sterilization is reaffirmed, that is to say, an intervention whose purpose is the impediment of procreation, but it is emphasized that direct sterilization cannot occur when it comes to the moral certainty that that uterus, because of its conditions , cannot carry on a pregnancy until the viability of the fetus. In fact, an intervention that affects a uterus that is objectively incapable of carrying out its natural function cannot be qualified as anti-procreative


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Ruptura Uterina/diagnóstico , Ruptura Uterina/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Histerectomia/ética , Cesárea/ética , Cicatriz/epidemiologia , Moral , Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 28(1): 89-96, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181045

RESUMO

La vorágine de actividades extraescolares como el fútbol entre los escolares ha implicado nuevas maneras de capitalizar los aprendizajes que se promueven, con implicaciones sobre su autoestima. Este estudio tiene por objetivo comprender las implicaciones que tiene para el joven deportista su participación en este escenario, en el que asume un rol específico en el microsistema del equipo, sobre la construcción de su identidad. Se aplica un diseño de estudio de caso, modalidad etnográfica, a través de la observación participante de 10 equipos de fútbol prebenjamín durante un curso escolar y entrevistas semiestructuradas con sus maestros. El análisis de los datos cualitativos evidencia que el rol que los jugadores asumen incipientemente en sus equipos de fútbol se orienta hacia el rendimiento y tiene implicaciones en su autoestima. Las expectativas del entorno adulto afectan al modo en el que se evalúa el éxito personal de cada jugador según su rol. Se discute sobre la pertinencia de repensar el modo en el que se ofrecen las prácticas formativo-deportivas en el deporte escolar a fin de que las expectativas converjan con el potencial particular de cada niño. La sensibilización adulta es indispensable


The increase in extracurricular activities such as football among schoolchildren has involved new ways of capitalizing on the learning that is promoted, with implications for their self-esteem. The purpose of this study is to understand the implications for the young sportsman his participation in this framework, in which he assumes a specific role in the microsystem of the team, on the construction of their identity. An ethnographic case study design is applied through participant observation of 10 under’7 football teams during a school year and semi-structured interviews with their teachers. The analysis of qualitative data shows that the role that players assume incipiently in their teams is oriented toward performance and it has implications on their self-esteem. The expectations of the adult environment affect the way in which the personal success of each player is assessed according to their role. It is discussed the relevance of rethinking the way in which sports-training practices are offered in school sports so that expectations converge with the particular potential of each child. Adult sensitization is indispensable


O aumento de atividades extracurriculares como o futebol entre os escolares implica novas formas de capitalizar o aprendizado promovido, com implicações em sua autoestima. O objetivo deste estudo é compreender as implicações para os jovens atletas de sua participação neste cenário, em que assumem um papel especí"co no microssistema da equipe, na construção de sua identidade. Um desenho de estudo de caso, modalidade etnográ"ca, é aplicado através da observação participante de 10 equipes de futebol prebenjamín durante um ano letivo e entrevistas semiestruturadas com seus professores. A análise dos dados qualitativos mostra que o papel que os jogadores assumem incipientemente em suas equipes de futebol é orientado para o desempenho e tem implicações para sua autoestima. As expectativas do ambiente adulto afetam a avaliação do sucesso pessoal de cada jogador, de acordo com o seu papel. Propõe-se repensar a maneira pela qual as práticas de treinamento-esporte são oferecidas nos esportes escolares, de modo que as expectativas convergem com o potencial particular de cada criança. A conscientização de adultos é esencial


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo , Futebol/psicologia , Ego , Autoimagem , 25783 , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Análise de Dados , Moral , Hierarquia Social
5.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 30(3): 289-294, ago. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-175897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moral reasoning and its association with various types of behavior have been the subject of many studies in Psychology. Specifically, moral reasoning has been widely related to juvenile delinquency in the research about the subject. OBJECTIVES: this review integrates more than 70 years of scientific research into the differences in moral reasoning between adolescent offenders and non-offenders with a view to elucidating the relationship between moral reasoning and juvenile delinquency with provision for the potential moderating effect of demographic and methodological variables. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analytic review whose target population was young offenders between 11 and 20 years old. RESULTS: A search for literature on the target topic retrieved a total of 72 studies with a moderated effect size (r = -.336). The most salient finding was that effect sizes were significant for all subgroups of moderating variables. CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests a powerful relationship between moral reasoning and officially recorded juvenile delinquency that cannot be exclusively ascribed to sociodemographic or methodological variables. There remain some unsolved challenges in this field, however, which are briefly commented on


