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1.
Dynamis (Granada) ; 38(1): 41-63, 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173239

RESUMO

Este artículo presenta una lectura de los principales tratados de cosmología publicados en Inglaterra durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI a partir del concepto de globo terráqueo. Considerando las discusiones en torno a la relación proporcional entre la tierra yel agua, se propone que los primeros autores en mencionar a Copérnico adoptaron la prueba geométrica expuesta en De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543), aunque sin citar directamente esta obra. Mientras Robert Recorde describe a grandes rasgos el argumento allí contenido, Thomas Hill reproduce textualmente la explicación del mismo ofrecida por Caspar Peucer ensus Elementa doctrinae de circulis coelestibus, et primo motu (1551). La presencia de la prueba matemática en favor del globo terráqueo, tiende a desaparecer en la medida que la teoría de la proporción décupla pierde relevancia hacia finales del siglo XVI (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
História do Século XVI , Ciências da Terra/história , Física/história , Astronomia/história , Astronomia/educação , Astronomia/métodos
2.
Asclepio ; 68(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-153976

RESUMO

As a supplement to John L. Heilbron’s account, I will argue that, although the label ‘experimental physics’ can be rightfully used to describe aspects of Petrus van Musschenbroek’s (1692-1761) work, the latter’s understanding of ‘physica’ is to be situated within a broader framework in which theological, philosophical and teleological considerations continued to play an important role. First, I will draw attention to Musschenbroek’s views on the scope of physica and especially to his conception of a law of nature. It will be shown that by radicalizing certain aspects of Isaac Newton’s methodological ideas van Musschenbroek no longer considered physics as the discipline that uncovered causes from effects, as Newton did, but as the discipline that studies the effects of unknown causes. In addition, I will show that van Musschenbroek endorsed the view that the laws of nature are contingent on God’s free will and that they are knowable due to his goodness. Second, it will be argued that for van Musschenbroek physics, alongside with teleology, had clear physico-theological repercussions. Along the way, van Musschenbroek’s views on the principle of sufficient reason will be discussed for the first time (AU)


Como complemento al relato de John L. Heilbron, argumentaré que aunque la etiqueta ‘física experimental’ se puede usar legítimamente para describir algunos aspectos de la obra de Petrus van Musschenbroek (1692-1761), la comprensión de la ‘physica’ de este último se ha de entender dentro de un marco más amplio en el que las consideraciones teológicas, filosóficas, y teleológicas continuaron desempeñando una función importante. En primer lugar, me centraré en la concepción de van Musschenbroek en el ámbito de la ‘physica’ y en especial en su concepto de una ley de la naturaleza. Se verá que, al radicalizar algunos aspectos de las ideas metodológicas de Isaac Newton, van Musschenbroek ya no se considera la física como la disciplina que descubre las causas de efectos, como hizo Newton, sino como la disciplina que estudia los efectos de causas desconocidas. Además, se verá que van Musschenbroek pensaba que las leyes de la naturaleza están supeditadas a la libre voluntad de Dios y que son cognoscibles debido a la bondad de Dios. En segundo lugar, argumentaré que para van Musschenbroek la física, junto con la teleología, tenía claras repercusiones físico-teológicas. En el camino, por primera vez discutirá su posición en relación con el principio de razón suficiente (AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Física/história , Teologia/história , Filosofia/história , Manuscritos como Assunto/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/métodos
3.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 9(1): 1-2, ene.-mar. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-146174

RESUMO

No disponible


No disponible


Assuntos
Optometria/tendências , Luz , Física/tendências , Prêmio Nobel
6.
Asclepio ; 67(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-140638

RESUMO

La tesis de la omnipotencia divina, según la cual Dios puede hacer cualquier cosa que no entrañe contradicción, fue usada por los teólogos bajomedievales como argumento escéptico contra las pretensiones de conocimiento de los físicos. La astronomía, una ciencia matemática, se limitaba a construir modelos de datos respetando los supuestos aceptables por la física que a su vez se debían subordinar a la teología. En el siglo XIV, el teólogo Nicolás de Oresme comparó los argumentos a favor de la rotación terrestre y a favor del giro de los cielos. Siendo un experto matemático y filósofo natural, concluyó la mayor plausibilidad de la primera hipótesis, aunque el escepticismo teológico lo llevó a considerar esas razones insuficientes y a declarar su falsedad por motivos bíblicos. La situación cambió en el siglo XVII. En primer lugar, la Reforma indujo entre los católicos un mayor fundamentalismo; en segundo lugar, los argumentos físicos de Galileo a favor del movimiento terrestre y su refutación del esquema ptolemaico por las fases de Venus hacían insostenible la equidistancia escéptica respecto a ambas posiciones; en tercer lugar, la falta de competencia científica de los actores eclesiásticos llevó a condenar a Galileo y declarar el heliocentrismo falso y formalmente herético (AU)


