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2.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(9): 569-573, nov. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189573

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La notificación de un caso de hepatitis A en un manipulador de alimentos de una pastelería y de 5 casos en trabajadores de una empresa tras consumir productos de la misma dio lugar a una investigación de brote. MÉTODOS: Se definieron como casos las personas con infección por el virus de la hepatitis A (VHA) confirmada por el laboratorio, con comienzo de síntomas en junio y que, durante el periodo de incubación, trabajaron con el manipulador y/o tuvieron contacto estrecho con él y/o consumieron productos de la pastelería. Se realizó una encuesta epidemiológica y se tomaron muestras de sangre para analizar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-hepatitis A. Se realizó la caracterización molecular por PCR, secuenciación de la región VP1/2A y análisis filogenético con el método de máxima verosimilitud, bootstrap 1000 (software MEGA 7.0). RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 14 casos primarios: 11 relacionados con el consumo de productos de la pastelería, 2 compañeros de trabajo del manipulador y un contacto familiar. Los 12 virus secuenciados eran genotipo IA, coincidiendo con una de las cepas (RIVM-HAV16-090) responsable de los brotes producidos en ese momento en Europa y que afectaban fundamentalmente a hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. CONCLUSIONES: Se debería reforzar la vacunación frente al VHA de grupos de riesgo para prevenir brotes futuros. La implementación del uso del tipado molecular en casos de hepatitis A podría mejorar la investigación de brotes, que se puede esperar que aumenten en el futuro debido al descenso de inmunidad en la población


INTRODUCTION: The reporting of one case of hepatitis A in a food handler at a bakery and five cases in employees of a company after consuming products from the same bakery prompted an outbreak investigation. METHODS: Outbreak cases were defined as individuals with laboratory-confirmed hepatitis A (HAV) infection, with symptoms which started in June and who, during the incubation period, worked with the food handler and/or had close contact with him and/or consumed products from the bakery. Epidemiologic questionnaires were performed and blood samples were obtained to be tested for the presence of anti-hepatitis A antibodies. Molecular characterisation was carried out by PCR, sequencing of the VP1/2A region and phylogenetic analysis with the maximum likelihood estimation method, bootstrap 1000 (MEGA 7.0 software). RESULTS: A total of 14 primary hepatitis A cases were identified: eleven cases related to the consumption of products from the bakery, two cases among co-workers of the food handler, and one case was a household contact. All 12 sequenced viruses were genotype IA, matching one of the strains (RIVM-HAV16-090) responsible for the outbreaks occurring at that time in Europe, mostly affecting men who have sex with men. CONCLUSIONS: HAV vaccination of at-risk groups should be reinforced in order to prevent future outbreaks. Increasing the use of molecular typing in hepatitis A cases could improve the investigation of outbreaks, which can be expected to increase in the future because of decreasing immunity in the population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/etiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hepatite A/transmissão , Hepatite A/sangue , Saúde Pública/métodos
3.
Int. microbiol ; 22(2): 289-296, jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184835

RESUMO

Wheat gluten proteins are decisive for the industrial properties of flour, so alterations resulting from grain infection with Fusarium graminearum produce changes in the glutenin content that affect the baking properties. This work analyzes the high-molecular-weight glutenin changes from wheat flour with different degrees of F. graminearum infection at field, since these proteins are determinant for the quality properties of flour. Wheat cultivars-on field trials-infected with F. graminearum isolates of diverse aggressiveness showed severity values between 9.1 and 42.58% and thousand kernel weight values between 28.12 and 32.33 g. Negative correlations between severity and protein content and positive correlations between yield and protein content were observed, employing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the protein signal changes were in agreement for both methodological approaches. Also, the degree of disease observed and the protein changes on infected wheat cultivars varied in relation with the aggressiveness of the isolate responsible for the infection. The principal component analysis showed a close arrangement among protein values obtained by HPLC. For each cultivar, two principal components were obtained, which explained 80.85%, 88.48%, and 93.33% of the total variance (cultivars Sy200, AGP Fast, and Klein Tigre respectively). To our knowledge, the approaches employed for the analysis of protein changes according to the degree of disease, as well as the thorough statistical analysis, are novel for the study of Fusarium Head Blight


