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1.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 28(1): 25-32, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181038

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the classiffication system in sitting volleyball (SV) based on athletes' opinions on different competitive level. During World Sitting Volleyball Championships in 2014, 187 participants and 35 players in Polish and Lithuanian SV leagues participated in this study. They completed the survey regarding the current classiffication system in SV. The classiffication procedure was assessed as positive by 74% of elite athletes and 94.1% league athletes. Elite athletes see a need to include functional procedures, and in contrast to league athletes, they assessed the current classification system positively. Many of the players see a need to change the current classiffication system from medical to functional or mixed procedures. League athletes in contrast to elite athletes agree to include able-bodied people to compete on the court with people with physical impairments


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el sistema de clasificación en voleibol sentado (SV) en función de las opiniones de los atletas en diferentes niveles competitivos. Durante el Campeonato Mundial de Voleibol Sentado en 2014, 187 participantes y 35 jugadores de las ligas SV polacas y lituanas participaron en este estudio. Completaron la encuesta sobre el sistema de clasificación actual en SV. El procedimiento de clasificación fue evaluado como positivo por el 74% de los atletas de elite y el 94.1% de los atletas de liga. Los atletas de elite ven la necesidad de incluir procedimientos funcionales, y en contraste con los atletas de la liga, evaluaron positivamente el sistema de clasificación actual. Muchos de los jugadores ven la necesidad de cambiar el sistema de clasificación actual de procedimientos médicos a procedimientos funcionales o mixtos. Los atletas de la liga, en contraste con los atletas de elite, aceptan incluir personas sanas para competir en la cancha con personas con discapacidades físicas


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o sistema de classificação em voleibol sentado (SV) baseado na opinião de atletas em diferentes níveis competitivos. Durante o Campeonato do Mundo de Voleibol em 2014, participaram neste estudo 187 participantes e 35 jogadores nas ligas da Polónia e da Lituânia. Eles completaram a pesquisa sobre o sistema de classificação atual em SV. O procedimento de classificação foi avaliado como positivo por 74% dos atletas de elite e 94,1% dos atletas da liga. Os atletas de elite veem a necessidade de incluir procedimentos funcionais e, em contraste com os atletas da liga, avaliaram positivamente o sistema de classificação atual. Muitos dos jogadores vêem a necessidade de mudar o sistema de classificação atual de procedimentos médicos para procedimentos funcionais ou mistos. Atletas da liga, em contraste com atletas de elite, concordam em incluir pessoas fisicamente capazes para competir na quadra com pessoas com deficiências físicas


Assuntos
Humanos , Negociação/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Esportes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Julgamento
2.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 28(1): 81-88, 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181044

RESUMO

Este estudio de casos analizó la influencia de tener experiencias corporales previas (a nivel visual, motriz y de enseñanza) en danza clásica sobre las estrategias de búsqueda visual y de juicio perceptivo. Tres participantes de danza clásica, con diferentes experiencias visuales, motrices, y de enseñanza (i.e., participante experto, participante intermedio, participante novel) percibieron nueve secuencias video-proyectadas de ballet en laboratorio. Se registró el comportamiento visual con un sistema de registro ocular (SMI EYE TRACKING GLASSES 2 WIRELESS). Tras cada ensayo, los participantes emitían un juicio sobre la calidad con que la bailarina había realizado la secuencia de movimientos. La puntuación se realizó con la planilla de observación validada en danza (Score Sheet for Performance Competence Evaluation in Dance), y posteriormente comparada con la realizada por un profesor experto de danza. Los resultados mostraron un patrón perceptivo diferenciado entre participantes, con diferencias en el número y tiempo de jme paciones en la mayoría de localizaciones corporales. La participante experta mostró un juicio perceptivo similar al profesor de danza ya que no mostraron diferencias en las puntuaciones otorgadas a las ejecuciones de la bailarina. Sin embargo, tuvo una puntuación diferente a la de la participante intermedia y novel. Tampoco hubo diferencias de puntuaciones entre la participante intermedia y novel. Las experiencias corporales previas de las participantes del estudio en danza clásica influyeron en sus estrategias visuales. Especícamente, las experiencias de enseñanza parece que aportaron un valor añadido al juicio perceptivo de la participante experta ya que su juicio fue el más similar al realizado por el profesor experto de danza