The Omnipotentia Dei absoluta thesis (any non-contradictory state of fact is possible) was used by theologians as a skeptical argument against any scientific claim unwarranted by biblical exegesis. Mathematical astronomy was bound to build models of data based on physically sound hypothesis acceptable to theology. Fourteenth century theologian Nicolas Oresme weighted the arguments pro Earth and Heavens rotation. Being an expert in mathematics and natural philosophy, concluded the higher plausibility of Earth’s rotation, but skeptical considerations declared those arguments insufficient and the opinion false for scriptural reasons. Seventeenth century setting was much different: Reform induced an increase of catholic fundamentalism, while Galileo’s physical arguments in support of Copernicanism, together with his refutation of Ptolemaic cosmology due to Venus phases, turned the skeptical balance between both systems untenable. Roman theologians being this time ignoramuses in mathematics and physics, condemned Galileo and declared heliocentrism false, physically absurd, and formally heretic (AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XVII , Teologia/história , Ciência/história , Astronomia/história , Física/história , 51648/história , Matemática/história , Matemática/métodos , Conhecimento , Religião/história , Religião e Ciência
8.
Dynamis (Granada) ; 35(2): 297-305, 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-144228

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to describe the early stages of Mexican nuclearization that took place in contact with radioisotopes. This history requires a multilayered narrative with an emphasis in North-South asymmetric relations, and in the value of education and training in the creation of international asymmetrical networks. Radioisotopes were involved in exchanges with the United States since the late 1940s, but also with Canada. We also describe the context of implementation of Eisenhower´s Atoms for Peace initiative in Mexico that opened the door to training programs at both the Comisión Nacional de Energía Nuclear and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Radioisotopes became the best example of the peaceful applications of atomic energy, and as such they fitted the Mexican nuclearization process that was and still is defined by its commitment to pacifism. In 1955 Mexico became one of the 16 members of the atomic fallout network established by the United Nations. As part of this network, the first generation of Mexican (women) radio-chemists was trained. By the end of the 1960s, radioisotopes and biological markers were being produced in a research reactor, prepared and distributed by the CNEN within Mexico. We end up this paper with a brief reflection on North-South nuclear exchanges and the particularities of the Mexican case (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , Radioisótopos/história , Medicina Nuclear/história , Medicina Nuclear/organização & administração , Medicina Nuclear/normas , Energia Nuclear/história , Física Nuclear/história , Análise por Ativação/história , Radioatividade , Biomarcadores , Radioquímica/história , Radioquímica/métodos , México/epidemiologia , Astronomia/história , Física/história , Contaminação Radioativa do Ar/história , Cinza Radioativa/efeitos adversos , Cinza Radioativa/história , Cinza Radioativa/prevenção & controle
9.
Ars pharm ; 55(4): 8-13, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-130951

RESUMO

Objetivos: Se han detectado claras deficiencias en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en las prácticas de la asignatura de «Física Aplicada a Ciencias de la Salud» del primer curso del Grado en Farmacia. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar un sencillo programa de evaluación que permita extraer información inmediata sobre la práctica docente, permitiendo modificar la secuencia de actividades y la metodología. Material y Métodos: Se emplearon idénticos cuestionarios iniciales y finales a la práctica docente que fueron diseñados en base a problemas y/o preguntas clave, trabajadas en clase. Los resultados fueron clasificados en distintos modelos y representados, de acuerdo con su complejidad, en escaleras de aprendizaje. Resultados: La clasificación de los resultados de los cuestionarios inicial y final en modelos de pensamiento mostró una evolución positiva del aprendizaje del alumnado. En concreto, el 57% de los alumnos evolucionó hacia esquemas de pensamientos más complejos en el caso de la práctica del Calor Específico, mientras que un 60% de los alumnos lo hicieron en el caso de la Práctica de Arquímedes. Conclusiones: Profesores y alumnos coinciden en que el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje resulta mucho más completo y atractivo cuando se fomenta la participación del alumno y la reflexión. Un objetivo en un futuro próximo es tratar de repetir esta experiencia en diferentes grupos de alumnos para comparar resultados, analizar con más profundidad las dificultades en la asimilación de conceptos y diseñar nuevas estrategias docentes