No disponible


Assuntos
Triticum/microbiologia , Farinha/microbiologia , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Proteínas de Grãos/análise , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Fungos/patogenicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glutens/análise , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/métodos
4.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(3): 249-254, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183744

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir y analizar desde el punto de vista clínico y epidemiológico un brote de toxiinfección alimentaria en una institución de enfermos psiquiátricos de Granada, en 2015, y examinar si el tratamiento con psicofármacos constituye un factor de riesgo para desarrollar una toxiinfección alimentaria, analizando los grados de susceptibilidad según el grupo terapéutico consumido. Método: Estudio ambispectivo de cohortes. La unidad de análisis fueron los residentes. Se realizó búsqueda activa de casos, encuesta alimentaria y búsqueda de otros riesgos, e inspección alimentaria. Se estudiaron variables de persona, lugar y tiempo. Análisis descriptivo (frecuencias absolutas y relativas), cálculo de las tasas de ataque por pabellón y por menú. Análisis bivariado (ji al cuadrado, t de Student) y riesgo relativo como medida de la fuerza de asociación. Análisis multivariado mediante regresión logística para el análisis de riesgos de la medicación. Resultados: Se contabilizaron 18 casos con diarrea sin fiebre (periodo de incubación de 6-16 horas), de carácter leve y autolimitado. Las manifestaciones clínicas, la agrupación temporal de casos y las características de los alimentos ingeridos centraron la sospecha en una toxina bacteriana. A igualdad en el resto de variables, los grupos terapéuticos N03AF y N03AG confirieron mayor riesgo de enfermar (odds ratio [OR]: 8,626; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 2,050-36,308; p=0,003; y OR: 14,516; IC95%: 3,155-66,784; p=0,001, respectivamente). Conclusión: La disminución del tránsito intestinal causada por la administración de antiepilépticos puede aumentar el tiempo de exposición de la mucosa intestinal a la toxina, aumentando el riesgo de enfermar y de padecer complicaciones. Debe realizarse un esfuerzo higiénico suplementario en este tipo de instituciones para prevenir estas afecciones


Objective: To describe and analyse from a clinical and epidemiological point of view, a food borne outbreak in a psychiatric institution in Granada, in 2015, and to examine whether treatment with psychoactive drugs constitutes a risk factor for the development of a food borne disease, analysing the degree of susceptibility according to the therapeutic group consumed. Method: Ambispective cohort study. Residents were the unit of analysis. Our group carried out an active case search and a food survey. A search for other risks was developed as well as a food inspection. Location, time and individual variables were studied. A descriptive analysis was conducted (absolute and relative frequencies). Calculation of attack rates by building and by menu was made. Bi-variant analysis (Chi-square test, t-Student test) and relative risk were used as a measure of strength of association. For risk analysis of medication, a multivariate analysis using logistic regression was carried out. Results: 18 cases with diarrhoea without fever were found (incubation period from 6 to 16hours). Cases were mild and self-limiting. The clinical manifestations, the temporal grouping of cases and the characteristics of the ingested foods, focussed suspicion on a bacterial toxin. Being equal in the rest of variables, the N03AF, and N03AG therapeutic groups confer greater risk of disease (odds ratio [OR]: 8.626; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.050-36.308; p=0.003; and OR: 14.516; 95%CI: 3.155-66.784; p=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Decreased intestinal transit, caused by the administration of anticonvulsants, may increase exposure time of the intestinal mucosa to the toxin, increasing the risk of disease and suffering from complications. An additional hygienic effort should be made in this type of institution to prevent these pathologies


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/complicações , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 39(1): 101-106, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-184193