This cases study addressed the inuence of previous body (visual, motor, and teaching) experiences in classic dance on visual search strategies and perceptual judgments. Three participants of classic dance, with different visual, motor, and teaching experiences (i.e., expert-, intermediate-, and novel- participant) perceived nine video-projected sequences of ballet in a laboratory setting. The visual behaviour was collected with an eye tracking system (SMI EYE TRACKING GLASSES 2 WIRELESS). After each trial, the participants made a judgment about the quality of dancer's performance. The measure of the scores was carried out with the Score Sheet for Performance Competence Evaluation in dance, and after that compared with the scores of an expert teacher of dance. The results revealed a different perceptual pattern between participants, with differences in the number and time of fixations for the most of body locations. The expert participant showed a similar perceptual judgment to the teacher of dance because they did not reported dierences in the scores marked to the dancer's performance. However, dierent scores were found between expert participant vs intermediate and novel participants. There were no dierences between the intermediate and novel participants. The previous body experiences in classic dance constrained the participants' visual behaviour. Specifically, the teaching experiences seem to sum an added value to the expert participant' judgment because it was the most similar to the expert teacher's one


Este estudo de caso analisou a influência de ter experiências corporais anteriores (visual, motor e de ensino) em dança clásica em estratégias de busca visual e julgamento perceptivo. Três participantes de dança clássica, com diferença visual, experiencia de condução, e actividades de formação (um participante especialista, participante intermediária, participante novato) recebeu nove sequências de balé projetada com vídeo no laboratório. O comportamento visual com um sistema de registo olho (SMI EYE TRACKING GLASSES 2 WIRELESS) foi registado. Após cada ensaio, os participantes tiveram de fazer um juízo sobre aqualidade com que a dançarina tinha realizado a sequência de movimentos. A pontuação foi realizada com um formulário validado de observação (Score Sheet for Performance Competence Evaluation in Dance), e depois comparados por um professor especialista dança. Os resultados mostraram um padrão de percepção distinta entre os participantes, com ciferenças no número e tempo de Exações na maioria dos locais do corpo. O participante especialista mostrou um julgamento e professora de dança semelhante que não mostrou diferença nas pontuações dadas aos execuções do dançarino. No entanto, ele teve um pontuação diferente que a participante intermediária e novato. Houve também há dezenas diferença entre o participante intermediário e novato. As diferentes experiências corporais anteriores em dança clássica condicionado estratégias visuais dos participantes do estudo. Especificamente, as experiências de ensino na dança clássica parecem ter adicionado valor ao julgamento do participante especialista, uma vez que foi o mais parecido com o realizado pelo professor de dança especialista


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Dança/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Julgamento , Dança/educação , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise Estatística
3.
Span. j. psychol ; 22: e53.1-e53.9, 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190204

RESUMO

Quantum cognition is a new field in psychology, which is characterized by the application of quantum probability theory to human judgment and decision making behavior. This article provides an introduction that presents several examples to illustrate in a simple and concrete manner how to apply these principles to interesting psychological phenomena. Following each simple example, we present the general mathematical derivations and new predictions related to these applications


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Cognição , Tomada de Decisões , Julgamento , Modelos Teóricos , Teoria da Probabilidade , Teoria Quântica
4.
Arch. med. deporte ; 35(186): 228-233, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177464