ANTECEDENTES: el estudio de la asociación entre razonamiento moral y diversos comportamientos ha ocupado numerosos estudios en Psicología. Específicamente, el razonamiento moral ha sido ampliamente relacionado con la delincuencia juvenil a lo largo de dichas investigaciones. OBJETIVOS: este estudio pretende integrar más de 70 años de producción científica acerca de la búsqueda de sus iguales no infractores en razonamiento moral entre menores infractores y teniendo en cuenta el posible poder moderador tanto de variables demográficas como metodológicas. MÉTODO: se lleva a cabo una revisión meta-analítica cuya población objetivo fue menores infractores entre 11 y 20 años. RESULTADOS: se obtuvo una muestra de 72 estudios, obteniendo un tamaño de efecto moderado de r= -.336. Se observa que los tamaños de efecto para los subgrupos que conforman las variables moderadoras son significativos. CONCLUSIÓN: este resultado sugiere que la relación entre razonamiento moral y delincuencia juvenil es potente y no solo atribuible a características metodológicas o sociodemográficas de la muestra. Se finaliza con una reflexión sobre algunos retos pendientes en este campo


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Moral
6.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 30(3): 330-336, ago. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-175902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme political attitudes have been on the rise since the economic and political crisis of 2008. This surge of extremism constitutes a real threat, as attitudes like these are dangerous for the peaceful, democratic functioning of society. A new cognitive style, Monopoly on Truth has been proposed, based mainly on the concept of naïve realism. METHOD: The development and validation of a scale for this new construct is the main objective of this study. A pilot study (N=209) was performed in order to gather the items that make up the final scale; and a main study (N=369) was conducted to test the validity and predictive power of the scale. RESULTS: The validation is successful as the scale shows good reliability scores, while also proving to be linked to extremism-related constructs. Additionally, the scale shows signs of not being ideologically biased. CONCLUSION: Results show the scale to be a very useful tool for studying extremism and other political trends. Future directions and other implications of the Monopoly on Truth are also discussed


ANTECEDENTES: las actitudes políticas extremas han experimentado un crecimiento constante desde la crisis político-económica de 2008. Esta oleada de extremismo constituye una amenaza real, debido el peligro que supone para el funcionamiento pacífico y democrático de la sociedad. Se propone un nuevo estilo cognitivo, el Monopolio de la Verdad, basado principalmente en el concepto de realismo ingenuo. MÉTODO: el desarrollo y validación de una escala para este nuevo constructo es el objetivo principal del presente trabajo, para ello se llevó a cabo un estudio piloto (N=209) con la finalidad de desarrollar la escala, así como un estudio principal (N=369) cuyo propósito fue la validación de la misma. RESULTADOS: el proceso de construcción y validación fue satisfactorio ya que la escala muestra una buena fiabilidad y está vinculada con constructos relacionados con extremismo. Adicionalmente, la escala no muestra sesgos ideológicos. CONCLUSIONES: la Escala de Monopolio de la Verdad es una herramienta de gran interés para el estudio del extremismo y otras tendencias políticas. Se discuten también direcciones futuras y otras implicaciones del Monopolio de la Verdad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Moral , Atitude , Política , Projetos Piloto , Autorrelato
7.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 18(70): 341-359, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180078

RESUMO

La violencia en el fútbol es un grave problema social. Algunas de sus manifestaciones están relacionadas con el espectáculo deportivo y su tratamiento en los medios de comunicación. La finalidad de este estudio ha sido analizar las propiedades psicométricas de dos escalas en español que miden la meta-percepción de orientación de meta y el funcionamiento moral en espectadores de fútbol. Los participantes fueron estudiantes universitarios (N = 616) que completaron cuestionarios valorando el tiempo dedicado al consumo de programas deportivos sobre fútbol, la meta-percepción de orientación de meta y el funcionamiento moral. Las escalas definitivas mostraron una adecuada validez de constructo, validez convergente y validez concurrente. Estos resultados indican que las nuevas escalas poseen adecuadas propiedades psicométricas, lo que permite una evaluación válida y fiable que mejore el entendimiento de los procesos que operan en los espectadores de deportes como el fútbol