RESUMO

Introdução: O câncer é uma enfermidade caracterizada pelo crescimento desordenado de células anormais cujo tratamento pode desencadear imunossupressão. Pacientes imunossuprimidos são mais susceptíveis a micro-organismos oportunistas, que em contato com o organismo, podem levar a quadros infecciosos graves. Assim, a dieta para imunossuprimidos é utilizada com a finalidade de diminuir o risco de doenças transmitidas por alimentos, através da restrição de alimentos como vegetais crus e as frutas com casca fina. Objetivo: Verificar a qualidade microbiológica da dieta livre e a viabilidade de sua oferta para pacientes imunossuprimidos Métodos: Pesquisou-se nos meses de abril a maio de 2016, 120 amostras de componentes da dieta livre (arroz, feijão, prato proteico, guarnição, salada e fruta). As amostras foram submetidas à análise microbiológica de acordo com a legislação vigente para quantificação de Coliformes a 45ºC, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sulfito redutor e análise de presença de Salmonella sp, seguindo metodologia preconizada pela American Public Health Association. Resultados: Todas as amostras analisadas estavam em conformidade com a legislação vigente. Discussão: Estudos demonstram que a relação entre dieta para imunossuprimidos e diminuição do risco de contaminantes alimentares e infecção permanece contraditória. A prevalência de complicações ou desfechos clínicos desfavoráveis são maiores entre pacientes que ingerem a dieta neutropênica ou aparecem neutras, quando comparadas a dieta livre. Em contrapartida, a aceitação alimentar pela dieta neutropênica é reduzida e visível a piora do estado nutricional do paciente. Conclusão: Foi considerada viável a oferta de dieta livre aos pacientes imunossuprimidos


Introduction: Cancer is a disorder characterized by the disordered growth of abnormal cells whose treatment can trigger immunosuppression. Immunosuppressed patients are more susceptible to opportunistic microorganisms, which in contact with the organism, can lead to serious infectious conditions. Thus, the immunosuppressed diet is used to reduce the risk of foodborne illness by restricting foods such as raw vegetables and fruits with thin bark. Objective: Verify the microbiological quality of the geral diet and the viability of its offer for immunosuppressed patients.Methods: From April to May 2016, 120 samples of free diet components (rice, beans, protein plate, garnish, salad and fruit) were investigated. The samples were submitted to microbiological analysis according to the current legislation for the quantification of Coliforms at 45ºC, Staphylococcus coagulase positive, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sulfite reducer and analysis of the presence of Salmonella sp, following a methodology recommended by the American Public Health Association. Results: All samples analyzed were in compliance with current legislation. Discussion: Studies have shown that the relationship between diet for immunosuppressed and decreased risk of food contaminants and infection remains contradictory. The prevalence of unfavorable complications or clinical outcomes is greater among patients who ingest the neutropenic diet or appear neutral when compared to the geral diet. On the other hand, the food acceptance by the neutropenic diet is reduced and the deterioration of the nutritional status of the patient is visible. Conclusion: The availability of geral diet to immunosuppressed patients was considered feasible


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/fisiologia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais
8.
Rev. toxicol ; 36(2): 99-105, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191870

RESUMO

La defensa alimentaria se refiere principalmente a la contaminación intencional del suministro de alimentos, amenazando de esta manera la seguridad de la cadena agroalimentaria lo que puede significar grandes riesgos e inmensurables impactos. La prevención de la contaminación de los alimentos y la reducción de la probabilidad de la contaminación deliberada y el conocimiento de los peligros son los primeros pasos para construir unas estrategias efectivas de food defense y requieren un esfuerzo recurrente en toda la cadena de suministro de alimentos. La naturaleza intencional de estos riesgos ofensivos que se pueden originar en el entorno interno o externo de la industria alimentaria, significa que se deben considerar diferentes factores y se requieren diferentes tácticas para avanzar más allá de los enfoques de seguridad alimentaria comunes. Sin embargo, el conocimiento sobre técnicas básicas de defensa alimentaria sigue siendo limitado. En el presente estudio, se exploran conceptos básicos de food defense para delimitar la vulnerabilidad alimentaria a nivel del fabricante, los proveedores y los clientes de la industria alimentaria así como las bases de un sistema de vigilancia sensible y programas de capacitación en comunicación


Food defense refers mainly to the intentional contamination of the food supply, thus threatening the safety of the agri-food chain, which can mean great risks and huge impacts. The prevention of food contamination and the reduction of the likelihood of deliberate contamination and knowledge of hazards are the first steps to build effective food defense strategies and require a recurring effort throughout the food supply chain. The intentional nature of these offensive risks that may originate in the internal or external environment of the food industry means that different factors must be considered and different tactics are required to move beyond common food security approaches. However, knowledge about basic food defense techniques remains limited. In the present study, basic food defense concepts are explored to delimit food vulnerability at the level of the manufacturer, suppliers and customers of the food industry, as well as the foundations of a sensitive surveillance system and communication training programs