RESUMO

Los objetivos de este estudio fueron, por un lado, analizar las diferencias en la carga interna de partido (CIP) entre árbitros de campo (AC) y asistentes (AA) medida mediante diferentes métodos de cuantificación en partidos oficiales, y por otro lado, conocer si existen diferencias en la CIP utilizando distintos criterios para determinar la frecuencia cardiaca máxima (FCmax) individual (FCmax alcanzada en un test incremental o FCmax alcanzada en el partido). En este estudio participaron 41 colegiados que arbitraron 21 partidos oficiales de Liga de la Tercera División de Fútbol de España, de los cuales, 21 eran AC y 20 AA. La CIP fue determinada mediante los métodos de Edwards (Edwards'_CIP) y de Stagno (Stagno's_CIP) atendiendo a la FCmax individual alcanzada en algún momento del partido (CIPPARTIDO) y durante el test YoYo de recuperación intermitente, YYIR1 (CIPYYIR1). Los AC registraron mayores valores de Edwards_CIP y Stagno_CIP que los AA con ambos criterios de determinación de la FCmax. Además, a pesar de que se observan diferencias altas-muy altas-extremadamente altas en los métodos de cuantificación de la CIP utilizando distintos criterios para determinar la FCmax individual (FCmaxPARTIDO o FCmaxYYIR1) tanto en todos, en AC y en AA, las asociaciones fueron muy altas y casi perfectas en la CIP calculada con distintos criterios de determinación de la FCmax. Estos resultados sugieren que puede ser adecuado utilizar cualquiera de estos criterios de determinación de la FCmax para cuantificar la CIP tanto con el método Edwards'_CIP como con el método Stagno's_CIP


The aims of this present study were, on the one hand, to analyze the differences in the match internal load (CIP) between field referees (AC) and assistants (AA) measured by different methods of quantification during official matches, and on the other hand, to know whether exist differences in the CIP using different criteria to determine the individual maximum heart rate (FCmax) (FCmax achieved in the incremental test or FCmax achieved during the match). In this study participated 41 match officials who refereed during 21 official matches in a Spanish Third Divison League, of which, 21 were AC and 20 were AA. CIP was determined by Edwards method (Edwards'_CIP) and Stagno method (Stagno’s_CIP) attending to the individual FCmax obtained during the match (CIPPARTIDO) and during the YYIR1 test (CIPYYIR1). AC registered higher values of Edwards_CIP and Stagno_CIP than AA with both criteria of determination of FCmax. In addition, despite high-very high-extremely high differences were observed CIP methods using different criteria to determine the individual FCmax (FCmaxPARTIDO or FCmaxYYIR1) in all match officials, in AC and in AA, the associations were very high and almost perfect in the CIP calculated with different criteria of determination of FCmax. The results of this investigation suggest that it could be appropriate to use both determination of FCmax criteria to quantify CIP with Edwards'_CIP and Stagno's_CIP methods


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Julgamento , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia
5.
Span. j. psychol ; 21: e49.1-e49.10, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189165

RESUMO

The present experiment examined how the interaction between senders' communicative competence, veracity and the medium through which judgments were made affected observers' accuracy. Stimuli were obtained from a previous study. Observers (N = 220) judged the truthfulness of statements provided by a good truth teller, a good liar, a bad truth teller, and a bad liar presented either via an audio-only, video-only, audio-video, or transcript format. Log-linear analyses showed that the data were best explained via the saturated model, therefore indicating that all the four variables interacted, G2(0) = 0, p = 1, Q2 = 1. Follow-up analyses showed that the good liar and bad liar were best evaluated via the transcript (z = 2.5) and the audio-only medium (z = 3.9), respectively. Both the good truth teller and the bad truth teller were best assessed through the audio-video medium (z = 2.1, good truth teller, z = 3.4, bad truth teller). Results indicated that all the factors interacted and played a joint role on observers' accuracy. Difficulties and suggestions for choosing the right medium are presented


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Decepção , Julgamento/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
6.
Pap. psicol ; 38(1): 72-78, ene.-abr. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-160584

RESUMO

El papel que desempeñan los procesos implícitos en los juicios evaluativos es objeto central de la investigación en psicología cognitiva. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo profundizar en las implicaciones del concepto de automaticidad evaluativa para la cognición social, con especial énfasis en los errores en la atribución afectiva, y las teorías de la cognición corporizada. Con este fin, se recapitulan los hallazgos más relevantes en estos fenómenos y se proponen posibles líneas de aplicación fuera del laboratorio. Se concluye que los errores en la atribución afectiva se encuentran operativos en diversos aspectos de la cognición social, por lo que entender su funcionamiento puede ser de mucha utilidad para ciertos ámbitos sociales aplicados


