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1.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(10): 853-862, oct. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189324

RESUMO

Los bloqueadores beta son moléculas ampliamente utilizadas y capaces de antagonizar los receptores adrenérgicos (RA) beta, pertenecen a la familia de receptores acoplados a proteínas G y reciben el estímulo de las catecolaminas endógenas. Tras su estimulación, se activan cascadas intracelulares que en última instancia originan la contracción cardiaca o la dilatación vascular, según el subtipo y su ubicación. Se han descrito 3 subtipos, que se expresan de manera diferenciada en el organismo (RA-ß1, ß2 y ß3), y el subtipo ß1 es el más abundante en el corazón. Desde su descubrimiento, los RA-ß se han convertido en diana para combatir las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Desde su invención por James Black a finales de los años cincuenta, los bloqueadores beta han supuesto una revolución en la terapia cardiovascular. Hasta ahora se dispone de 3 generaciones: los bloqueadores beta no selectivos, los bloqueadores beta cardioselectivos (antagonista selectivo de ß1) y los bloqueadores beta vasodilatadores. Estos constituyen la tercera generación y son capaces de bloquear los ß1 además de tener actividad vasodilatadora, bien bloqueando los RA-alfa1 o activando los RA-ß3. Los bloqueadores beta todavía se utilizan ampliamente en la clínica tras más de 50 años desde la introducción del propranolol en el mercado por su capacidad para reducir la frecuencia cardiaca y, por lo tanto, la demanda miocárdica de oxígeno en el caso de una angina


Beta-blockers are widely used molecules that are able to antagonize ß-adrenergic receptors (ARs), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor family and receive their stimulus from endogenous catecholamines. Upon ß-AR stimulation, numerous intracellular cascades are activated, ultimately leading to cardiac contraction or vascular dilation, depending on the relevant subtype and their location. Three subtypes have been described that are differentially expressed in the body (ß1-, ß2- and ß3-ARs), ß1 being the most abundant subtype in the heart. Since their discovery, ß-ARs have become an important target to fight cardiovascular disease. In fact, since their discovery by James Black in the late 1950s, ß-blockers have revolutionized the field of cardiovascular therapies. To date, 3 generations of drugs have been released: nonselective ß-blockers, cardioselective ß-blockers (selective ß1-antagonists), and a third generation of these drugs able to block ß1 together with extra vasodilation activity (also called vasodilating ß-blockers) either by blocking alfa1- or by activating ß3-AR. More than 50 years after propranolol was introduced to the market due to its ability to reduce heart rate and consequently myocardial oxygen demand in the event of an angina attack, ß-blockers are still widely used in clinics


Assuntos
Humanos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacocinética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/história , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/história , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Arrestinas/farmacocinética
2.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(5): 506-512, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186526

RESUMO

Hypersensitivity occurs when the body is stimulated by an antigen, resulting in an immune response, and leads to a physiological disorder or abnormal tissue trauma. Various immune cells, cytokines, and inflammatory mediators are involved in the immune responses related to allergic diseases, which are the core of anaphylaxis. Estrogen receptors are widely distributed in immune cells, which combine with estrogen and participate in allergic responses by affecting immune cells, cytokines, and inflammatory factors. We aimed to summarize the association between estrogen and allergic reactions to provide a scientific basis for understanding and studying the mechanisms of allergic diseases


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Anafilaxia/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Celular , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(9): 767-773, sept. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189136

RESUMO

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son una manifestación clínica de la ateroesclerosis, una enfermedad inflamatoria que se agrava en presencia de diferentes factores de riesgo como la dislipemia o la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Los eventos cardiovasculares agudos son resultado de un proceso inflamatorio crónico no resuelto que facilita la rotura de placas inestables. Los tratamientos existentes reducen los factores de riesgo, pero no previenen los eventos isquémicos recurrentes en pacientes con riesgo residual inflamatorio caracterizado por altas concentraciones de proteína C reactiva. Una mejor comprensión del papel de la inmunidad innata y adaptativa en la ateroesclerosis ha llevado a la investigación de tratamientos antiinflamatorios para la ECV. Algunos ensayos clínicos consisten en la evaluación de dosis bajas de fármacos diseñados para otras enfermedades inflamatorias sistémicas con alto riesgo de ECV, como la artritis reumatoide y la soriasis. Otras investigaciones son estudios restrospectivos y metanálisis de la incidencia de ECV en ensayos clínicos que han evaluado diferentes fármacos en las enfermedades. Otras terapia, sin embargo, se basan en ensayos preclínicos, como las vacunas. En este manuscrito se resumen las principales estrategias antiinflamatorias y los mecanismos moleculares asociados que se están evaluando en ensayos clínicos o preclínicos