Aim: It have been detected clearly deficiencies in the teaching-learning process for the practice subject of «Physics Applied Health Sciences» which is taught in the first course of the Degree in Pharmacy. Therefore, the motivation of this work is the development of a simple evaluation program that permits to gain prompt information about the teaching process which allows the modification of the activities sequence and methodology. Materials and Methods: Identical initial and final questionnaires were employed in the teaching practice based on problems and/or key questions worked in class. The results were classified in different models and represented, according to their complexity, in stairs of learning. Results: The classification of the questionnaires results in model thinking denoted a positive evolution of the student learning. In particular, in the case of the Determination of the Specific Heat around a 57 % of the students evolved into more complex thoughts schemes, while a 60% of the students did the same for the Archimedes practice. Conclusion: Teachers and students concur that the teaching-learning process is much more complete and attractive when student participation and reflection was encouraged. A goal in the near future could be try to repeat this experience with students of different groups to compare results, analyze in depth the difficulties in the assimilation of concepts and the design of new teaching strategies


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia/tendências , Física/educação , Aprendizagem , Ensino/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 441-461, 2014. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127964

RESUMO

The research field of intuitive physics focuses on discrepancies between theoretical and intuitive physical knowledge. Consideration of these discrepancies can help in the teaching of elementary physics. However, evidence shows that theoretical and intuitive physical knowledge may also be congruent. Physics teaching could further benefit from understanding the reasons for this congruence. The present study explored these reasons by investigating the intuitive physics of the equilibrium of the lever and of the hydraulic pressures. It was found that the intuitive-physics law of the lever was multiplicative for all participants while the intuitive-physics law of the hydraulic pressures differed among participants. Since these laws are equally simple and the layman probably has had extensive experience with the lever and scarce or no experience with the hydraulic lift, these findings support the general hypothesis that physical laws and corresponding intuitive-physics laws are congruent when people have had experience with the respective phenomena. The results and theoretical considerations suggest two strategic principles for teaching elementary physic (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Física , Ensino , Intuição , Psicologia Experimental
11.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 463-477, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127965

RESUMO

In this study, the intuitive physics of free fall was explored using Information Integration Theory and Functional Measurement. The participants had to rate the speed of objects differing in mass and height of release at the end of an imagined free fall. According to physics, falling speed increases with height of release but it is substantially independent of mass. The results reveal that the participants hold a strong mass-speed belief, i.e., they believe that heavier objects fall faster than lighter ones. Mass a nd height of release are integrated according to a multiplicative rule. The results are interpreted as providing support to the hypothesis of the perceptual-motor origin of the mass-speed belief. Implications of the results for physics education are discussed (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Física , Intuição , Psicologia Experimental/métodos
12.
Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.) ; 35(3): 479-502, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127966

RESUMO

Newton's cradle, a device consisting of a chain of steel balls suspended in alignment, has been used extensively in physics teaching to demonstrate the principles of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in elastic collisions. The apparent simplicity of the device allows one to test commonly hold views regarding the intuitive understanding of physics by lay people. We present and discuss the results of two experiments wherein the extension of the chain, the height of release (experiment 1) and the material of the balls (experiment 2) were systematically varied in graphical depictions of the Newton’s cradle. Participants had to estimate the height that the last ball in the chain would reach if a collision took place. The outcomes revealed a sophisticated cognitive model wherein the magnitude of the displacement of the target ball increased in direct proportion with the acceleration of the launcher and in inverse proportion with the number of balls in the chain. The results closely mimicked the predicted behavior of a Newton’s cradle if the collisions were not perfectly elastic. This isomorphism shows that judgments of physical events are not detached from the environment, as one seldom sees a perfectly elastic collision, and it speaks unfavorably to the hypothesis that, in such tasks, people rely on simple heuristics (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cognição , Física , Intuição , Previsões , Psicologia Experimental/métodos
13.
Asclepio ; 65(2): 1-13[p20], jul.-dic. 2013. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-118795