The automatic nature of evaluative judgments and, in particular, the role of implicit processes in this type of response is a central theme in cognitive psychology. The purpose of the present review is to explore the implications of the automaticity concept in social cognition, with a special emphasis on two well-documented phenomena: affective misattribution and embodiment. With this aim, we review the most relevant findings in this area, and we propose potential lines of application outside the laboratory. We conclude that affective misattribution is operative in several domains of social cognition, which suggests that our daily life can benefit substantially from a better understanding of how our implicit mind works


Assuntos
Humanos , Julgamento , Processos Mentais , Cognição , Comportamento Social , Psicometria/métodos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Identificação Social
7.
Span. j. psychol ; 19: e57.1-e57.13, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-160272

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that social comparisons affect decision making under uncertainty. However, the role of the length of the social interaction for this relationship remains unknown. This experiment tests the effect of social comparisons on financial risk taking and how this effect is modulated by whether social encounters are sporadic or repeated. Participants carried out a computer task consisting of a series of binary choices between lotteries of varying profitability and risk, with real monetary stakes. After each decision, participants could compare their own payoff to that of a counterpart who made the same decision at the same time and whose choices/earnings did not affect the participants' earnings. The design comprised three between-subjects treatments which differed in the nature of the social interaction: participants were informed that they would be matched with either (a) a different participant in each trial, (b) the same participant across all trials, or (c) a «virtual participant», i.e., a computer algorithm. Compared to the non-social condition (c), subjects in both social conditions (a and b) chose lotteries with lower expected value (z = -3.10, p < .01) and higher outcome variance (z = 2.13, p = .03). However, no differences were found between the two social conditions (z = 1.15, p = .25 and z = 0.35, p = .73, respectively). These results indicate that social comparison information per se leads to poorer and riskier financial decisions, irrespective of whether or not the referent other is encountered repeatedly (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Competitivo , Administração Financeira/normas , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Julgamento , Relações Interpessoais
8.
Cuad. bioét ; 26(87): 267-277, mayo-ago. 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-144147

RESUMO

Como es sabido, en el ámbito de la ética biomédica, se han formulado diversas propuestas metodológicas que tratan de ofrecer una serie de pautas para la toma de decisiones. Estas metodologías son útiles, en la medida en que aportan criterios, pero son esencialmente insuficientes. En efecto, tomar una buena decisión requiere un tino especial, que va más allá de la mera técnica, y que tradicionalmente se ha denominado prudencia. No en el sentido más común y periférico de precaución, sino en el sentido más central de phrónesis o prudentia. Aunque no es una noción nueva, sí se trata de una noción que suele aparecer desdibujada, ocupando un lugar equivocado, marginal o indefinido en la teoría de la toma de decisiones biomédicas. A partir de esta constatación se pretende dos cosas. En primer lugar, señalar la necesidad de comprender el papel troncal que tiene la prudencia en el ámbito de la toma de decisiones, para lo que se partirá de algunas de las metodologías más influyentes en nuestro entorno. Y, en segundo lugar, recuperar los colores originales de la noción aristotélica de prudencia. Por razones de espacio, en el presente trabajo la segunda cuestión es sólo parcialmente abordada


As is well known, in the field of Biomedical Ethics some methodological proposals have been put forward. They try to provide some guidelines in order to take proper decisions. These methodologies are quite useful insofar as they supply reasons for action, but they are essentially insufficient. In fact, taking a good decision requires a special skill that goes beyond sheer technique, and this skill is traditionally called practical wisdom. Not in the usual and more outlying sense of sheer caution, but in the more central one of phronesis or prudentia. Although it is not a new notion, it usually appears blurred in biomedical decisionmaking theory, playing the wrong role, or in a marginal or indefinite way. From this postulate, we will try to make a double analysis. First, we will try to show the need for a proper understanding of the core role that phronesis plays in decision making. Second, we will try to get the original meaning of Aristotelian phronesis back. For reasons of space, in this paper the second question will be just partially addressed


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casuísmo/história , Ética/classificação , Ética/história , Ética Médica/educação , Julgamento/ética , Virtudes , Memória
9.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (n.extr): 99-106, 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-146195
10.
An. psicol ; 30(3): 1122-1128, oct. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-126153