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease promoted by several risk factors such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking. Acute CVD events are the result of an unresolved inflammatory chronic state that promotes the rupture of unstable plaque lesions. Of note, the existing intensive therapies modify risk factors but do not prevent life-threatening recurrent ischemic events in high-risk patients, who have a residual inflammatory risk displayed by increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Better understanding of the role of innate and adaptive immunity in plaque development and rupture has led to intensive investigation of anti-inflammatory strategies for CVD. Some of them are being tested in specific clinical trials and use lower doses of existing medications originally developed for other inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, which have high CVD risk. Other investigations are retrospective and meta-analyses of existing clinical trials that evaluate the incidence of CVD in these inflammatory diseases. Others are based on preclinical testing such as vaccines. In this article, we summarize the main anti-inflammatory strategies and associated molecular mechanisms that are being evaluated in preclinical or clinical CVD studies


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Rev. esp. patol. torac ; 31(2): 144-152, jun. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183656

RESUMO

El cáncer de pulmón (CP) es la primera causa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo. Su elevada mortalidad refleja, en parte, la limitada eficacia de las terapias actualmente disponibles. Dada la pobre supervivencia actual del CP, y la demostrada evidencia de que el diagnóstico precoz reduce la mortalidad, ha cobrado especial interés la búsqueda de biomarcadores. Recientemente, se ha atribuido a DYRK2 un papel relevante en el desarrollo y progresión tumoral relacionado con la inducción de la apoptosis en respuesta al estrés oncogénico. Así, se identificó a DYRK2 como el gen más frecuentemente sobre- expresado en el adenocarcinoma de pulmón, siendo además un factor pronóstico favorable en estos tumores. Asimismo, se ha demostrado la existencia de una regulación mutua entre DYRK2 y la ubiquitín-ligasa SIAH2, en el control de la respuesta a hipoxia y el daño genotóxico. La búsqueda de nuevas dianas y estrategias terapéuticas supone un paso clave para la lucha contra el cáncer de pulmón. El objetivo del trabajo fue investigar qué papel juegan las proteínas SIAH2-DYRK2 en la carcinogénesis pulmonar, así como determinar el impacto clínico-patológico de su expresión en el tejido neoplásico. La modulación de la ruta SIAH2-DYRK2 podría ser empleada como una terapia dirigida en pacientes con cáncer de pulmón


Lung cancer (LC) continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The high mortality highlights the limited efficacy of available therapies for LC treatment. Given the poor survival rate of LC, and considering that early diagnosis reduces mortality, special interest exists nowadays in searching for lung cancer biomarkers. Recently, it has been suggested a possible role of DYRK2 in the development and progression of tumors, related to the induction of apoptosis in response oncogenic stress. In this regard, DYRK2 was identified as the most commonly up-regulated gene in lung adenocarcinomas, as well as a favourable prognostic factor in these tumors. Moreover, a mutual regulation between DYRK2 and the ubiquitin-ligase SIAH2 in response to hypoxia and DNA-damage signaling pathways has been demonstrated. It is of paramount importance to search for new targets and therapeutic strategies in lung cancer. The aim of the study was to analyse the role of SIAH2-DYRK2 in the development of lung cancer, and to assess the clinical and pathological effects of the expression of these proteins in lung cancer tissue. Modulation of the route SIAH2- DYRK2 might be used as a new targeted therapy in lung cancer patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Eletroforese/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Transporte Biológico
5.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 152(11): 425-430, jun. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183902

RESUMO

Introduction: Melanoma is the most dangerous skin cancer with high metastasis rate and mortality. Although the emergence of immunotherapy has brought hope for treatment, the mortality rate of melanoma is still increasing year by year. The underlying mechanism of melanoma tumor progression and metastasis is urgently needed to be clarified. Recently chemokines have been found to play an important role in tumor progression in addition to their immunocytochemical chemotaxis. Methods: In this study, human melanoma cell lines A375 and M14 were treated with SCH-527123, a small molecule antagonist of CXCR1 and CXCR2. The effects of treatment with SCH-527123 on melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated in vitro by CCK-8, colony formation and transwell assays. Apoptosis was also detected by flow cytometry staining with annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). The molecular mechanisms of antagonist mediated were detected by western blot. Results: The results showed that SCH-527123 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma cell lines and promoted apoptosis. The expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 was downregulated after treatment with SCH-527123. PI3K/AKT pathway and downstream signaling were also inhibited at molecular level owing to treated with SCH-527123. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study demonstrated that SCH-527123, a small-molecule antagonist for CXCR1 and CXCR2 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in melanoma via PI3K/AKT pathway