Assuntos
Humanos , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Contaminantes Químicos em Alimentos , Controle e Fiscalização de Alimentos e Bebidas , Bioterrorismo , United States Food and Drug Administration
9.
An Real Acad Farm ; 84(4): 359-374, oct.-dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178132

RESUMO

En este trabajo se incide en el tema de la adulteración de los alimentos en Gran Bretaña durante el siglo XVIII en la etapa previa a la creación de la "Society of Public Analysts". En la lucha contra el fraude alimentario y los aspectos que ello conlleva (analíticos, legales, educativos) radica el origen de esta asociación, que sigue a la "Chemical Society" en antigüedad en lo que respecta a las de ámbito científico. Theophilus Redwood, farmacéutico, uno de los héroes de la farmacia británica, fue su primer presidente. Con el tiempo "The Society of Public Analysts" pasa a ser "The Analytical Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry, que otorga el "Theophillus Redwood Award" a los analistas que se destacan además de por sus trabajos científicos por su capacidad de comunicación. Se comentan detalles de la vida de Redwood, de su vinculación con la "Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain", la "British Pharmacopeia", y la Farmacia Práctica. Redwood fue Presidente del 5º Congreso Internacional de Farmacia celebrado en Londres, una de las etapas previas a la creación de la Federación Internacional Farmacéutica (FIP)


The topic of adulteration in Great Britain during the 18th century before the formation of the Society of Public Analyst is dealt with in this paper. It is in the fight against the food fraud and relating subjects, e.g. analytical, legal and educational, where the origin of this society is found. This association of scientific area follows the "Chemical Society" in antiquity. Theophilus Redwood, pharmacist, one of the heroes of the British pharmacy was his first president. With the time "The Society of Public Analysts" became the Analytical Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry, who grants the Theophillus Redwood Award to praise analysts who are characterized by this communication ability in addition to this scientific work. Details of the life and work of Redwood are commented, as well as of his entail by the "Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain", the "British Pharmacopeia", and the Practical Pharmacy. Redwood was President of 5º International Congress of Pharmacy celebrated in London, one of the stages in the creation of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)


Assuntos
História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Contaminação de Alimentos , Farmacêuticos/história , Distinções e Prêmios , Sociedades Farmacêuticas/história , Sociedades Farmacêuticas/legislação & jurisprudência
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(n.extr.4): 155-158, sept. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181560

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to highlight the importance of testing in a realistic way, metallic nanoparticles-based products, used in the food sector in order to provide representative data for a realistic and accurate risk assessment. To this end we give a brief overview of the current use and applications of metallic nanoparticles in the food industry, how the toxicological evaluations of nanoparticles in food should be performed and how nanoparticles-based products are regulated worldwide. This brief overview work provides a picture of the latest issues on the safety evaluation of metallic nanoparticles in the food sector and identifies also some major points that are important to take into consideration for future studies


El objetivo de este trabajo fue resaltar la importancia de analizar de forma realista los productos que contienen nanopartículas metálicas utilizados en el sector alimentario a fin de proporcionar datos representativos para una evaluación de riesgos realista y precisa. Con este fin, presentamos una breve descripción del uso y de las aplicaciones actuales de las nanopartículas metálicas en la industria alimentaria, cómo deben realizarse sus evaluaciones toxicológicas en los alimentos y cómo están regulados los productos de nanopartículas a nivel internacional. Este breve trabajo general proporciona una visión de los problemas más actuales sobre la evaluación de la seguridad de las nanopartículas metálicas en el sector alimentario e identifica también algunos puntos importantes a tener en cuenta para futuros estudios


Assuntos
Humanos , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade
11.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 35(1): 39-48, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-170921

RESUMO

Background. Xerophilic fungi represent a serious problem due to their ability to grow at low water activities causing the spoiling of low and intermediate moisture foods, stored goods and animal feeds, with the consequent economic losses. Aims. The combined effect of water activity and temperature of four Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds was investigated. Methods. Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium chevalieri, Eurotium repens and Eurotium rubrum were grown at 5, 15, 25, 37 and 45°C on malt extract agar adjusted with glycerol in the range 0.710-0.993 of water activities. Results. The cardinal model proposed by Rosso and Robinson (2001) was applied to fit growth data, with the variable water activity at fixed temperatures, obtaining three cardinal water activities (awmin, awmax, awopt) and the specific growth rate at the optimum aw (μopt). A probabilistic model was also applied to define the interface between growth and no-growth. The cardinal model provided an adequate estimation of the optimal aw to grow and the maximum growth rate. The probabilistic model showed a good performance to fit growth/no-growth cases in the predicted range. Conclusions. The results presented here could be applied to predict Eurotium species growth in animal feeds (AU)