Soccer violence is a serious social problem. Some of its manifestations are related to competitive sport and its treatment by the mass media. The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of two Spanish scales which measure the metaperception of goal orientation and moral functioning in soccer spectators. Participants (N = 616) reported the time spent viewing soccer sport programming, and rated metaperception of goal orientation and moral functioning. The scales exhibited adequate construct, convergent and concurrent validity. These results indicate that the new scales have adequate psychometric properties, allowing a valid and reliable assessment in order to explain the processes that take place in sport spectators like soccer viewers


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Objetivos , Futebol/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Moral , Violência/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Princípios Morais , Meios de Comunicação , Estudantes/psicologia , Análise de Dados , Análise Fatorial
8.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 27(supl.1): 83-88, 2018.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-172357

RESUMO

O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi analisar a percepção moral dos atletas adolescentes de futebol em territórios concretos e virtuais. Pesquisa qualitativa elaborada com dados coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas pelo Facebook envolvendo 14 atletas homens, com idades entre 16 e 18 anos (±17,35), praticantes de futebol em campeonatos oficiais. Depois de tratados pela Análise Temática e de Discurso, os dados indicaram a configuração de um homem modular para três territórios distintos: ambientes cotidiano, esportivo e virtual, que deixam marcas na percepção moral do atleta jovem. Os atletas acreditam estar imunes a valores morais permanentes ao se deslocarem pelas fendas interterritoriais. Suas ações assumem características de um jogo moral relativo, transitório e desvinculado de parâmetros históricos concretos, o que impossibilita perceber a relação intrínseca entre a dimensão prática e a dimensão moral. Verificou-se a composição de um homem/atleta, etiquetado para cada ambiente em que atua; tridimensional e de moral transitória (AU)


El principal objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la percepción moral de los atletas adolescentes de fútbol en territorios concretos y virtuales. Fue una investigación cualitativa con datos recolectados a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas en la red social Facebook, con la participación de 14 atletas hombres de 16 a 18 años (±17,35) practicantes del fútbol en campeonatos oficiales. Tratados por las Análisis Temático y del Discurso los resultados indicaron la configuración de un hombre modular para tres áreas distintas: el cotidiano, los deportes y los ambientes virtuales, que dejan marcas en la percepción moral del joven atleta. Los atletas creen que son inmunes a los valores morales permanentes desplazando por las fisuras interterritoriales. Sus acciones suponen características de un juego moral relativo, transitorio y desconectado de los parámetros históricos concretos que impide la percepción de la relación intrínseca que hay entre la dimensión práctica y la dimensión moral. Se descubrió el desarrollo de un hombre/atleta calificado para cada entorno en que actúa, impreso tridimensional y com moral transitória (AU)


The aim of this research was to analyze the moral perception of adolescent soccer athletes in virtual and concrete territories. In this qualitative study the data was collected through semi-structured interviews on Facebook, with 14 male athletes, aged between 16 to 18 years (± 17.35) who played soccer in official tournaments. After being treated by the Thematic and Discourse Analysis, the data indicated the configuration of a modular man for three different territories: everyday, sporty and virtual environments which leave marks on the moral perception of the young athlete. Athletes believe they are immune from permanent moral values as they move through inter-territorial gaps. Their actions assume the characteristics of a relative moral game, transitory and disconnected from concrete historical parameters, which makes it impossible to realize the intrinsic relationship between the practical dimension and the moral dimension. This research showed the composition of a man / athlete, labeled for each environment that he acts in, a young man shaped in three-dimensional and transient moral (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Futebol/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Moral , Esportes/psicologia , Tecnologia/métodos , Computadores/tendências , 25783/métodos , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos
9.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 40(2): 279-290, mayo-ago. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-165877