Introducción: El melanoma es el cáncer de piel más peligroso, con una alta tasa de metástasis y mortalidad. Aunque la inmunoterapia ha traído esperanza para el tratamiento, la tasa de mortalidad del melanoma sigue aumentando año tras año. Es de crucial importancia aclarar el mecanismo subyacente de la evolución y la metástasis del melanoma. Recientemente se ha descubierto que las quimiocinas juegan un importante papel en la evolución tumoral. Métodos: En el presente estudio, las líneas celulares de melanoma humano A375 y M14 se trataron con SCH-527123, un inhibidor de molécula pequeña de CXCR1 y CXCR2. Los efectos del tratamiento con SCH-527123 sobre la proliferación, migración e invasión de células de melanoma se evaluaron in vitro mediante CCK-8, formación de colonias y ensayos Transwell. También se detectó apoptosis mediante citometría de flujo con tinción con anexina V y yoduro de propidio (PI). Los mecanismos moleculares del antagonista fueron detectados por Western blot. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que SCH-527123 inhibió la proliferación, migración e invasión de líneas celulares de melanoma y promovió la apoptosis. La expresión de CXCR1 y CXCR2 disminuyó después del tratamiento con SCH-527123. La vía de señalización de la PI3K/AKT también se inhibió a nivel molecular debido a que se trataron con SCH-527123. Conclusión: Nuestro estudio demostró que SCH-527123, un inhibidor de molécula pequeña para CXCR1 y CXCR2 inhibió la proliferación celular, la migración y la invasión del melanoma a través de la vía PI3K/AKT


Assuntos
Humanos , Receptores de Interleucina-8A/agonistas , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/agonistas , Invasividade Neoplásica , Melanoma/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Movimento Celular , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Transdução de Sinais
6.
An Real Acad Farm ; 85(2): 189-197, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186176

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown a key role of microglial cells in the neuroinflammatory processes associated with some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Microglia sense several types of diffusible molecules that regulate the multiple repertoire of microglial functions. Among them, extracellular nucleotides, acting on microglial P2 receptors, have central roles. In this sense, the ionotropic P2X7 receptor has gained recognition as a key regulator of microglial-mediated inflammatory responses. It is known that microglia releases ATP and other nucleotides to the extracellular medium. Although several mechanisms, such as release trough conexins or panexins, has been proposed, a vesicular origin for this released nucleotides, relying on the activity of the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), cannot be ruled out. In this work we evaluated whether the expression of VNUT and the P2X7 receptor, as well as the ATP release, could be modified in the reactive microglia. To achieve microglia activation we stimulated the cells with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we analyzed the effect of the b-amyloid peptide b1-42, which is also able to activate the microglial cells, on the expression of VNUT and the ATP release in the microgli


Estudios previos han mostrado un papel clave de las células microgliales en los procesos neuroinflamatorios asociados con algunas enfermedades neurodegenerativas, como la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). La microglía detecta varios tipos de moléculas difusibles que regulan el múltiple repertorio de funciones microgliales. Entre ellos, los nucleótidos extracelulares, actuando sobre los receptores P2 microgliales, llevan a cabo un papel central. En este sentido, el receptor P2X7 ionotrópico ha sido reconocido como un regulador clave de las respuestas inflamatorias mediadas por la microglia. Se sabe que la microglía libera ATP y otros nucleótidos al medio extracelular. Aunque se han propuesto varios mecanismos, tales como la liberación a través de conexinas o panexinas, no se puede descartar un origen vesicular para estos nucleótidos liberados, basándose en la actividad del transportador vesicular de nucleótidos (VNUT). En este trabajo hemos analizado si la expresión de VNUT y el receptor P2X7, así como la liberación de ATP, podrían modificarse en la microglía reactiva. Para lograr la activación de la microglía estimulamos las células con el lipopolisacárido (LPS). Además, analizamos el efecto del péptido (R)1-amiloide, (R)1-42, que puede activar también las células microgliales, sobre la expresión de VNUT y la liberación de ATP en la microglía


Assuntos
Humanos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/fisiologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Degeneração Neural/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Western Blotting , Imunofluorescência , Células Cultivadas , Transdução de Sinais
7.
An Real Acad Farm ; 84(4): 346-358, oct.-dic. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178131

RESUMO

Cada vez son más los estudios que sugieren que la obesidad y la Enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) son trastornos crónicos conectados mediante mecanismos patogénicos comunes, siendo la resistencia a la acción de la insulina (RAI) una pieza clave, generalmente inducida por procesos pro-inflamatorios. La obesidad se puede considerar un desencadenante de la EA (ver la primera parte de la monografía) (1). Teniendo en cuenta que la EA es un proceso patológico que actualmente no tiene un eficaz tratamiento preventivo o curativo, es de especial importancia prevenir y combatir todos los factores de riesgo de EA. Siendo un factor muy importante la obesidad y sus consecuencias patológicas (muchas de ellas concomitantes con la EA, como la diabetes tipo II - DT2). La obesidad está aumentando en todo el mundo y ya es un grave problema sanitario en muchos países. Tanto como medida de salud general de la población, como cuando se dan los primeros síntomas en un individuo en concreto (a cualquier edad, desde la juventud a la senectud), se debe implantar un régimen de vida adecuado (estilo de vida saludable, ejercicio, ausencia de estrés, dieta adecuada) para prevenir la obesidad. En algunos casos leves, pueden emplearse ciertos medicamentos, pero estos están especialmente indicados en casos crónicos refractarios a tratamientos no farmacológicos. Muchos de estos medicamentos tienen efectos también sobre la diabetes tipo 2 así como sobre la neurodegeneración que conduce a la EA en las fases más iniciales del proceso. En esta parte de la monografía se revisan especialmente los tratamientos farmacológicos, reseñando las substancias que se emplean en la actualidad, y los efectos de la alimentación en el proceso patológico común


At present, more and more studies suggest that obesity and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are chronic disorders connected by common pathogenic mechanisms, being the resistance to the action of insulin (RAI) a key element, generally induced by proinflammatory processes. Obesity can be considered a trigger for AD (see the first part of this monograph) (1). Taking into account that AD is a pathological process that does not currently have an effective preventive or curative treatment, it is especially important to prevent and combat all risk factors for AD. Being a very important of these factors obesity and its pathological consequences (many of them concomitant with AD, such as type 2 diabetes), the study of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of these pathological situations are of prime importance. Obesity is increasing worldwide and is already a serious health problem in many countries. Both as a measure of general health of the population, and when the first symptoms occur in a particular individual (at any age, from youth to old age), an appropriate life regime must be implemented (healthy lifestyle, exercise, absence of stress, adequate diet) to prevent obesity. In some mild cases, certain medications may be used, but these are especially indicated in chronic cases refractory to nonpharmacological treatments. Many of these drugs also have effects on type 2 diabetes as well as neurodegeneration that lead to AD in the early stages of the process. In this part of the monograph, pharmacological treatments, indicating the substances that are currently used, and the effects of feeding on the common pathological process, are reviewed


Assuntos
Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais , Adipogenia , Resistência à Insulina , Tecido Adiposo
8.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 38(5): 466-475, sept.-oct. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177632

RESUMO

La vía de Notch regula procesos importantes en el riñón implicados en el desarrollo embrionario y en situaciones de agresión tisular. Así, en una gran variedad de nefropatías crónicas humanas se ha descrito una activación local de este sistema, sugiriendo que algunos de sus componentes podrían ser biomarcadores de daño renal. Los estudios realizados en modelos experimentales, modulando genéticamente componentes de la vía Notch o mediante su bloqueo farmacológico con inhibidores de la γ-secretasa, han demostrado la participación de esta vía en la regeneración renal, en la apoptosis de podocitos, en la proliferación y activación de fibroblastos y en la transición epitelio-mesenquimal de las células tubuloepiteliales. Estudios recientes sugieren una interacción entre las vías Notch y NF-κB, la cual podría jugar un papel relevante en el proceso inflamatorio renal. Por otra parte, en los últimos años se han descrito miRNA que son capaces de regular componentes de la vía Notch y modular sus respuestas. Todos estos datos indican que el bloqueo de la vía de señalización Notch podría representar una nueva opción terapéutica para la enfermedad renal


Notch pathway regulates key processes in the kidney, involved in embryonic development and tissue damage. In many human chronic renal diseases a local activation of Notch pathway has been described, suggesting that several components of Notch pathway could be considered as biomarkers of renal damage. Experimental studies by genetic modulation of Notch components or pharmacological approaches by γ-secretase inhibitors have demonstrated the role of this pathway in renal regeneration renal, podocyte apoptosis, proliferation and fibroblasts activation, and induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells. Recent studies suggest an interaction between Notch and NF-κB pathway involved in the regulation of renal inflammatory process. On the other hand, there are some miRNAs that could regulate Notch components and down-stream responses. All these data suggest that Notch blockade could be a novel therapeutic option for renal diseases


Assuntos
Humanos , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
9.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 20(8): 1035-1045, ago. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173687

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the effect of CXCL12 gene silencing on proliferation,invasion, angiogenesis and the relationship of MAPK/PI3K/AP-1 signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. Methods: RT-PCR and Western-blot were used to detect the expression of CXCL12 mRNA and protein in four colon cancer cell lines. Human colon cancer cells were transfected with CXCL12 siRNA carrying by Lipofectamine 2000. The expression of CXCL12 protein was confirmed by immunoblotting. WST-1, invasion and angiogenesis assay were used to examine the effect on proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in colon cancer cells after CXCL12 siRNA silence, respectively. The phosphorylation of MAPK/PI3K/AP-1 protein levels was detected by Western blotting in CXCL12 siRNA suppression DLD-1 cell. Results: CXCL12 mRNA and proteins were only expressed in DLD-1 colon cancer cell lines. CXCL12 siRNA were transfected into DLD-1 cells, the expression CXCL12 proteins was significantly inhibited (P < 0.01), and the proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis of DLD-1 cells were inhibited significantly (P < 0.01). CXCL12 gene silencing resulted in blockage of MAPK, PI3K and AP-1 phosphorylation by CXCL12-induced in DLD-1 colon cancer cell. Conclusion: The silencing CXCL12 gene significantly inhibits the proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis ability of some types colon carcinoma cells through down-regulation of MAPK/PI3K/AP-1 signaling pathway


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Quimiocina CXCL12/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética
10.
J. physiol. biochem ; 74(3): 369-379, ago. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178992

RESUMO

Autophagy was shown to modulate inflammation in immune cells. This study was designed to evaluate the association between autophagy and inflammation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of type 2 diabetic (T2D) and non-diabetic (ND) subjects. The autophagy markers were measured by real-time PCR and western blot. The gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR. Reduced transcription of BECN1 and LAMP2 and unchanged expression of MAP1LC3B and ATG5 were observed in PBMCs of T2D patients. Decreased LC3B-II and increased p62/SQSTM1 levels were found in PBMCs of diabetic patients. The p-mTOR level was higher in PBMCs of diabetic patients. An increase in both IL-1Beta and TNF-alfa gene expression, along with a decrease in the expression of IL-10, was observed in PBMCs of T2D patients. TNF-α mRNA expression was inversely correlated with the mRNA expression of BECN1 and LAMP2. TNF-alfa and IL-1Beta expression were negatively correlated with the protein levels of LC3B-II. TNF-alfa and IL-1Beta expression had also a positive correlation with protein level of p62. IL-10 mRNA expression was positively correlated with the mRNA expression of BECN1 and LAMP2 and protein levels of LC3B-II and negatively correlated with protein level of p62. In addition, p-mTOR level was positively correlated with IL-1Beta and TNF-alfa mRNA expression. The results revealed a reduced autophagy in PBMCs of T2D patients that is liked with an enhanced inflammation. The suppression of autophagy in PBMCs of diabetic patients may be associated with the activation of the mTOR signaling


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Autofagia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Cloreto de Amônio/farmacologia , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia
12.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 20(5): 561-569, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173531

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are considered a heterogeneous and rare entity. Its natural history is influenced by multiple clinicopathological characteristics, which guide the management of these patients. The development of molecular biology reveals that the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway plays a relevant role in tumorigenesis and progression of NENs. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, targeted agents that block this pathway, has improved outcomes in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Different therapeutic approaches, such as somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and targeted agents, have shown benefits in the treatment of NETs. However, there are not any established prognostic or predictive biomarkers to select the best therapy option to individualize treatment. Although a relation between alterations in the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway and clinical outcomes has not been found, these anomalies are considered attractive biomarkers. Additional molecular analysis should be integrated in future clinical trials' design to identify potential predictive or prognostic biomarkers


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Prognóstico
13.
J. physiol. biochem ; 74(2): 195-205, mayo 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178977

RESUMO

Excessive intramyocellular triacylglycerols (IMTGs, muscle lipids) are associated with the abnormal energy metabolism and insulin resistance of skeletal muscle. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a crucial cellular energy sensor, consists of α, β and γ subunits. Researchers have not clearly determined whether Prkaa1 (also known as AMPKα1) affects IMTG accumulation in skeletal muscle. Here, we show an important role of Prkaa1 in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism. Deletion of muscle Prkaa1 leads to the delayed development of skeletal muscles but does not affect glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity in animals fed a normal diet. Notably, when animals are fed a high-fat diet, the skeletal muscle of muscle-specific Prkaa1 knockout mice accumulates more lipids than the skeletal muscle of wild-type (WT) mice, with concomitant upregulation of adipogenic gene expressions and downregulation of the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial oxidation. Muscle-specific Prkaa1 ablation also results in hyperlipidemia, which may contribute to the increased IMTG levels. Furthermore, Prkaa1 deletion activates skeletal muscle mTOR signalling, which has a central role in lipid metabolism and mitochondrial oxidation. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the role of Prkaa1 in skeletal muscle. This knowledge may contribute to the treatment of related metabolic diseases


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Deleção de Genes , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos Knockout , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Regulação para Cima
14.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 34(4): 192-202, oct.-dic. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168712

RESUMO

The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways constitute one of the most important and evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for the perception of extracellular information in all the eukaryotic organisms. The MAPK pathways are involved in the transfer to the cell of the information perceived from extracellular stimuli, with the final outcome of activation of different transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to them. In all species of fungi, the MAPK pathways have important roles in their physiology and development; e.g. cell cycle control, mating, morphogenesis, response to different stresses, resistance to UV radiation and to temperature changes, cell wall assembly and integrity, degradation of cellular organelles, virulence, cell-cell signaling, fungus-plant interaction, and response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Considering the importance of the phylogenetically conserved MAPK pathways in fungi, an updated review of the knowledge on them is discussed in this article. This information reveals their importance, their distribution in fungal species evolutionarily distant and with different lifestyles, their organization and function, and the interactions occurring between different MAPK pathways, and with other signaling pathways, for the regulation of the most complex cellular processes (AU)


Las vías de señalización de la proteína-cinasa activada por mitógenos (abreviadas como MAPK por sus siglas en inglés) son uno de los mecanismos más importantes y evolutivamente conservados para la percepción de información extracelular en organismos eucarióticos. Las vías MAPK están involucradas en la transferencia a la célula de la información recibida de estímulos extracelulares, que ofrecen como resultado final la activación de diferentes factores de transcripción que regulan la expresión de genes en respuesta a aquellos. En todas las especies de hongos, las vías MAPK tienen importantes funciones en su fisiología y desarrollo como, por ejemplo, el control del ciclo celular, el apareamiento, la morfogénesis, la respuesta a diferentes tipos de estrés, la resistencia a la luz UV y a los cambios de temperatura, la formación e integridad de la pared celular, la degradación de los orgánulos, la virulencia, la señalización célula-célula, la interacción hongo-planta y la respuesta a patrones moleculares asociados con el daño (abreviado como DAMP, por sus siglas en inglés). Dada la importancia de las vías MAPK en hongos, en esta revisión se discute el conocimiento adquirido más recientemente sobre ellas. Esta información revela su importancia, su distribución en especies de hongos evolutivamente distantes y con estilos de vida diferentes, su organización y función, y las interacciones que ocurren entre diferentes vías MAPK, y entre estas y otras vías de señalización que regulan los procesos celulares más complejos (AU)


Assuntos
Eucariotos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/análise , Fungos/ultraestrutura , Transdução de Sinais , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases
15.
Actas urol. esp ; 41(8): 529-534, oct. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167167

RESUMO

Objetivo: El carcinoma neuroendocrino de célula pequeña de próstata es una neoplasia infrecuente que supone el 0,5-1% de todas las neoplasias prostáticas. La mediana de supervivencia cáncer-específica de los pacientes con carcinoma neuroendocrino de célula pequeña de próstata es de 19 meses, y el 60,5% de los pacientes presentan enfermedad metastásica. Los factores de transcripción de desarrollo neural son moléculas implicadas en la organogénesis del sistema nervioso central y de precursores neuroendocrinos de diversos tejidos, que incluyen la glándula suprarrenal, el tiroides, el pulmón y la próstata, entre otros órganos. Material y métodos: Presentamos 3 casos de esta infrecuente entidad, aplicando los nuevos criterios de la OMS. Realizamos estudios mediante tinción de H-E y analizamos la expresión de los factores de transcripción de desarrollo neurales Achaete-scute homolog like 1, Thyroid transcription factor 1 y los factores de transcripción clase iii/iv POU, como nueva línea de investigación en la carcinogénesis de los tumores neuroendocrinos de próstata. Resultados: En el caso 1 no se observó inmunoexpresión para TTF1. Los casos 2 y 3 presentaron inmunotinción positiva para ASCL1, e inmunotinción negativa en el caso 1. La inmunotinción para BRN2 fue negativa en el caso 1 y positiva en los casos 2 y 3. Conclusión: Actualmente, la OMS no reconoce ningún marcador molecular ni genético con valor pronóstico. ASCL-1 está relacionado con las vías de señalización NOTCH y WNT. ASCL-1, TTF1 y BRN2 podrían usarse para el diagnóstico precoz y como factor pronóstico y diana terapéutica


Objective: Prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that constitutes 0.5-1% of all prostate malignancies. The median cancer-specific survival of patients with prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is 19 months, and 60.5% of the patients have metastatic disease. Neural development transcription factors are molecules involved in the organogenesis of the central nervous system and of neuroendocrine precursors of various tissues, including the suprarenal gland, thyroid glands, lungs and prostate. Material and methods: We present 3 cases of this uncommon condition, applying the new World Health Organisation criteria. We conducted studies through haematoxylin and eosin staining and analysed the expression of the neural development transcription factors achaete-scute homolog like 1, thyroid transcription factor 1 and the class III/IV POU transcription factors, as a new research line in the carcinogenesis of prostatic neuroendocrine tumours. Results: In case 1, there was no TTF1 immunoexpression. Cases 2 and 3 had positive immunostaining for ASCL1, and Case 1 had negative immunostaining. BRN2 immunostaining was negative in case 1 and positive in cases 2 and 3. Conclusion: The World Health Organisation does not recognise any molecular or genetic marker with prognostic value. ASCL-1 is related to the NOTCH and WNT signalling pathways. ASCL-1, TTF1 and BRN2 could be used for early diagnosis and as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets


Assuntos
Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Fator 3 de Transcrição/análise , Região do Genoma do Complexo Achaete-Scute/genética , Receptores Notch/análise , Transdução de Sinais
16.
J. physiol. biochem ; 73(3): 405-414, ago. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178892

RESUMO

Sodium butyrate (NaBu) is a by-product of microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract and has been shown to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase or heme oxidase-1, in vivo. However, the mechanism of this effect is still unclear. This study investigated the antioxidant effect of NaBu on HepG2 cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. NaBu (0.3 mM) attenuated cell death and accumulation of reactive oxygen species and improved multiple antioxidant parameters in H2O2-injured HepG2 cells. NaBu inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3Beta) by increasing the p-GSK-3 Beta (Ser9) level and promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which increased the expression of downstream antioxidant enzymes. Together with promotion of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and mitochondrial DNA copy number, NaBu modulated energy metabolism and mitochondrial function, decreasing glycolysis, increasing Beta -oxidation, and enhancing the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. NaBu increased mitochondrial manganese-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. In conclusion, NaBu protected HepG2 cells against oxidative stress by modulating Nrf2 pathway activity and mitochondrial function


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Sobrevivência Celular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Apoptose , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Citoproteção , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Glicólise , Células Hep G2 , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Arch. Soc. Esp. Oftalmol ; 92(5): 210-217, mayo 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-162624

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar el perfil de expresión de las moléculas mediadoras de inflamación y respuesta inmune (IRI) en lágrimas de pacientes con ojo seco (OS) y pacientes en tratamiento médico por sospecha o diagnóstico de glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto (GPAA) para compararlos con sujetos sanos. MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo observacional de cohortes de 107 participantes subdivididos en: pacientes con OS (GOS; n=30), pacientes con sospecha o diagnóstico de GPAA con tratamiento hipotensor ocular (GGPAA; n=41) y controles sanos (GC; n=36). Se obtuvieron muestras de lágrimas mediante capilaridad para analizarlas mediante sistema de multiinmunoanálisis basado en citometría de flujo (Luminex R-200®), determinando diversas interleucinas (IL): 1β, 2, 4, 5, 6 y 10, y también los factores de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), de crecimiento endotelial vascular (VEGF) y de crecimiento de colonias de granulocitos y macrófagos (GM-CSF). Los datos se procesaron mediante el programa SPSS 20.0. RESULTADOS: Las moléculas que aumentaron significativamente en lágrimas de pacientes en el GOS versus GGPAA fueron: IL-1β (p = 0.01), IL-6 (p = 0,004), IL-10 (p = 0,04), mientras que el VEGF disminuyó significativamente en el GOS. El GGPAA mostró aumento significativo de IL-6 (p < 0,0001) frente al GC. Comparando GOS y GGPAA, observamos diferencias significativas para IL-4 (p = 0,004), IL-6 (p = 0,002), TNF-α (p = 0,03), GM-CSF (p = 0,03) y VEGF (p = 0,002). CONCLUSIONES: El aumento de expresión de los mediadores de IRI en lágrimas de pacientes con OS o GPAA demuestra la importancia de estos procesos en ambas enfermedades, aunque las distintas moléculas implicadas indican diferentes vías de señalización para ambas, que requieren más investigaciones


OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression profile of immune response and inflammation (IRI) mediator molecules in tears from patients with dry eye (DE), and those suspected of having or have primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) under treatment and compare them with healthy controls. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study including 107 participants sub-divided into: healthy controls (CG; n=30), patients with DE (DEG; n=41) and patients suspected of having or have POAG and on hypotensive treatment (POAG-G; n=36). Tear samples were collected by capillary to be processed using a multi-immunoassay system based on flow cytometry (Luminex R-200 ®), in order to determine the interleukins (IL): 1β, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 10, and the growth factors: Tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial (VEGF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating- (GM-CSF). Data were processed using the SPSS 20.0 program. RESULTS: Molecules that significantly increased in tears from DEG vs. POAG-G patients were: IL-1 (P=.01), IL-6 (P=.004), IL-10 (P=.04), whereas VEGF significantly decreased in the DEG. The POAG-G showed significantly higher IL-6 values (P<.0001) as compared to the CG. When comparing both the DEG and POAG-G, significant differences were observed in tear expression of IL-4 (P=.004), IL-6 (P=.002), TNF-α (P=.03), GM-CSF (P=.03), and VEGF (P=.002). CONCLUSIONS: The increased expression of IRI mediators in tears from patients with DE or POAG strongly demonstrated the importance of immune response in both pathologies. However, the different molecules involved also suggest distinct signalling pathways for these processes that still require further research


Assuntos
Humanos , Xeroftalmia/fisiopatologia , Lágrimas/química , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Ocular/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Hipertensão Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais , Citocinas/análise
18.
J. physiol. biochem ; 73(2): 287-296, mayo 2017. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168485

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction plays a vital role during the initial stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces vascular endothelial injury and vessel wall inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) exerts numerous vasoprotective effects by binding to diverse S1P receptors (S1PRs; S1PR1-5). A number of studies have shown that in endothelial cells (ECs), S1PR2 acts as a pro-atherosclerotic mediator by stimulating vessel wall inflammation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Scavenger receptor class B member I (SR-BI), a high-affinity receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL), inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation and decreases the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators via the PI3K/Akt pathway. We hypothesized that the inflammatory effects of S1P/S1PR2 on ECs may be regulated by apoA-I/SR-BI. The results showed that ox-LDL, a pro-inflammatory factor, augmented the S1PR2 level in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, S1P/S1PR2 signaling influenced the levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-10, aggravating inflammation in HUVECs. Moreover, the pro-inflammatory effects induced by S1P/S1PR2 were attenuated by SR-BI overexpression and enhanced by an SR-BI inhibitor, BLT-1. Further experiments showed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was involved in this process. Taken together, these results demonstrate that apoA-I/SR-BI negatively regulates S1P/S1PR2-mediated inflammation in HUVECs by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/agonistas , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Tiossemicarbazonas/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Lipoproteínas LDL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt
19.
Nefrología (Madr.) ; 37(2): 118-125, mar.-abr. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-162165

RESUMO

El conocimiento de las vías de señalización implicadas en distintas enfermedades ha permitido avances en el entendimiento del modelo fisiopatológico, diagnóstico y terapéutico de varias enfermedades inflamatorias y autoinmunes. El lupus eritematoso sistémico es una enfermedad autoinmune ampliamente estudiada, la cual puede afectar múltiples órganos, con un importante impacto en la morbimortalidad cuando existe afectación renal. Durante los últimos 10 años ha aumentado el interés sobre el papel de la vía de señalización del TWEAK/Fn14 en la nefritis lúpica al igual que en otros escenarios clínicos. Este artículo realiza una revisión de la literatura del papel de esta vía dentro de la nefritis lúpica, recalca la importancia del TWEAK en orina (uTWEAK) como biomarcador de la enfermedad, indica los resultados favorables obtenidos en la inhibición de la vía del TWEAK/Fn14 como diana terapéutica en modelos experimentales animales publicados en la literatura y muestra su posible utilidad en otros escenarios. Los diferentes ensayos clínicos en curso y otras futuras investigaciones darán un mejor panorama en cuanto al beneficio real del bloqueo de esta vía en el curso clínico de estas enfermedades (AU)


Knowledge of the signalling pathways involved in various diseases has enabled advances in the understanding of pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic models of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a widely studied autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs, with a major impact on morbidity and mortality when it involves the kidneys. Over the past 10 years, interest in the role of the TWEAK/Fn14 signalling pathway in lupus nephritis, as well as other clinical settings, has increased. By reviewing the literature, this article assesses the role of this pathway in lupus nephritis, underlines the importance of TWEAK in urine (uTWEAK) as a biomarker of the disease and stresses the favourable results published in the literature from the inhibition of the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway as a therapeutic target in experimental animal models, demonstrating its potential application in other settings. Results of ongoing clinical trials and future research will give us a better understanding of the real benefit of blocking this pathway in the clinical course of several conditions (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Biomarcadores/análise , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/urina , Urinálise
20.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(4): 583-592, dic. 2016. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168366

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Late-stage AMD is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). miR-93 appears to play a role in regulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), a known factor involved in neovascularization. Understanding its biological significance might enable development of therapeutic interventions for diseases like AMD. We aimed to determine the role of miR-93 in AMD using a laser-induced CNV mouse model. CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in C57BL/6 mice. The CNV mice were transfected with scrambled miR or miR-93 mimic. The treatment effect was assessed by fundus photography and fluorescein angiography and confirmed by choroidal flatmount. The expression of miR-93 and VEGF-A in ocular tissues was analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot. The overexpression effects of miR-93 were also proved on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Significantly decreased expression of miR-93 was observed by qPCR analysis in CNV mice compared to untreated mice (p < 0.05). VEGF-A messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were upregulated with CNV; these changes were ameliorated by restoration of miR-93 (p < 0.05). CNV was reduced after miR-93 transfection. Transfection of miR-93 reduced the proliferation of HMECs (p < 0.01), but no significant changes were observed in 2D capillary-like tube formation (p > 0.05) and migration (p > 0.05) compared with that in the untreated cells. miR-93 has been shown to be a negative modulator of angiogenesis in the eye. All together, these results highlight the therapeutic potential of miR-93 and suggest that it may contribute as a putative therapeutic target for AMD in humans (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Degeneração Macular/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Fotocoagulação/efeitos adversos , Angiofluoresceinografia
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