Antecedentes. Los hongos xerófilos son un problema importante debido a su capacidad de crecer a bajas actividades del agua, lo que causa el deterioro de alimentos a humedades bajas e intermedias, de materias primas almacenadas y de piensos para animales, con las consecuentes pérdidas económicas. Objetivos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio sobre el efecto de los factores ambientales (temperatura y actividad del agua) sobre el crecimiento de cuatro especies pertenecientes al género Eurotium aisladas de piensos para animales. Métodos. Se estudió el crecimiento de Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium chevalieri, Eurotium repens y Eurotium rubrum a valores de actividad de agua en el rango 0,710-0,993 en el medio de cultivo agar extracto de malta modificado con glicerol, y valores de temperatura de 5, 15, 25, 37 y 45°C. Resultados. El modelo cardinal propuesto por Rosso y Robinson (2001) se aplicó para realizar el ajuste de datos con la actividad del agua como variable a una temperatura fija; se obtuvieron tres valores cardinales de actividad del agua (awmin, awmax, awopt) y la tasa de crecimiento específico en el valor óptimo de aw (μopt). También se aplicó un modelo probabilístico para definir la interfase entre crecimiento y no crecimiento. El modelo cardinal presentó una adecuada estimación del awopt y la máxima velocidad de crecimiento. El modelo probabilístico fue adecuado para el ajuste de los casos de crecimiento/falta de crecimiento en el rango previsto. Conclusiones. Los resultados presentados en este artículo pueden aplicarse para pronosticar el crecimiento de especies de Eurotium en piensos para animales (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Eurotium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Temperatura
12.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (42): 5-22, mar. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170954

RESUMO

Se plantea la relevancia y legitimidad de sancionar penalmente la llamada responsabilidad por el producto, con independencia de la posible imputación por homicidios, lesiones o/y estafa. Se utiliza un ejemplo de fraude alimentario como evidencia de la estructura, relevancia y legitimidad de la responsabilidad penal por el producto. La responsabilidad penal requiere que el producto sea nocivo e idóneo para afectar la seguridad en el consumo


The main question of legality and relevance for criminal product liability regardless of judgment for homicide, injuries or/and fraud. Case of massive «fraud» is used as evidence for structure, relevance and legality of criminal product liability. Criminal liability requires a product, which is a threat to people's health


Es planteja la rellevància i legitimitat de sancionar penalment l'anomenada responsabilitat pel producte, amb independència de la possible imputació per homicidis, lesions o/i estafa. S'utilitza un exemple de frau alimentari com a evidència de l'estructura, rellevància i legitimitat de la responsabilitat penal pel producte. La responsabilitat penal requereix que el producte sigui nociu i idoni per afectar la seguretat en el consum


Assuntos
Humanos , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Responsabilidade Penal , Responsabilidade Contratual , Abastecimento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência
13.
J. physiol. biochem ; 74(1): 69-83, feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-178919

RESUMO

Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/etiologia , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saúde Global , Biotransformação , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade
14.
Rev. toxicol ; 35(1): 2-6, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176858

RESUMO

A study on fruit juice products (apple, pineapple, apricot, orange and pear) was carried out to determine the natural occurrence of fifteen mycotoxins by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A developed multi-mycotoxin procedure was carried out by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). 36% of the analyzed samples presented mycotoxin contamination. PAT was detected in orange, apple, mixed fruits and pineapple juices with prevalence of 86%, 60%, 29%, 14% at mean concentrations of 34.57 µg/L, 33.41 µg/L, 8.59 µg/L, 8.02 µg/L, respectively. One orange juice sample, exceeded the maximum level (ML) established by EU for PAT (50 µg/L). HT-2 toxin was found in mixed juice (43%) at mean level of 22.38 µg/L. Overall no toxicological concern was associated to mycotoxins exposure for children and adult population and the results obtained highlight the necessity for rigorous monitoring studies on HT-2 in fruit juice