RESUMO

Fundamento. La información al paciente víctima de un evento adverso (EA) presenta ciertas particularidades en función del marco legal del país en el que se produzca, especialmente en lo referido al ofrecimiento de una disculpa. En el presente trabajo se pretende establecer los límites y las condiciones que debemos considerar a la hora de trasladar una disculpa al paciente que ha sufrido un EA. Método. Conferencia de consenso entre 26 profesionales de distintas comunidades autónomas, instituciones y perfiles profesionales con experiencia acreditada en la gestión de sistemas de Seguridad del Paciente y Derecho Penal de diferentes ámbitos laborales (sanidad, aseguradoras, inspección, académico) (AU)


Background. Disclosing information to a patient who is a victim of an adverse event (AE) presents some particularities depending on the legal framework in the country where the AE occurred. The aim of this study is to identify the limits and conditions when apologizing to a patient who has suffered an AE. Methods. A consensus conference involving 26 professionals from different autonomous communities, institutions, and profiles (health, insurance, inspection, academic) with accredited experience in patient safety management systems and criminal law (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Ética Profissional , Medicina Defensiva/métodos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Gestão de Riscos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Moral , Perdão , Revelação , Interações Medicamentosas , Responsabilidade Social
10.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-163673

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyse the cognitive processes (prosocial moral reasoning, perspective taking) and emotional processes (empathic concern, emotional instability, state-trait anger) which interact in predicting aggressive behaviour and prosocial behaviour of adolescents who have committed a crime and those who have not, for the purpose of establishing the predictor variables in both groups. Participants were 440 adolescents, 220 of them young offenders residing in four youth detention centres in Valencia, in which they were serving court sentences (67.3% men and 32.7% women). The other 220 were enrolled in public and private schools within the metropolitan area of Valencia (65.9% men and 34.1% women). The two subsamples were equated in age (15-18 years) and sex, controlling the representation of social classes. Prosocial moral reasoning, empathy, emotional instability, state-trait anger, prosocial behaviour, and physical and verbal aggression were assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses show the differential weight of positive emotions (empathic concern) and negative emotions (emotional instability and anger) in relation to prosocial moral reasoning in predicting aggressive behaviour in adolescents, especially offenders. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and re-education oriented to social reinsertion of young offenders (AU)


El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar los procesos cognitivos (razonamiento moral prosocial, toma de perspectiva) y los procesos emocionales (preocupación empática, inestabilidad emocional, ira estado-rasgo) que interactúan en la predicción de la conducta agresiva y de la conducta prosocial de los adolescentes que han delinquido y los que no, con la finalidad de establecer las variables predictoras en ambos grupos. La muestra constaba de 440 adolescentes, 220 de los cuales eran adolescentes infractores internos en cuatro centros de menores de la Comunidad Valenciana, en los que estaban cumpliendo medidas judiciales (67.3% varones y 32.7% mujeres) y los 220 restantes estaban escolarizados en centros públicos y concertados dentro del área metropolitana de Valencia (65.9% varones y 34.1% mujeres). Se equipararon las dos submuestras en edad (15-18 años) y sexo, controlando la representación de las clases sociales. Se evaluó el razonamiento moral prosocial, la empatía, la inestabilidad emocional, la ira estado-rasgo, la conducta prosocial y la agresividad física y verbal. Los análisis de regresión jerárquica realizados muestran el peso diferencial de las emociones positivas (preocupación empática) y negativas (inestabilidad emocional e ira) en relación con el razonamiento moral prosocial en la predicción de la conducta agresiva de los adolescentes, especialmente los infractores. Se comentan los resultados en cuanto a sus implicaciones para la prevención y la reeducación orientada a la reinserción social de los jóvenes infractores (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Emoções Manifestas/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão , Apoio Social , Ajustamento Social , Problemas Sociais/legislação & jurisprudência , Problemas Sociais/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia do Adolescente/legislação & jurisprudência , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Moral , Classe Social , Análise de Regressão , Análise de Variância
11.
Span. j. psychol ; 20: e45.1-e45.7, 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167143