RESUMO

The need for multidisciplinary approaches to the scientific study of human nature is a widely supported academic claim. This assumption has proved to be especially successful in the field of moral psychology. Although studies of moral topics have been ubiquitous in social psychology, it is not until the integration of different scientific disciplines in the convergent science of moral psychology that the study of morality started its flourishing age. Thus, in the last ten years, a growing body of research from cognitive sciences, experimental philosophy, primatology, clinical and developmental psychology, economy and anthropology have made possible a "new era" on the study of morality. In this paper, we review the most striking findings that constitute the "state of the art" of moral psychology, with the aim to facilitate a better understanding of how the mind functions in the moral domain


La necesidad de realizar aproximaciones multidisciplinares al estudio de la naturaleza humana es ampliamente aceptada. Esta perspectiva se ha manifestado especialmente prolífica en el campo de la psicología moral. A pesar que el estudio de temas morales ha sido materia recurrente de la psicología social, solo la posterior integración de diferentes disciplinas científicas en la ciencia de la "psicología moral" favoreció el desarrollo de este campo de estudio. Así, en los últimos diez años, diversos estudios procedentes de las ciencias cognitivas, la filosofía experimental, la primatología, la psicología clínica y del desarrollo, las ciencias económicas o la antropología han hecho posible una "nueva era" en el estudio de la moralidad. En este artículo, revisamos los hallazgos más importantes que constituyen el "estado del arte" de la psicología moral, con el objetivo de facilitar una mejor comprensión acerca del funcionamiento de la mente moral


Assuntos
Humanos , Cognição , Princípios Morais , Julgamento , Obrigações Morais , Comportamento Social , Processos Mentais
11.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Neuropsiquiatr ; 34(121): 115-131, ene.-mar. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-120916

RESUMO

Después de las sentencias del Tribunal constitucional de diciembre del 2010 y de julio del2012, el legislador español se encuentra obligado a reformarla regulación del denominado "internamiento involuntario por razón de trastorno psíquico". En este artículo se promueve que dicha reforma parta como punto de referencia de la noción clínica del tratamiento médico, en conformidad con las normas y principios internacionales propugnados desde la Organización Mundial de la Salud, prescindiendo de la utilización del término de internamiento involuntario, ya que atrae una connotaciones prejuiciosas que en nada ayudan a romper con el estigma que padecen las personas con trastorno mental y tiene además unas repercusiones jurídicas, penales y constitucionales, de obligado cumplimiento. Se examinan, asimismo, las normas del ordenamiento jurídico español, sobre el tratamiento en salud mental, en las que la reforma puede sustentarse sin necesidad de crear una legislación especial: Ley General de Sanidad, El Convenio para la protección de los Derechos Humanos y la Dignidad del Ser Humano con respecto a las aplicaciones de la Biología y la Medicina y Ley básica reguladora de la autonomía del paciente y de derechos y obligaciones en materia de información y documentación clínica y se proponen las bases o principios desde los que podría acometerse la modificación en estas materia (AU)


Following the judgments of the Constitutional Court in December 2010 and July 2012, the Spanish legislator is obliged to reform the regulation of the so-called "involuntary confinement on grounds of mental disorder". This article promotes that this reform uses the clinical notion of medical treatment as a reference point, in accordance with the international rules and principles advocated by the World Health Organization. It is supported that the term involuntary confinement is no longer used since it draws prejudicial connotations that do nothing to help break the stigma experienced by people with mental disorder and it has additional legal, criminal and constitutional mandatory implications. They are examined the rules of the Spanish legal system on mental health treatment, which can sustain the reform without creating special legislation: General Health Law, the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine and Basic Law regulating patient autonomy and rights and obligations of information and clinical documentation and it is proposed the bases or principles from which the modification could be undertaken in these matters (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , /legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos do Paciente , Direitos Humanos , Julgamento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-119208

RESUMO

The current study investigated the effects of state and trait empathy in legal judgments and tested the relationship between trait and state emotion in one hundred and fifty eight students aged 18-59. Assessments were taken of participants’ trait empathy and then state empathy was induced in half the sample. Following this all participants read a trial transcript and made judgments regarding: the verdict decision; the defendant’s responsibility for the offense; what would be an appropriate punishment; the likelihood that the offender would offend in the future; and whether the defendant felt remorse for committing the offense. Findings showed that both trait and state empathy predicted attributions of offender remorse. State empathy also predicted judgments of offender responsibility and agreement with verdict decisions in a lenient direction. Findings also showed that state and trait empathy did not interact. The results indicate that trait and state empathy work independently to influence legal judgments and that inducing empathy in decision-makers can impact on trial outcomes above and beyond the facts of the case (AU)