Se presenta un estudio sobre zumos de frutas a base de manzana, piña, albaricoque, naranja y pera para determinar la presencia natural de quince micotoxinas mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas en tándem (EM/EM). El procedimiento desarrollado de multi-micotoxinas se llevó a cabo mediante micro-extracción líquida-líquida dispersiva (DLLME). El 36% de las muestras analizadas presentaron contaminación con micotoxinas y una muestra de jugo de naranja, superó el nivel máximo (ML) establecido por la UE para PAT (50 μg/L). Se detectó PAT en naranja, manzana, frutas mezcladas y jugos de piña con una prevalencia de 86%, 60%, 29%, 14% a concentraciones promedio de 34.57 μg/L, 33.41 μg/L, 8.59 μg/L, 8.02 μg/L, respectivamente. La toxina HT-2 estaba presente en el jugo mixto (43%) a un nivel medio de 22.38 μg/L. En general, ninguna preocupación toxicológica se asoció con la exposición a micotoxinas en la población de niños y adultos, los resultados ponen de relieve la necesidad de estudios rigurosos de monitoreo de HT-2 en el zumo de fruta


Assuntos
Humanos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Amostras de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise
15.
Rev. toxicol ; 35(2): 106-111, 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176872

RESUMO

In this work, 80 commercial samples of breadcrumbs, purchased from different supermarkets located in Valencia (Spain), were investigated for the presence of 11 legislated mycotoxins. Only 9 samples evidenced the presence of the legislated mycotoxins. The compounds detected were: ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2). The incidence of OTA was of 3.75% with concentrations ranging from 1.50 to 6.75 µg/kg. One sample showed a contamination level higher than the maximum legislated in Europe for OTA. Three samples were contaminated with ZEA at concentrations varying from 64.32 to 449.21 µg/kg; all values were higher than the maximum allowed by the legislation. T-2 and HT-2 were detected in two (18.25- 2700.48 µg/kg) and one (147.79 µg/kg) of the 80 samples, respectively. Finally, the estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of the detected mycotoxins, among the Valencian population, were calculated and the health risk assessment was performed. The calculated EDIs were all below the established tolerable daily intake values (TDI)


En este trabajo, 80 muestras comerciales de pan rallado, compradas en diferentes supermercados ubicados en Valencia (España), fueron investigadas por la presencia de 11 micotoxinas legisladas. Sólo 9 muestras evidenciaron la presencia de las micotoxinas legisladas. Los compuestos detectados fueron: ocratoxina A (OTA), zearalenona (ZEA), toxina T-2 (T-2) y toxina HT-2 (HT-2). La incidencia de OTA fue de 3.75% con concentraciones que van desde 1.50 a 6.75 µg / kg. Una muestra mostró un nivel de contaminación más alto que el máximo legislado en Europa para OTA. Tres muestras se contaminaron con ZEA en concentraciones que variaban de 64.32 a 449.21 µg / kg; todos los valores fueron superiores al máximo permitido por la legislación. T-2 y HT-2 se detectaron en dos (18.25-2700,48 µg / kg) y una (147.79 µg / kg) de las 80 muestras, respectivamente. Finalmente, se calcularon las ingestas dietéticas estimadas (EDI) de las micotoxinas detectadas, entre la población valenciana, y se realizó la evaluación del riesgo para la salud. Los EDI calculados estaban todos por debajo de los valores de ingesta diaria tolerable (TDI) establecidos


Assuntos
Humanos , Pão/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Micotoxicose/epidemiologia
16.
Asclepio ; 69(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169350

RESUMO

Con el presente trabajo pretendo explorar el agotamiento de la Sanidad franquista en torno a un ejemplo concreto, el de la lucha contra la leptospirosis en el mundo rural, en especial en torno al cultivo del arroz, comprobando las semejanzas y diferencias de dicho empeño con el de otros anteriores surgidos de la matriz médico-social. Dicha enfermedad endemoepidémica rural fue singularizada como enemigo en la posguerra, por sus consecuencias sobre la producción en momentos delicados del cultivo de arroz, como la siega, si bien no fue hasta 1953 cuando se comenzó a actuar con algún sistema, merced al primer acuerdo de asistencia técnica firmado con la OMS, que permitió la venida de Brenno Babudieri, un microbiólogo italiano de fama mundial en este campo, quien probó en España una vacuna. Pero las iniciativas fueron provinciales y no coordinadas, dependientes aparentemente de la voluntad de los Jefes Provinciales de Sanidad y centradas sólo en medidas de laboratorio (AU)