RESUMO

Most studies have assessed the psychometric properties of the Gratitude Questionnaire - Six-Item Form (GQ-6) in the Western contexts while very few research has been generated to explore the applicability of this scale in non-Western settings. To address this gap, the aim of the study was to examine the factorial validity and gender invariance of the Gratitude Questionnaire in the Philippines through a construct validation approach. There were 383 Filipino high school students who participated in the research. In terms of within-network construct validity, results of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the five-item version of the questionnaire (GQ-5) had better fit compared to the original six-item version of the gratitude questionnaire. The scores from the GQ-5 also exhibited invariance across gender. Betweennetwork construct validation showed that gratitude was associated with higher levels of academic achievement (β = .46, p <.001), autonomous motivation (β = .73, p <.001), and controlled motivation (β = .28, p <.01). Conversely, gratitude was linked to lower degree of amotivation (β = -.51, p <.001). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Motivação/fisiologia , Saúde da Família/normas , Logro , Moral , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Análise de Dados/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia
12.
Asclepio ; 68(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-158654

RESUMO

La Sociedad Mexicana de Profilaxis Sanitaria y Moral fue fundada en 1908 con el propósito de luchar contra las enfermedades venéreas. A diferencia de iniciativas anteriores de prevención que se centraban en el control sanitario de la prostitución, la Sociedad promovió la creación de dispensarios para la atención médica de los enfermos, así como la difusión de conocimientos por medio de conferencias y de propaganda impresa. Este artículo analiza las ideas que dieron lugar a la fundación de la Sociedad, los principales mensajes que buscaba difundir, los obstáculos y las críticas que enfrentó, y las causas que la llevaron a su disolución en 1923. El artículo muestra que la ciencia y la moral fueron dos elementos centrales que la Sociedad buscó promover, pues sus integrantes asumieron que las enfermedades venéreas eran un problema sanitario y moral, que debía prevenirse con el control de la voluntad y las pasiones, y llegado el caso, tratarse con la ayuda de médicos calificados (AU)


The Mexican Society for Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis was founded in 1908 for the purpose of fighting against venereal diseases. Unlike previous prevention initiatives that focused on sanitary control of prostitution, the Society promoted the creation of dispensaries for medical care for the sick, and the dissemination of knowledge through lectures and printed propaganda. This article analyzes the ideas that led to the founding of the Society, the main messages which it sought to spread, obstacles and criticism it faced, and the causes that led to its dissolution in 1923. The article shows that science and morality were two core elements that the Society sought to promote, since its members assumed that venereal diseases concerned to public health and morals, and that they could be prevented by the control of the will and passions, and if necessary, treated with the help of qualified physicians (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/história , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia/história , Trabalho Sexual/história , Trabalho Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , México/epidemiologia , Moral , Princípios Morais , Sociedades Médicas/história
14.
Span. j. psychol ; 18: e61.1-e61.9, 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-139725

RESUMO

An increasing body of research has investigated the effect of emotions on judgments concerning moral transgressions. Yet, few studies have controlled for arousal levels associated with the emotions. High arousal may affect moral processing by triggering attention to salient features of transgressions, independently of valence. Therefore previously documented differences in effects of negative and positive emotions may have been confounded by differences in arousal. We conducted two studies to shed light on this issue. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire including vignettes selected on the basis of psychometrical properties (i.e., mean ratings of the actions and variability). This questionnaire was administered to participants in Study 2, after presenting them with selected pictures inducing different valence but equivalent levels of arousal. Negative pictures led to more severe moral judgments than neutral (p = .054, d = 0.60) and positive pictures (p = .002, d = 1.02), for vignettes that were not associated with extreme judgments. In contrast, positive pictures did not reliably affect judgments concerning such vignettes. These findings suggest that the observed effects of emotions cannot be accounted for by an increase in attention linked to the arousal which accompanies these emotions (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Emoções Manifestas , Moral , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Estudantes/psicologia , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância
15.
Span. j. psychol ; 17: e52.1-e52.11, ene.-dic. 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-130464

RESUMO

The study’s aim was to analyze if some specific types of action generate higher levels of moral pride. Three variables were analyzed: whether the actions involved going against the group majority, whether they involved a personal cost of a different kind and whether they were the result of a prior intention. Participants were 160 adolescents aged between 14 and 16. Sixteen scenarios were designed (two for each combination of the three variables) in which someone needed help. Half of the participants were presented with 8 of these scenarios, and half with the other 8. In each scenario, participants were asked to state what they would feel and do and how much pride they would feel if they helped. Curiously enough, both prosocial behaviors which involved going against the majority, F(1, 140) = 60.36, p = .001, η2 = .301 and those which involved a personal cost of a different kind, F(1, 140) = 10.17, p = .002, η2 = .068 generated less moral pride (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Moral , Princípios Morais , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Psicologia do Adolescente/tendências , Emoções/fisiologia , Consciência , Saúde do Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 569-583, 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127971