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio es presentar la documentación de los términos referidos a aparatos en textos de Física experimental del siglo XVIII y realizar su análisis léxico y lexicográfico. A partir de la metodología de trabajo del grupo NEOLCYT (http://seneca.uab.es/neolcyt), se pretende sentar las bases para la elaboración de un Diccionario histórico del español moderno de aparatos de Física experimental (DHEMAFE) como parte del Diccionario histórico del español moderno de la ciencia y de la técnica (DHEMCYT) del grupo NEOLCYT. 
Los resultados del análisis de los datos muestran que los textos analizados tuvieron una influencia decisiva en el desarrollo de la Física experimental en España y permitieron la divulgación de neologismos referidos a aparatos en este periodo. Los textos que conforman el corpus de análisis presentan un porcentaje muy elevado de términos no documentados ni en nuestra lexicografía (31,37%) ni en el CORDE (83,4%), datos que refuerzan la necesidad de seguir en esta línea de investigación de cara a la elaboración del DHEMAFE (AU)


The aim of this study, as an example of group work methodology NEOLCYT (http://seneca.uab.es/neolcyt), is to document terms relating to devices in the 18th c. Spanish texts on experimental physics and their lexicographical and lexical analysis. It attempts to state the methodological bases to create the Diccionario histórico del español moderno de aparatos de Física experimental (DHEMAFE) as part of the Diccionario histórico del español moderno de la ciencia y de la técnica (DHEMCYT) by NEOLCYT group.
The results of the data analysis show that the analyzed texts are essential because they had a decisive influence on the development of Experimental Physics in Spain and allowed disclosure of neologisms in that period, relating to machines. The texts of our corpus collect a very high percentage of undocumented terms, both in our lexicography (31,37%) and in the CORDE (83,4%). This fact reinforces the need to continue this line of research trigger in the development of DHEMAFE as part of DHEMCYT (AU)


Assuntos
Física/história , Ciência/história , História do Século XVIII , Dicionários como Assunto , Terminologia como Assunto
15.
Asclepio ; 65(1): 1-12[6], ene.-jun. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-115046

RESUMO

El presente artículo se orienta a la reconstrucción de los modelos cosmológicos de la escuela de Cachemira (s. IV), registrados en el compendio de la escuela sarvāstivāda-vaibhāsika titulado Abhidharmakośabhāsya, atribuido al monje budista Vasubandhu. Se identifican algunas de las fuentes textuales que dieron lugar a estos modelos y se describe con detalle su estructura general, compuesta de tres ámbitos (sensible, materia sutil e inmaterial). Se analizan algunas de las características más relevantes del espacio y del tiempo y su relación con la vida consciente, descubriéndonos unos modelos cosmológicos inéditos entre sus contemporáneas grecolatinos (AU)


The present article focuses on the reconstruction of the cosmological models from the school of Kashmir (fourth century), as they are registered in the compendium of sarvāstivāda-vaibhāsika school, attributed to the Buddhist monk Vasubandhu and titled Abhidharmakośabhāsya. The articles identifies the different textual sources of the cosmological models and describes its general structure, based in three realms (sensible, subtle matter and immaterial). It analyzes the relevant characteristics of the concepts of Space and Time, discovering and unusual model in comparison with the contemporaries cosmologies from the Mediterranean (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Existencialismo/história , Existencialismo/psicologia , Processos Mentais/ética , Competência Mental/classificação , Competência Mental/psicologia , Física/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/história , Ciência/história , Movimento (Física)
16.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 56(2): 109-114, 16 ene., 2013. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-109368

RESUMO

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) fue uno de los principales inventores de la historia, hombre clave en la revolución que supuso el empleo de la electricidad a gran escala. Realizó también aportaciones en campos tan diversos como los rayos X, el control remoto, la radio, la teoría de la conciencia o el electromagnetismo. Como homenaje, la unidad internacional de inducción magnética recibió su nombre. Sin embargo, su fama es escasa en comparación con la de otros inventores de la época, como Edison, con quien sostuvo enconadas disputas. Persona peculiar y huraña, vivía para unos inventos que concebía a base de momentos de inspiración, que relaciona en su autobiografía con diversas manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas, entre las que se pueden reconocer auras migrañosas, sinestesias, obsesiones y compulsiones (AU)


Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Raios X , Eletricidade/história , Enxaqueca com Aura/história , Enxaqueca com Aura/terapia , Neurologia/história , Neurologia , Física/história , Radiografia/história , /história , Prêmio Nobel , Tecnologia Radiológica/história , Neuropsiquiatria/história
18.
Asclepio ; 63(1): 179-192, ene.-jun. 2011.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-90496

RESUMO

Este artículo examina la traducción hecha por Diego Hurtado de Mendoza de la Mecánica aristotélicaen el contexto del ambiente científico-humanista italiano de mediados del siglo XVI. Apartir del análisis de los últimos problemas sobre dinámica, se demuestra su estrecha relación conlas obras de Piccolomini y Cardano; sugiriéndose además la originalidad de la interpretación hechapor el autor español del problema XXXIV basada en la combinación de la física tardomedieval y laexplicación aristotélica(AU)


This article considers Diego Hurtado de Mendoza’s translation of the Aristotelian Mechanics inrelation to the humanistic and scientific Italian environment of the Renaissance. From the analysisof the last problems on dynamics, it demonstrates the affinity with the works of Piccolomini andCardano. It also shows the originality of the exegesis made by the Spanish author of ProblemXXXIV, in which he combines latemedieval physics with the Aristotelian explanation(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Mecânica , Física , Movimento (Física) , Ar
19.
Asclepio ; 63(1): 221-248, ene.-jun. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-90498

RESUMO

Este artículo habla de la experiencia de Thomas Kuhn como físico: su educación en la disciplina,su servicio como experto durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y su investigación doctoral.Estudiamos un lapso de tiempo que va de 1940 a 1951. El objetivo en última instancia es ofrecerbase empírica para valorar una afirmación como la de Mara Beller (1999), que dice que la descripciónkuhniana de la ciencia normal está parcialmente basada en circunstancias y experiencias personales,no sólo en los datos históricos o en la evidencia disponible de la sociología de la ciencia.En este artículo se establece que dicha tesis es plausible(AU)


This paper deals with Thomas Kuhn’s experience as a physicist — his training in the field, hisbrief period as a physicist during World War II, and his doctoral research — from 1940 to 1951. Itsaim is to offer a basis to assess statements as Mara Beller’s (1999) that Kuhn’s account of normalscience is partially founded on personal circumstances and experience, and not only on the historicalrecord or available evidence from the sociology of science — a thesis here considered highlycredible(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciência/história , Física/história , Educação Superior
20.
Asclepio ; 62(1): 251-268, ene.-jun. 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-87882

RESUMO

Sobre las teorías de Mach (TD de R. Musil) rebate que la representación científica tienda a construir un claro y completo inventario de hechos. Pues Mach se ve obligado a presuponer relaciones constantes en la naturaleza; pero esta regularidad de los fenómenos implica que la ley es algo más que cierto «cuadro», que las meras dependencias que defiende están en un segundo plano y que una relación teórica en física es mucho más que una relación de orden. Su concepción de laeconomía científica como «adaptación natural» significa un monismo biológico opuesto a las dualidades propias de un empirista (AU)


On Mach’s Theories (DT of R. Musil) rejects that the scientific representation tends to build a clear and complete inventory of facts. Mach finds himself obliged to presuppose constant relationshipsin nature; but this regularity of phenomena implies that the law is something more than a «table», that its mere dependencies are pushed into the background, and that a theoretical relationship in Physics is much more than an order relationship. His conception of scientific economy as a «natural adaptation» implies a biological monism opposed to the characteristic dualities of an empiricist (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , Expedições/ética , Expedições/história , Expedições/estatística & dados numéricos , Economia/história , Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pensamento/classificação , Pensamento/ética , Planejamento/história , Planejamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Física/história , Física/métodos , Física/normas , Expedições/economia , Expedições/psicologia , Planejamento/efeitos adversos , Planejamento/métodos , Planejamento/políticas
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