This paper focuses on a particular case of the public health administration under Franco which shows its decay in the rural areas. Leptospirosis was fought specially in the rice fields, and I afford to evaluate its similarities and disimilarities to previous health campaigns brought about by the idea of Social Medicine. It became a public health hazard after the Civil War, due to its consequences on delicate moments of rice production such as the harvest, although no organised measures were taken until 1953. It was thanks to the first agreement on technical assistance signed with the WHO, that allowed the arrival of Brenno Babudieri, a world famous Italian microbiologist on the matter, who tested a vaccine in Spain. But public health initiatives regarding leptospirosis were laboratory centered, scattered and apparently dependent on the will of the provincial medical officer (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Leptospirose/história , Oryza/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Medicina Social/história , Vacinas/análise , Testes Sorológicos
17.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 31(5): 371-381, sept.-oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-166615

RESUMO

Objective: To explore factors influencing perceptions and viewpoints on the responsibility for the presence of toxic substances in food, on enforcement of laws and regulations that control human exposure to toxic substances in food, and on the effectiveness of such regulations. Methods: An online survey was completed by 740 individuals from several parts of Spain (median age, 47 years; 67% were women; 70% had completed university studies). Results: Over 87% of respondents said that it was possible that throughout their lives they could have accumulated in their body toxic substances potentially dangerous to their health. The attribution of the responsibility for toxic substances in food to a larger number of social groups was more frequent among respondents who consulted information about the problem more often (odds ratio [OR]: 1.92), who correctly identified factors that increase the likelihood of toxic substances in food being harmful to human health (OR: 2.86), who better knew the health problems that may be caused by such substances (OR: 2.48), and who recognised more food groups that tend to have concentrations of toxic substances potentially harmful to health (OR: 2.92) (all p values <0.001). Women were 65% less likely than men to answer that regulations on toxic substances in food are effective (p<0.001); and so were participants who identified more food groups with potentially toxic concentrations. Conclusions: Among study participants there was a widespread scepticism and distrust towards the enforcement and effectiveness of laws and regulations that in Spain aim to control human exposure to toxic substances in food (AU)


Objetivo: Explorar factores que influyen en las percepciones y puntos de vista de los ciudadanos sobre la responsabilidad de la presencia de sustancias tóxicas en los alimentos, sobre la aplicación de las leyes que en España controlan la exposición humana a dichas sustancias y sobre la efectividad de tales leyes. Método: 740 personas de varias partes de España (mediana de edad, 47 años; 67% mujeres; 70% con estudios universitarios) completaron una encuesta en línea. Resultados: Más del 87% de las personas encuestadas consideraron que era posible que a lo largo de su vida hubiesen acumulado en su cuerpo sustancias tóxicas potencialmente peligrosas para su salud. Atribuir la responsabilidad sobre la presencia de sustancias tóxicas en los alimentos a un mayor número de grupos sociales fue más frecuente entre quienes declararon consultar con más frecuencia información sobre el problema (odds ratio [OR]: 1,92), quienes identificaron correctamente factores que aumentan la probabilidad de que las sustancias tóxicas en los alimentos sean perjudiciales para la salud humana (OR: 2,86), quienes conocían mejor los problemas de salud que pueden ser causados por dichas sustancias (OR: 2,48) y quienes señalaron más grupos de alimentos que tienden a tener concentraciones de tóxicos que pueden ser perjudiciales para la salud (OR: 2,92) (todos los valores de p <0,001). Las mujeres fueron un 65% menos propensas que los hombres a responder que las regulaciones legales sobre sustancias tóxicas en los alimentos son efectivas (p <0,001), y también lo fueron las personas que identificaron más grupos de alimentos con concentraciones potencialmente tóxicas. Conclusiones: Entre los/las participantes en el estudio hubo un amplio escepticismo y desconfianza respecto a la aplicación y la efectividad de la legislación que en España aspira a controlar la exposición humana a sustancias tóxicas en los alimentos (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos/toxicidade , Contaminantes Químicos em Alimentos , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Composição de Alimentos , Opinião Pública
18.
Sanid. mil ; 73(3): 147-152, jul.-sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167406