RESUMO

The present study contributes to the unification of two major theories of moral judgment: Kohlberg ́s stage theory and Anderson ́s theory of information integration. The subjects were told about the thoughts of a burglar stealing something out of a car. These thoughts represented Kohlberg ́s stage 3 and had three levels. In addition, stage 1 was represented by thoughts about the Personal Risk of being caught, and stage 4 by thoughts about the Societal Risk when everyone would do so. The thoughts were presented singly and in combinations (Friends ́ Opinions x Personal Risk and Friends ́ Opinions x Societal Risk). The subjects judged how many hours of social work the actor deserves as punishment. The data supported the averaging model of information integration theory, whereas Kohlberg's theory has no way to handle the integration problem. Results in contrast to expectations from stage theory were, (1) the effect size of the stage 3 informer was very small compared with the large effects of the stage 1 and of the stage 4 informers the latter being larger than the former, (2) Personal and Societal Risk correlated positively not expected by Kohlberg ́s stage theory (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Julgamento , Moral , Psicologia Experimental/métodos
17.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 585-600, 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127972

RESUMO

The present study examined the cognitive processes by which persons who are differently involved in the practice of sport judge the extent to which an aggressive act performed by a player during a match in handball could be condoned. Thirty professional handball players, 35 amateur handball players, and 48 non-sporting individuals indicated this "condonability" in 48 scenarios. The scenarios were all combinations of 5 factors: (a) the consequences of the aggression (the victim is injured and must leave the game or the victim is not injured), (b) the current score (the team is winning or the team is losing), (c) the time left to play (very little time or quite some time), (d) the context of the aggression (the aggressor has been the victim of a previous act of aggression or not), (e) the relative importance of the game (friendly match or competitive match or European match). For 62% of the participants, violently pushing an opponent was considered as practically never condonable. For 38% of the participants, this behaviour was sometimes condonable. Professional handball players (60%), more frequently than lay people (27%) or amateurs (34%), supported the view that pushing an opponent can sometimes be condonable. Different positions on moral judgment were observed according to the involvement in the practice of sport (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esportes/psicologia , Cognição , Violência/psicologia , Julgamento , Desenvolvimento Moral , Ética , Moral , Psicologia Experimental/métodos
18.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 693-702, 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127979

RESUMO

The present study tested whether a technique that has already been implemented in studies on empirical bioethics was feasible in the context of surrogacy. It was motivated by the fact that legislation regarding surrogacy is very disparate from one country to another, and public opinion regarding the conditions of its acceptability is largely unknown. Participants (N= 79) were presented with a number of scenarios depicting the circumstances in which a couple of commissioners have contracted a surrogate mother, and they were asked to indicate the extent to which such a contract may pose a moral problem. The scenarios were created by varying four factors: the type of surrogacy (traditional vs. gestational), the surrogate mother’s level of autonomy, the family context in which the surrogate mother lives, and whether surrogacy was of the commercial or the altruistic kind. Overall, participants have not considered surrogacy as a generally acceptable procedure. In their views, this procedure is, at best,controversial, and, in most cases, poses a big moral problem; in particular, each time the surrogate mother lacks autonomy, and/or her husband disagrees with the procedure (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Mães Substitutas , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Opinião Pública , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Moral , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , França/epidemiologia
19.
Apuntes psicol ; 32(1): 15-23, 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-142195