Se analizaron los efectos de la empatía estado y rasgo en los juicios legales, y se examinó la relación entre la emoción estado y rasgo. Participaron en el estudio ciento cincuenta y ocho estudiantes de entre 18 y 59 años. Se evaluó la empatía-rasgo de los participantes, y posteriormente se indujo la empatía como estado a la mitad de la muestra. Todos los participantes leyeron la transcripción de un juicio sobre el que se les pidió que dictaminaran: el veredicto; la responsabilidad del acusado en el delito; cuál sería un castigo apropiado; la probabilidad de que el acusado reincidiera en el futuro; y si el acusado había sentido remordimientos por el delito cometido. Los resultados mostraron que, tanto la empatía estado como la empatía rasgo, predecían atribuciones de remordimiento en el acusado. La empatía como estado también predecía juicios más indulgentes sobre la responsabilidad del acusado y el acuerdo con el veredicto. Además, los resultados también pusieron de manifiesto que la empatía estado y la empatía rasgo no interactuaban. Los resultados indicaron que la empatía estado y rasgo actúan de manera independiente influenciando los juicios legales, y que la inducción de empatía en las personas que toman decisiones puede influir en los resultados del juicio más allá de los hechos (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criminosos/psicologia , Culpa , Empatia , Julgamento , Decisões Judiciais
13.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 569-583, 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127971

RESUMO

The present study contributes to the unification of two major theories of moral judgment: Kohlberg ́s stage theory and Anderson ́s theory of information integration. The subjects were told about the thoughts of a burglar stealing something out of a car. These thoughts represented Kohlberg ́s stage 3 and had three levels. In addition, stage 1 was represented by thoughts about the Personal Risk of being caught, and stage 4 by thoughts about the Societal Risk when everyone would do so. The thoughts were presented singly and in combinations (Friends ́ Opinions x Personal Risk and Friends ́ Opinions x Societal Risk). The subjects judged how many hours of social work the actor deserves as punishment. The data supported the averaging model of information integration theory, whereas Kohlberg's theory has no way to handle the integration problem. Results in contrast to expectations from stage theory were, (1) the effect size of the stage 3 informer was very small compared with the large effects of the stage 1 and of the stage 4 informers the latter being larger than the former, (2) Personal and Societal Risk correlated positively not expected by Kohlberg ́s stage theory (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Julgamento , Moral , Psicologia Experimental/métodos
14.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 585-600, 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127972

RESUMO

The present study examined the cognitive processes by which persons who are differently involved in the practice of sport judge the extent to which an aggressive act performed by a player during a match in handball could be condoned. Thirty professional handball players, 35 amateur handball players, and 48 non-sporting individuals indicated this "condonability" in 48 scenarios. The scenarios were all combinations of 5 factors: (a) the consequences of the aggression (the victim is injured and must leave the game or the victim is not injured), (b) the current score (the team is winning or the team is losing), (c) the time left to play (very little time or quite some time), (d) the context of the aggression (the aggressor has been the victim of a previous act of aggression or not), (e) the relative importance of the game (friendly match or competitive match or European match). For 62% of the participants, violently pushing an opponent was considered as practically never condonable. For 38% of the participants, this behaviour was sometimes condonable. Professional handball players (60%), more frequently than lay people (27%) or amateurs (34%), supported the view that pushing an opponent can sometimes be condonable. Different positions on moral judgment were observed according to the involvement in the practice of sport (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esportes/psicologia , Cognição , Violência/psicologia , Julgamento , Desenvolvimento Moral , Ética , Moral , Psicologia Experimental/métodos
15.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 601-611, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127973

RESUMO

Fifty students from the Hindu community and 45 students from non-Hindu communities were presented with concrete scenarios depicting a situation in which a defendant has committed a specified crime, and the circumstances of this crime. They were asked to indicate the extent to which they thought that the death penalty would be an appropriate sentence in each concrete case. Four factors were varied in the scenarios: (a) the severity of the crime (robbery, rape, or homicide), (b) the level to which the culpability of the defendant had been established (fully vs. not fully), and whether the defendant whose culpability had been fully demonstrated had expressed remorse for the crime committed, (c) the defendant’s antecedents (whetherhe had already committed crimes or not), and (d) the level of criminality in the area in which the crime has been committed (low vs. high). Overall, support for the death penalty was relatively high, and no significant difference was found between communities. Appropriateness judgments were higher (a) when the crime was rape or homicide than when it was robbery, (b) when the defendant’s culpability was fully established, (c) when a guilty defendant did not express remorse for the crime committed, and (d) when the defendant was a recidivist. Female students judged the death penalty more appropriate in the case of rape than male students did (AU)


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Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Pena de Morte , Atitude , Julgamento , Crime , Culpa , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Índia/epidemiologia
16.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 621-633, 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127975

RESUMO

The present study examined the extent to which people living in Venezuela consider that human rights are indivisible rights. Eighty unpaid participants living in Caracas, Barquisimeto, and Maracaibo were presented with 36 cards showing a story of a few lines, which described the socio-political situation in a fictitious state, and a response scale. Each story had four critical items of information: (a) the degree in which the State offers social protection to the citizens ( not at all, intermediate or complete), (b) the level of respect for Civil liberties in the country (no respect, intermediate, full respect), (c) the level of Equality between citizens (inequality of rights vs. equality of right), and (d) the level of Respect for the private life of the citizens (no respect for private life vs. full respect for private life). The question was "To what extend do you consider that the human rights are respected in this country"? The participants considered that (a) enjoying one basic right (e.g., enjoying freedom of speech) was better than enjoying no right at all, and that enjoying two basic rights was better than enjoying just one, and so on, (b) enjoying any right at an intermediate level was not very different than not enjoying this right, although it was better than not enjoying this right at all, and (c) only the complete enjoyment of all basic rights (Right to Privacy, Civil Liberties, Equality, and Social Protection) can be considered as full enjoyment of human rights. In addition, it was found that the impact of the social protection factor was considerably weaker than the impact of the other factors, which can be explained by the economic level of development of the Venezuelan society (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Direitos Humanos , Julgamento , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Política Pública , Condições Sociais , Venezuela/epidemiologia
17.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 635-651, 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127976

RESUMO

The present study investigated the views regarding governmental policies for the control of drugs in people living in Bogota. It used the methodology of Functional Measurement. Participants were not instructed to judge the acceptability of components of drug policies (e.g., acceptability of needle exchange programs) but the acceptability of the policy itself (e.g., acceptability of a policy of complete prohibition). One hundred eighty-five participants (mean age = 35) who lived in different areas of the city were presented with a series of 12 vignettes. These vignettes were composed according to a two within-subject orthogonal factor design: (a) existence of information campaigns regarding the dangerousness of drugs, and (b) current state policy regarding soft and hard drugs (e.g., complete laissez-faire, complete prohibition, regulation policy for both soft and hard drugs). The question was «To what extent do you think that, in these circumstances, the position of the State is politically acceptable?». Through K-means analyses, an interpretable six-cluster solution was identified. These clusters were called radical constructionists (5 1%), progressive prohibitionists (22%), free trade libertarians (11%), undecided (10%), and cultural conservatives (6%). Public opinion in Bogota seems to be at variance with public policy regarding the management of the illicit drug issue (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Julgamento , Política Pública , Opinião Pública , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Psicologia Experimental , Colômbia/epidemiologia
18.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 715-727, 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127981

RESUMO

The views of young Turkish people on the acceptability of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) in the case of patients suffering from intractable pain or in a state of complete dependence were examined. Ninety-nine participants aged 18-25 were presented with scenarios depicting different situations in which a patient, who suffered from an illness that left her in a state of complete dependence or in a state of severe physical pain, requestedfor a life-ending procedure. In these scenarios age, curability of the disease and whether or not the patient actually requested PAS were furthermore manipulated. Participants were asked to indicate the extent to which PAS would be an acceptable procedure in each scenario. A relative majority of participants (31%) expressed the view that, irrespective of circumstances, PAS was never acceptable. A substantial minority of participants (27%) expressed the view that PAS was practically always acceptable under the circumstances described in the scenarios (unbearable physical pain or complete dependence). A smaller minority of participants (17%) expressed the view that PAS is acceptable under the condition that the suffering patient repeatedly requests it, and another minority (24%) expressed the view that PAS is acceptable under the condition that the patient is old (i.e., 85 years) (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Suicídio Assistido , Julgamento , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Psicologia Experimental , Turquia/epidemiologia
19.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 729-743, 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127982

RESUMO

The impacts of skin tone and shape of face on judgment of beauty regarding female faces were assessed and compared. Sixty adolescents and 60 adults living in Maputo, Mozambique or in Toulouse, France were presented with a set of faces, one at a time, and instructed to rate their attractiveness (in terms of beauty) along a continuous scale. Skin tone contributed to judgments of beauty but its contribution was much weaker than the contribution of the shape of the faces: It explained about 5% of the variance as compared with 85% for shape of faces. The Shape x Tone interaction was not significant; that is, both factors simply added their effect during the judgment process. The Country x Tone interaction was not significant: The impact of skin tone on judgment was similar among Mozambicans and among the French (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pigmentação da Pele , Beleza , Percepção Social , Julgamento , Psicologia Experimental/métodos
20.
Trauma (Majadahonda) ; 23(4): 228-234, oct.-dic. 2012. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-108583

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer los factores de riesgo médico-jurídico asociados a las actuaciones sobre la cadera en cirugía ortopédica y traumatología. Material y método: Se han estudiado 96 sentencias judiciales, analizando 17 variables médico-jurídicas. Resultados: Los actos que originaron el mayor número de procedimientos judiciales fueron las artroplastias de cadera (64 casos), seguidas de los retrasos diagnósticos de diversas patologías (13 casos). La complicación que se había producido en mayor número de casos era la lesión del nervio ciático (22 casos), seguida de las infecciones (12 casos). Las lesiones neurológicas fueron las más reclamadas (27 casos), seguidas de los fallecimientos (17 casos). La cuantía media reclamada fue de 181.386 € y la cuantía media de las sentencias condenatorias de 72.867,72 €. Conclusiones: Las actuaciones con más riesgo de las que realizan los COT sobre la cadera son las quirúrgicas debido fundamentalmente a las lesiones neurológicas que se producen sobre el nervio ciático (la gran mayoría lesiones indirectas). Les siguen con muchos menos casos los procedimientos diagnósticos, destacando los de retraso diagnóstico de cáncer a través del hallazgo de metástasis en la cadera. El porcentaje de condenas es elevado (45%), no así la cuantía que se concede en esos casos, que se sitúa en niveles medios-altos (72 000 €), propios de una especialidad que rara vez causa daños gravísimos, pero que tiene repercusiones importantes en la calidad de vida de los pacientes (AU)


Objective: To identify medical and legal risk factors associated with interventions on the hip in orthopedic surgery. Material and method: We studied 96 court decisions analyzing 17 medical-legal variables. Results: The interventions that brought about the greatest number of legal proceedings were hip replacements (arthroplasty) (64 cases), followed by diagnostic delays of various diseases (13 cases). The complication that occurred in the greatest number of cases was sciatic nerve injury (22 cases), followed by infections (12 cases). Neurological injuries were claimed for most (27 cases), followed by death (17 cases). The average amount claimed was € 181,386 and the average amount awarded was € 72,867.72. Conclusion: The interventions with the highest level of risk by orthoprosthetic surgery are mainly due to neurological injuries that occur on the sciatic nerve (most indirect injuries). They are followed by a far lower number of cases of diagnostic cases; late diagnosis of cancer through discovery of metastasis in the hip standing out in this selection. The conviction rate is high (45%), although the amount awarded in such cases is not, medium-high levels (€ 72,000), being as it is a specialty that on rare occasion may cause serious damage, but has significant impact on the quality of life of patients (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Mapa de Risco , Ortopedia/legislação & jurisprudência , Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Decisões Judiciais , Julgamento , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Má Conduta Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Má Conduta Científica/legislação & jurisprudência , Imperícia
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