RESUMO

Introducción: El término Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga (STEC) abarca un grupo de patógenos alimentarios emergentes, implicados en numerosos brotes a nivel mundial. Son responsables de infecciones y enfermedades gastrointestinales graves tales como el síndrome urémico hemolítico (SUH) y la colitis hemorrágica (CH). Muchos alimentos han sido vinculados a estos brotes, destacando las carnes y derivados cárnicos crudos o insuficientemente cocinados. Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de STEC en carnes y derivados, de especies de abasto y cinegéticas, consumidas dentro de las Fuerzas Armadas (FAS). Material y Métodos: Se analiza-ron un total de 170 muestras recibidas en el Servicio de Bromatología y Seguridad Alimentaria, del Centro Militar de Veterinaria. Para determinar la presencia de STEC se empleó la técnica de PCR a tiempo real mediante el uso del kit comercial Custom TaqMan ISO STEC Screening Assay (Thermo Scientific (TM)), siguiendo las instrucciones del fabricante. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el programa SPSS. Resultados: La prevalencia de STEC en el total de las muestras analizadas fue de un 19,41 %. La hallada entre los preparados cárnicos de especies de abasto fue de un 25,42 %, mientras que la de derivados de carne de caza, fue de un 27,4 %. Los resultados obtenidos del cribado de STEC mostraron significación estadística. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan con la mayoría de estudios anteriormente publicados, recalcando la importancia que representa el control de este grupo de patógenos, pudiéndose ampliar el espectro de matrices a analizar, dada la potencial exposición de los consumidores de las FAS a estos agentes (AU)


Introduction: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is made up of a group of emerging food pathogens, impli-cated in numerous outbreaks worldwide. They are responsible for infections and serious gastrointestinal diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemorrhagic colitis (HC). Many foods have been linked to these outbreaks, with emphasis on raw or undercooked meat and meat products. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of STEC in meat and meat products from food-producing and game species, consumed within the Armed Forces (AF). Material and Methods: We analyzed a total of 170 samples received in the Service of Bromatology and Food Safety, of the Veterinary Military Center. To determine the presence of STEC, real-time PCR technique was performed using the "Custom TaqMan ISO STEC Screening Assay" kit (Thermo Scientific(TM), following the manufacturer’s instructions. Statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS.program. Results: The prevalence of STEC in the to-tal amount of samples analyzed was 19.41%. Prevalence of meat products from food-producing species was 25.42%, whereas the one from game meat was 27.4%. The results obtained from the STEC screening showed statistical significance. Conclusions: The results obtained agree with most of previously published studies, emphasizing the importance of surveillance. Expanding the spectrum of matrices to analyze could be an interest approach, given the potential exposure of AF consumers to these agents (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Carne/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Higiene Militar/tendências , Alimentação Coletiva , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
20.
Int. microbiol ; 20(2): 75-84, jun. 2017. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-164432

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from mustard pickles in República de China for potential probiotic applications. Among 39 collected LAB strains, four most productive EPS-producing strains were selected for further analysis. Comparative analyses of 16S rDNA genes rpoA and pheS sequences demonstrated that these strains were members of Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG). NCD 2, NLD 4, SLC 13, and NLD 16 showed survival rates of 95.83% ± 0.49%, 95.07% ± 0.64%, 105.84% ± 0.82%, and 99.65% ± 0.31% under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, respectively. No cytotoxic effects on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were observed when they were treated with a low dose (1 μg/ml) of stimulants extracted from the tested LAB strains. The production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells incubated with various LAB stimulants showed a dose-dependent increase. Among the four strains, SLC 13 showed higher inhibitory activity on growth of Enterococcus faecalis (BCRC 12302) and Yersinia enterocolitica (BCRC 10807). NLD 4 showed strong inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43894) as compared with the other three strains. In summary, our results suggest that Lactobacillus pentosus SLC 13 may be a good candidate for probiotic applications and for development of antibacterial compounds (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Probióticos/análise , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos/análise , Compostos de Mostarda/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia
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