RESUMO

En este estudio se evalúan las emociones morales de culpa, pena y empatía, así como la desconexión moral y la autoeficacia social con el propósito de determinar la relación de tales variables con el tipo de rol que asumen los alumnos en el acoso escolar: 1) pro-bullying: iniciar, mantener y reforzar el maltrato, 2) defensor, intervenir a favor de la víctima y, 3) espectador, mantenerse al margen del acoso escolar. El estudio se realizó en dos secundarias públicas de la Ciudad de México, con 450 alumnos de 2o grado (48% chicos) de 12 a 14 años. Se identificaron, a través del procedimiento de nominación de pares, a 109 alumnos en el rol de pro-bullying, 70 espectadores y 46 defensores. Los alumnos clasificados en el rol de pro-bullying obtuvieron puntajes bajos en culpa, pena y empatía, así como un puntaje alto en desconexión moral, en comparación con los defensores y espectadores. Los defensores obtuvieron un mayor puntaje en empatía y autoeficacia social que los espectadores. Los varones desempeñaron un papel más activo en el maltrato entre iguales al ser nominados con mayor frecuencia en el rol de pro-bullying, mientras que las chicas fueron nominadas como típicamente como espectadoras y defensoras


The objective of this study was to evaluate the moral emotions of guilt, shame and empathy, moral disengagement and social self-efficacy in order to determine the relationship of these variables with the type of role that students assume in bullying situations: 1) Pro-bullying, initiate, maintain and reinforce the abuse, 2) Defender, intervene on behalf of the victim and, 3) Bystander, stay out of bullying. The research was conducted with a sample of 450 students (48% males) of grade 8th, aged between 12-14 years, who attended two public high schools located in urban zone in Mexico City. The results allowed us to identify, through a peer nomination procedure, 109 students who played the role of Pro-bullying, 70 bystanders and 46 defenders. Students classified in the role of Pro-bullying scored low in guilt, shame and empathy and high on moral disengagement, compared to the defenders and bystanders. Students classified as defenders scored higher on empathy and social self-efficacy than bystanders, who had lower scores on moral disengagement. Men played an active role in abusive situations to be nominated by their peers primarily in the role of Pro-bullying, compared with women who were nominated most frequently as bystanders and defenders


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bullying/classificação , Bullying/psicologia , Moral , Relações Interpessoais , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente
20.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 25(2): 222-226, abr.-jun. 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-112233

RESUMO

Background: Disgust is, at its core, an emotion that responds to cues of parasites and infection, likely to be evolved to protect human organism from the risk of disease. Interestingly, a growing body of research implicates disgust as an emotion central to human morality. The fact that disgust is associated with appraisals of moral transgressions and that this emotion influences moral judgments implies a remarkable puzzle: Why does an emotion that originally functions in the domain of infectious entities become such a good candidate to play the role of a moral arbiter? The aim of the present review is to clarify the nature of the relationship between disgust and morality. Method: First, we examine the relevant features of disgust in order to explore whether the phenomenology of disgust favors its implementation as a defensive mechanism against offensive social entities. Second, we critically review the most striking findings about the effects of disgust on moral judgments. Results: The revisited analysis of the literature strongly suggests a bidirectional causal link between disgust and moral cognition. Conclusions: We propose that the particular phenomenology of disgust (which involves a sense of offensiveness and rejection) favored the co-adaptation of this emotion to the moral domain (AU)


Antecedentes: la repugnancia es, en esencia, una emoción que surge ante la percepción de objetos potencialmente infecciosos, un mecanismo desarrollado para la protección física del organismo. Por otra parte, resulta interesante que diversos estudios sugieran que la repugnancia desempeña un rol fundamental en la moralidad humana. Así, el hecho que esta emoción se asocie a la valoración de transgresiones morales y que, eventualmente, pueda influir sobre los juicios morales resulta intrigante: ¿por qué una emoción relacionada con la protección del organismo contra agentes infecciosos ha extendido su dominio al ámbito moral? Método: en primer lugar, examinamos las características fundamentales de la repugnancia con el objetivo de analizar si su fenomenología intrínseca pudo favorecer el hecho que deviniera un mecanismo de defensa contra los agentes que resultan socialmente ofensivos. En segunda instancia, revisamos los hallazgos más relevantes en la investigación sobre la influencia de la repugnancia en los juicios morales. Resultados: el análisis crítico de la literatura sugiere la existencia de un vínculo causal bidireccional entre la repugnancia y la cognición moral. Conclusiones: sugerimos que la particular fenomenología de la repugnancia (que implica un sentimiento de ofensa y de rechazo) facilitó la co-adaptación de esta emoción al dominio moral (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Moral , Princípios Morais , Julgamento Moral Retrospectivo , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Rejeição em Psicologia , Comportamento Social
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA