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1.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (238): 69-79, oct.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188444

RESUMO

En los últimos años, la integración laboral de personas con trastorno mental grave está teniendo una mayor presencia como objetivo fundamental de intervención. En esta línea, además de ser una fuente de ingresos, el trabajo proporciona una actividad rutinaria, una estructura diaria, un incremento en las relaciones sociales, una identidad personal y un sentido de utilidad. Los centros de rehabilitación laboral (CRL) están dirigidos a atender a aquellas personas con problemas de salud mental con dificultades en el acceso al mundo laboral. Asimismo, el CRL lleva a cabo un trabajo de sensibilización y mejora con las empresas para que estas personas sean trabajadoras de pleno derecho, siendo el contexto laboral un lugar de crecimiento profesional y personal. Objetivo: conocer la percepción de los riesgos psicosociales de los trabajadores atendidos en los CRL de la Comunidad de Madrid y conocer las estrategias de afrontamiento para la gestión de dichos riesgos. Método: diseño transversal con una muestra de 175 usuarios, con al menos 3 meses trabajando, sin encontrarse en situación de pluriempleo. Los datos del estudio se recogen mediante un cuestionario ad hoc de información sociodemográfica, laboral y clínica, un cuestionario de evaluación de riesgos psicosociales DECORE (Luceño y Martín, 2008) y el inventario de estrategias de afrontamiento CSI (Tobin, Holroyd, Reynolds y Kigal, 1989. Adaptación por Cano, Rodríguez y García, 2006). Conclusiones: ante la percepción de estresores tales como la gestión de imprevistos y conflictos relacionales, habría que desarrollar intervenciones que fomenten el sentido de competencia de las personas para que sean capaces de resolver situaciones cotidianas y así poder reducir conductas de evitación. Por otro lado, los estresores que han podido ser identificados en el estudio, no siempre guardan relación con el contexto laboral, siendo los ámbitos personal y familiar elementos importantes a los que se les debe prestar atención desde los CRL. Es necesario prestar especial cuidado desde el contexto empresarial en los cambios que en ocasiones se producen en las funciones de los puestos de trabajo e incluso en las condiciones laborales, en la recompensa hacia los trabajadores y en el clima laboral. Los bajos salarios limitan el desarrollo de un proyecto vital que además incluya la independencia y emancipación de la persona


In recent years, laboral integration of people with severe mental disorder is getting special attention, becoming primary objective for intervention procedures. In this direction, apart from being a flow of income, work assures a rutine, diary structure, an increase of social relationships, personal identity y a feel of worthisness. Laboral rehabilitation centers (CRL) are directed to attend those people with mental disorders whom have difficulties accesing to labour. At the same time, CRL has the role of raising the awareness of businesses in matter of improving work conditions of these people, being laboural context an axis of growth, personal and proffesional. Objective: know the perception of psychosocial risks of workers atended on CRL centers of Madrid's Comunity and know the strategies to confront the management of those risks. Method: transversal desing with a simple of 175 users, with at least 3 months of work experience, without being working in multiple jobs. Data of the study have been collected by an ad hoc questionnaire compounded with sociodemographic, laboural and clinical information, an evaluation of psychosocial risks questionnaire DECORE (Luceño y Martín, 2008) y the inventory of coping strategies CSI (Tobin, Holroyd, Reynolds y Kigal, 1989. Adaptation by Cano, Rodríguez y García, 2006). Conclusions: under the perception of shears such as the management of contingencies and relational conflicts, there has to be developed interventions that encourage people's sense of ability, feeling then able to solve everyday situations, so that they can reduce avoidance behaviors. On the other hand, the shears identified in the study, doesn't allways have relation with laboural context, but with personal and family matters, major elements which need attention from CRL centers. Taking care of the business context is a key factor on the changes that under some circumstances happend over job roles and conditions, even in rewards and working climate. Low wages limit the development of a vital Project, including Independence and self maintenanc


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Saúde do Trabalhador , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , 25783 , 24960 , Impacto Psicossocial , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Variância , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Asclepio ; 71(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191048

RESUMO

Este trabajo estudia los diferentes espacios en que aparece registrada la locura en el Gran Ducado de Toscana durante el siglo XVIII. A partir de la revisión de expedientes de interdicción por incapacidad mental, archivos de justicia criminal, archivos de policía y registros hospitalarios, propone una aproximación a la historia de la locura basada en el análisis comprensivo de las vinculaciones entre las distintas instancias en que se debatió sobre sus características, se evaluaron sus consecuencias y se elaboraron estrategias para hacerle frente. Este enfoque revela que las alternativas existentes para sobrellevar la enfermedad mental funcionaban como respuestas temporales y flexibles que constituían una red de instancias que podían ser recorridas de distintas maneras. Sugiere que el estudio de estos itinerarios, sus actores y lenguajes resulta fundamental para comprender en toda su magnitud la forma en que fueron concebidas y enfrentadas las perturbaciones mentales en el siglo XVIII. En particular, sostiene que su funcionamiento dio pie a un debate social sobre los indicadores y significados de la locura que serviría de insumo para la sistematización del conocimiento psiquiátrico


This study explores the different spaces where madness was recorded in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany during the eighteenth century. Drawing from interdiction procedures, criminal records, records of the police and hospital records, it proposes an approach to the history of madness based on a comprehensive analysis of the connections between the different spaces where people debated about the characteristics and consequences of madness and developed strategies to deal with it. This analytical strategy discloses that the mechanisms for dealing with madness were temporary and flexible responses that functioned as a network that could follow different courses. The study suggests that these itineraries, its agents and languages are essential to fully grasp how mental afflictions were conceived and managed in the eighteenth century. Particularly, it argues that the way they functioned gave origin to a social debate about the indicators and signs of madness that contributed to the systematization of psychiatric knowledge


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XVIII , Transtornos Mentais/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Hospitalização/tendências , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Defesa do Paciente/história , Pacientes Internados/história , Tratamento Psiquiátrico Involuntário/história , Estratégias Locais , Negociação
3.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Neuropsiquiatr ; 39(135): 67-90, ene.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186382

RESUMO

Se realiza un estudio sobre la introducción de la palabra "psiquiatría" en los diccionarios españoles, lo mismo convencionales que especializados en medicina, para conocer de esta forma el posible origen del término, los cambios de acepción que ha experimentado con los años o su tardía presencia en el Diccionario de la Real Academia Española. También se rastrea la presencia de este mismo vocablo en la prensa española de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, tanto la de carácter político o cultural como la de medicina y ciencias en general. Llama la atención que, aparentemente, el término "psiquiatría" tarda en incorporarse al léxico profesional y al del público en general, pues, aunque aparece por primera vez en una revista médica en 1861, no será hasta la última década del siglo XIX cuando se haga un hueco en la literatura periodística española. Cabe destacar también la frecuencia con la que aparece el término en los textos que tratan sobre la responsabilidad civil de los enfermos mentales


This paper shows the results of a study carried out on the introduction of the word "psychiatry" in Spanish dictionaries, both in conventional ones and in those specialized in medicine. One of the goals of this work is to know the possible origin of the term, the changes of meaning that has experienced over the years and its late presence in the Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy. It also traces the presence of this word in the Spanish press of the second half of the nineteenth century, both in the political or cultural press and in the medical and scientific one. There is evidence that it took a long time for the term "psychiatry" to be incorporated into the professional and general vocabulary. In 1861, the word "psychiatry" appeared for the first time in a medical journal, but it was not until the last decade of the nineteenth century that it was commonly found in the Spanish journalistic literature. We would like to emphasize the frequency with which it shows up in texts about civil responsibilities of people with mental disorders


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , Percepção Social , Psiquiatria/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Jornalismo Médico/história , Formação de Conceito , História do Século XX , Responsabilidade Social , Dicionários como Assunto , 50135 , Terminologia como Assunto
4.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 45(2): 59-66, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188601

RESUMO

Introducción: La valoración psiquiátrico-forense del riesgo de radicalización terrorista en el enfermo mental tiene especial interés para la evaluación de la peligrosidad criminal; especialmente a raíz de las recientes investigaciones sobre los denominados lobos solitarios, que indican una elevada prevalencia de enfermedad mental dentro de este tipo de terroristas. Metodología: Análisis de la validez predictiva del Protocolo de Evaluación de Radicalización Terrorista (TRAP-18) para predecir futuros incidentes violentos de carácter extremista en una muestra representativa de 44 pacientes con trastorno mental grave en situación de exclusión social y con antecedentes penitenciarios. Resultados: El análisis de curvas ROC indicó que la puntuación total de la TRAP-18 (AUC 1,00, p = 0,018) tiene una alta validez predictiva. Conclusiones: El TRAP-18 podría resultar una útil herramienta para la valoración del riesgo de radicalización terrorista en el enfermo mental; especialmente en el colectivo de personas con trastorno mental grave en situación de exclusión social y con antecedentes penitenciarios, los cuales presentan un mayor riesgo potencial de radicalización terrorista como lobos solitarios


Introduction: The forensic-psychiatric assessment of the risk of terrorist radicalisation in the mentally ill patient is of special interest for the evaluation of criminal dangerousness. This particularly relevant in ligh of the recent investigations into so-called lone-wolves, which indicate a high prevalence of mental illness within this type of terrorist. Methodology: Analysis of the predictive validity of the Terrorist Radicalisation Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) to predict future violent incidents of an extremist nature in a representative sample of 44 patients with severe mental illness in situations of social exclusion and with a prison history. Results: The ROC Curves analysis indicated that the total score of TRAP-18 (AUC 1.00, P=.018) has a high predictive validity. Conclusions: TRAP-18 could be a useful tool for assessing the risk of terrorist radicalisation in the mentally ill patient,; especially in the group of people with severe mental illness in situations of social exclusion and with a prison record, who have a greater potential risk of terrorist radicalistion as lone-wolves


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Terrorismo/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
5.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 42(2): 132-138, feb. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186839

RESUMO

IntroduccIón. El estudio de la adaptación y las estrategias de afrontamiento es un área de interés fundamental para la enfermera. La identificación de las respuestas inefectivas en la adaptación y el afrontamiento a la enfermedad le permite planificar estrategias de intervención en cuidados que mejoren la calidad de vida y el funcionamiento social de las personas con enfermedad mental. ObjetIvos. Realizar la validación transcultural al español de España de la es-cala CAPS. Pacientes y métodos. Estudio analítico, transversal, con muestreo intencional de expertos para la obtención de datos y la elaboración de la versión final del instrumento (escala de medición del proceso de adaptación y afrontamiento de Callista Roy). Para la comprobación de la validez interna, se realizó la valoración en su totalidad por un grupo de sujetos sanos que determinaron la comprensión. Las dimensiones evaluadas fueron aspectos de contenidos del lenguaje, expresiones y aportaciones de los expertos, así como la claridad, precisión y comprensión por parte de ambos grupos. Resultados. Con este estudio se logró validar la escala de medición del pro-ceso de adaptación y afrontamiento de Callista Roy mediante el método Delphi. Conclusiones. La importancia de tener un instrumento validado que mida la adaptación y el afrontamiento permite reconocer los comportamientos de las personas, especialmente las que padecen un trastorno de salud mental


Introduction. The study of adaptation and coping strategies is an area of fundamental interest for the nurse. The identification of ineffective responses in adaptation and coping with the disease allows her to plan strategies to intervention in care that improve the quality of life and social functioning of people with mental illness. Objectives. To carry out the transcultural validation of the CAPS scale in Spain Spanish. Patients and methods. Analytical, cross-sectional study with intentional sampling of experts to obtain data and the preparation of the final version of the instrument (scale measuring the process of adaptation and coping with Callista Roy). To check the internal validity, we performed the assessment in its entirety by a group of healthy subjects who determined understanding. The dimensions evaluated were aspects of language content, expressions and contributions of the experts, as well as clarity, precision and understanding on the part of both groups. Results. With this study, it was possible to validate the scale of measurement of the process of adaptation and coping of Callista Roy using the Delphi method. Conclusions. The importance of having a validated instrument that measures adaptation and coping allows to recognize the behaviors of people, especially those who suffer a mental health disorder


Assuntos
Humanos , Adaptação Psicológica/classificação , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tradução , Características Culturais , Espanha
6.
Span. j. psychol ; 22: e27.1-e27.14, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-188867

RESUMO

Internalized stigma has a high prevalence in people with mental health problems and is associated with negative consequences in different areas: work, social, personal, etc. Therefore, it is relevant to systematically study the characteristics and effectiveness of the different psychological and psychosocial interventions aimed at reducing it. Through the databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO, among others, controlled studies on specific interventions to reduce internalized stigma in people with severe mental disorders published between 2008 and 2018 were selected and reviewed. Results showed that the interventions can be grouped into four blocks: (a) psychoeducational interventions about stigma; (b) cognitive-behavioral interventions, mainly aimed at modifying self-stigmatizing beliefs; (c) interventions focused on the revelation of mental illness; and (d) multicomponent interventions that combine several of the above. The interventions had an average of 10 sessions and were predominantly applied in group format. In 9 of the 14 studies reviewed, significant results were obtained in the reduction of internalized stigma with small or moderate effect sizes. There were also significant improvements in other variables, such as subjective recovery or coping. The main methodological limitation of the studies reviewed was the absence of information on the rejection rate. We conclude that there are effective interventions aimed at reducing internalized stigma, with psychoeducational interventions on stigma and multicomponent interventions showing the best results. Cognitive-behavioral interventions and interventions based on disclosure have been studied to a lesser extent and their results are inconclusive. Future research should focus on establishing optimal interventions according to characteristics and objectives of individuals


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Psicoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Estigma Social
7.
Asclepio ; 70(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179151

RESUMO

Durante el primer tercio del siglo XX en España acontecieron cambios importantes en la asistencia a la locura. Varios factores influyeron en el desarrollo de las modificaciones en torno al discurso y práctica de una nueva disciplina psiquiátrica: una generación de médicos interesados en la locura y relacionados con la Junta de Ampliación de Estudios, organizaciones científicas como los Archivos de Neurobiología y el clima político progresista de la Segunda República, entre otros. El objetivo de este trabajo es visibilizar estrategias de cambio en el tratamiento de la locura en el psiquiátrico provincial de Málaga. Para ello, señalaré, por un lado, las diferentes reformas que el edificio necesitó y la relación de éstas con las prácticas asistenciales; y por otro, los intentos de reforma que llevaron a cabo Miguel Prados Such y Pedro Ortiz Ramos como profesionales de la neuropsiquiatría. Analizaré, finalmente, las relaciones entre el personal subalterno, los psiquiatras y la institución, mostrando las dinámicas de asimilación y/o rechazo de medidas concretas que pretendían mejorar las condiciones de los pacientes ingresados


During the first third of the 20th Century in Spain, many reforms happened in the attendance to the madness. Several factors had an influence in the introduction of fundamental changes in the discourse and practice of a new psychiatric discipline: the interest in insanity of a generation of doctors with links to the Junta de Ampliación de Estudios (Board for Advanced Studies), scientific organisations like the Archivos de Neurobiología (Archives of Neurobiology) and the political climate in the Second Spanish Republic, among others. The aim of this study is to shed light on these strategies for change in the treatment of insanity in the Malaga provincial psychiatric hospital. To this end, I will discuss the necessary alterations made to the building itself and their relation with health care practices, in addition to the attempts to introduce reforms by neuropsychiatric professionals like Miguel Prados Such and Pedro Ortiz Ramos. Finally, I will analyse relations among support staff, psychiatrists and the institution, to appraise the dynamics of assimilation and/or rejection of specific measures designed to improve the conditions of patients admitted to it


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XX , Psiquiatria/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/história , Neuropsiquiatria/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/organização & administração , Hospitais Especializados/história , Hospitais Especializados/organização & administração , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 34(3): 157-167, dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176735

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine gender effects on the relations between abusive supervision and mental health issues, work-family conflicts, as well as the risk of alcohol use. A subset of the SALVEO data (N = 2,058) was used in this paper to conduct multilevel regression analysis, controlling for both work and non-work related determinants. Results showed that abusive supervision was positively related to psychological distress and work-family conflicts, but not the risk of alcohol use. There were no gender differences found in our study, except for psychological distress. Comparing to men, abusive supervision had a stronger negative effect on women's psychological distress. Both work and non-work determinants had significant contributions to mental health issues, work-family conflicts, as well as the risk of alcohol abuse. This study illustrated the importance of using multilevel approach to examine the negative impact of abusive supervision


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar los efectos del género en las relaciones entre la supervisión abusiva y las cuestiones de salud mental, los conflictos familia-trabajo, así como el riesgo de consumo de alcohol. Un subconjunto de los datos de SALVEO (N = 2,058) se utilizó en este trabajo para realizar un análisis de regresión multinivel, controlando tanto los determinantes relacionados con el trabajo, como los no relacionados con éste. Los resultados mostraron que la supervisión abusiva se relacionó positivamente con la angustia psicológica y los conflictos familia-trabajo, pero no con el riesgo de consumo de alcohol. No se encontraron diferencias de género en nuestro estudio, a excepción de la angustia psicológica. Si se compara con los hombres, la supervisión abusiva tuvo un efecto negativo más fuerte sobre la angustia psicológica de las mujeres. Tanto los factores determinantes del trabajo, como los que no lo son, contribuyeron significativamente a desarrollar problemas de salud mental, conflictos trabajo-familia, así como al riesgo de abuso de alcohol. El estudio ilustra la importancia de utilizar un enfoque multinivel para examinar el impacto negativo de la supervisión abusiva


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Gênero e Saúde , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Hostilidade , Bullying , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Relações Trabalhistas , Relações Familiares/psicologia
10.
Cult. cuid ; 22(51): 81-87, mayo-ago. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175669

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer cómo ha sido la evolución histórica de la atención psiquiátrica a las personas con patología mental en la ciudad de Mérida (Badajoz). Método: En este artículo se hace una breve descripción del desarrollo histórico que ha llevado a la atención a las personas con patología mental desde centros de internamiento cerrados y totalizadores hasta la atención especializada en unidades de hospitalización en hospitales generales centrándome en la ciudad de Mérida (Badajoz) mediante la revisión de fuentes bibliográficas referidas al tema. Desarrollo del tema: El camino recorrido desde los internamientos de por vida en hospitales psiquiátricos hasta la atención en hospitales generales y comunitaria ha sido largo, con incumplimiento de plazos de tiempos, con idas y venidas, y con caminos inacabados. Legislaciones que han influido en el devenir de miles de personas. Normas que han sido dictadas por unos y cumplidas por otros. La modificación de la forma de asistencial a las personas con patología mental ha ido temporalmente marcada por un intento de apertura a la sociedad de esas instituciones de abandono y olvido que eran los psiquiátricos y que Michael Foucault denominó en su momento heterotopias. Conclusiones: El cumplimiento de las leyes y normas aún sigue siendo incompleta puesto que aún se sigue recurriendo al encierro como medio de control social y sobre todo de control conductual. La norma social impuesta sobre la norma del comportamiento


Objective: To know how has been the historical evolution of psychiatric care to people with mental pathology in the city of Mérida (Badajoz). Method: This article gives a brief description of the historical development that has led to the attention to people with mental pathology from closed and total hospitalization centers to the specialized care in hospitalization units in general hospitals focusing on the city of Mérida ( Badajoz) by reviewing bibliographical sources related to the topic. Development of the theme: The journey from life-long internments in psychiatric hospitals to general and community hospitals has been long, with non-compliance with deadlines, with comings and goings, and with unfinished roads. Legislation that has influenced the future of thousands of people. Rules that have been dictated by some and fulfilled by others. The modification of the form of assistance to people with mental pathology has been temporarily marked by an attempt to open up to society those institutions of neglect and forgetfulness that were psychiatric and that Michael Foucault at the time called heterotopias. Conclusions: Compliance with laws and regulations is still incomplete, as enforcement is still used as a means of social control and above all behavioral control. The social norm imposed on the norm of behavior


Objetivo: Saber o que tem sido a evolução histórica da assistência psiquiátrica para pessoas com doença mental na cidade de Mérida (Badajoz). Método: Este artigo fornece uma breve descrição do desenvolvimento histórico que trouxe atenção às pessoas com doença mental dos centros fechados e totes internamento de cuidados especializados em unidades de internação em hospitais gerais com foco na cidade de Mérida é ( Badajoz), revendo fontes bibliográficas referiu-se ao assunto. Desenvolvimento do tema: A viagem das internações para a vida em hospitais psiquiátricos aos cuidados em hospitais gerais e da comunidade tem sido prazos longos, tempo perdido, com idas e vindas, e estradas inacabadas. Leis que influenciaram a evolução de milhares de pessoas. Normas que tenham sido emitidas por alguns e cumprido por outro. Alterar a forma de cuidados para as pessoas com doença mental foi temporariamente marcada por uma tentativa de abrir a sociedade das instituições que foram abandonados e esquecidos psiquiátrica e Michael Foucault chamados heterotopias em seu tempo. Conclusões: Conformidade com leis e regulamentos ainda está incompleta, uma vez que continua a usar o fechamento como um meio de controle social e controle especialmente comportamental. regra social imposta ao padrão de comportamento


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/legislação & jurisprudência , Espanha
11.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (231): 67-83, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173279

RESUMO

El presente trabajo se propone recoger la opinión y actitudes de médicos, enfermeros y trabajadores sociales de los Centros de Atención Primaria (CAP) de Ibiza y Pacífico, pertenecientes al distrito de Retiro, sobre la atención que llevan a cabo en sus consultas a los pacientes con Trastorno Mental Grave (TMG), así como sensibilizar acerca de la problemática de la salud física y el estigma asociados. Esta acción se materializó a través de la aplicación de una encuesta anónima con formato de preguntas cerradas y abiertas que recoge la percepción general ante el paciente con TMG por parte del profesional de Atención Primaria (AP), la autopercepción de conocimientos o formación en materia de enfermedad mental y los problemas de salud física más comúnmente asociados, los recursos del entorno promotores de hábitos saludables y la coordinación existente entre dispositivos y niveles asistenciales. Tras el análisis descriptivo de los resultados, se pone de manifiesto: Que los profesionales de atención primaria tienen mucho que decir respecto a los pacientes con TMG a los que atienden. Que presentan actitudes de rechazo, miedo y estigma relacionadas con dificultades en el manejo por la falta de conocimientos y formación en salud mental así como de la comorbilidad física que presentan. Y que es necesario mejorar la coordinación entre dispositivos. Estos resultados fueron devueltos a los profesionales en una acción de sensibilización llevado a cabo en los CAP acerca del estado de salud física del paciente con TMG, de donde surgieron propuestas de coordinación y colaboración entre dispositivos para mejorar la atención del usuario y el cuidado de su salud física


The present work aims to collect the opinion and attitudes of doctors, nurses and social workers of the Primary Care Centers (PCC) of Ibiza and Pacific, belonging to the district of Retiro, about the care they carry out in their consultations to patients with Severe Mental Disorder (SMD), as well as raising awareness about the associated physical health problems. This action was materialized through the application of an anonymous survey in the form of closed and open questions that reflects the general perception of the patient with SMD by the Primary Care Professional (PCC), the self-perception of knowledge or training in the field of mental illness and the physical health problems most commonly associated, the resources of the environment promoting healthy habits and the existing coordination between devices and levels of care. After the descriptive analysis of the results, it becomes clear: That the primary care professionals have a lot to say about the patients with SMD that they attend. They present attitudes of rejection, fear and stigma related to difficulties in handling due to the lack of knowledge and training in mental health as well as the physical comorbidity they present. And also that it is necessary to improve the coordination between devices. These results were returned to the professionals in an awareness-raising action carried out in the CAPs about the physical health status of the patient with SMD, from which proposals for coordination and collaboration between devices emerged to improve the user's attention and care of their patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Nível de Saúde , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Saúde Mental/tendências , Estigma Social , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (231): 103-123, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173282

RESUMO

El objeto de este trabajo ha sido realizar una evaluación sobre el control postural en personas con diferentes grados de discapacidad intelectual que facilite el diseño programas generales de actuación orientados a la mejora de las capacidades físicas y cognitivas. Han participado 45 personas de la Fundación Purísima Concepción de Granada con diferente nivel de discapacidad intelectual, a los que se le aplicaron las cuatro situaciones que describe el test de Romberg más una situación donde se pretende determinar el efecto de una tarea cognitiva sobre el control postural. Para el registro de las variables estabilométricas se ha utilizado una plataforma de fuerza Dinascan/IBV y una alfombrilla de gomaespuma sobre la superficie. Los resultados indican que las variables estabilométricas más sensibles a los cambios producidos por la manipulación de los estímulos vestibulares, visuales y somatosensoriales son: el desplazamiento total del CP y el área descrita por el CP en su recorrido por la base de sustentación. Han sido escasos los efectos producidos por la actividad dual. No se han constatado valores de significación estadística cuando se correlaciona el nivel de discapacidad intelectual con las diferentes variables estabilométricas registradas, lo que podría estar relacionado con la alta variabilidad registrada entre los participantes. Como conclusión general, se considera útil el análisis de las pruebas estabilométricas para la realización de un diseño individualizado de programas de rehabilitación e intervención deportiva en personas con discapacidad intelectual y de esta forma ayudar a la inclusión de personas con discapacidad intelectual


The aim of this project has been the realization of an evaluation about postural control in people with different degrees of intellectual disability which facilitates the design of general action programmes oriented to the improvement of physical and cognitive abilities. 45 people with different degrees of intellectual disability from Purísima Concepción de Granada Foundation have participated on it, who were applied the four situations that Romberg's test describes and also a situation where it is expected to determine the effect of a cognitive task on postural control. For the stabilometric variables register it has been used a Dinascan/IBV strength platform and a foam mat on the surface. The results indicate that the most sensitive stabilometric variables to the changes produced by the handling of vestibular, visual and somatosensory stimuli are: the CP total displacement and the area described by the CP on its walk through the sustenance base. The effects produced by dual activity have been scarce. It has not been confirmed meaning statistics values when it is correlated the level of intellectual disability with the different registered stabilometric variables, which could be related to the high variability registered among the participants. As a general conclusion, the analysis of stabilometric tests is considered useful for the realization of a personalized design of rehabilitation and sports intervention programme in people with intellectual disability and in this way it will help the inclusion of people with intellectual disability


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Postura/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Motores/reabilitação , Destreza Motora/fisiologia
13.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 44(2): 125-130, mar. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174377

RESUMO

Clásicamente la asistencia sanitaria que han recibido los pacientes con enfermedad mental implicaba su ruptura con la sociedad, mediante su aislamiento en instituciones cerradas, configurando así una tendencia estigmatizadora sobre el enfermo, y por extensión sobre la enfermedad mental, hecho que en cierta manera ha llegado hasta nuestros días. Importantes han sido en el ámbito de la Psiquiatría las profundas reformas, que se vieron reflejadas tanto en el campo terapéutico, como en el legislativo, lo que ha contribuido a fijar un cambio en referencia a la imagen social del enfermo mental. El propósito del presente artículo tiene como objetivo revisar, desde la visión crítica, el marco legislativo vigente referente a la situación del internamiento involuntario psiquiátrico como medida terapéutica del paciente mental, ya que la práctica médico-legal nos indica la carencia de habilidades legales y ético-deontológicas que se plantean en el ámbito de la Atención Primaria


Traditionally, medical care received by psychiatric patients involved their separation from the society through their isolation in closed institutions, thereby setting a stigmatising trend on the sick, and by extension on mental illness, a practice that somehow has remained until now. The profound changes in the field of psychiatry have been important and are reflected in the therapeutic field, as well as in the legislative one, and have contributed to establish changes concerning the social opinion about psychiatric patients. The purpose of this article is to review, from the critical perspective, the current legislative framework concerning the situation of involuntary psychiatric commitment as a therapeutic measure in the psychiatric patient, as well as the legal medical practice which indicates the lack of legal skills and ethical and professional conduct arising in the field of primary care


Assuntos
Humanos , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/normas , Saúde Mental/ética , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 28(supl.1): 83-87, feb. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173063

RESUMO

Objective: Lack of knowledge and powerlessness make family restrains, chains or confines (pasung) the family member with mental illness. This study aimed to explore the experience of adolescents having mentally ill parents with pasung. Method: To achieve detailed and accurate understandings of adolescents' experiences, this study used a qualitative research design with a phenomenological approach. Purposive sampling was employed to find teenagers aged 12-19 years old who had mentally ill parents with pasung.The data were analyzed with Colaizzi's method. Results: Parents with mental illness, specifically with physical restrain and confinement (pasung) had psychosocial impact on adolescents. Role changes often occur in the family where teenagers should be a breadwinner and caregiver for their parents. The results of this study were described in three themes: 1) changes of life due to have mentally ill parents with pasung; 2)reciprocity as the reason for taking care of the parents; 3) positive meaning of living with mentally ill parents with pasung. Conclusions: This study concludes that psychosocial treatment for adolescents living with parents with pasung should consider the psychological and social impact as a result of taking care of their parents with pasung


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde Mental , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Institucionalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural
15.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 28(supl.1): 256-259, feb. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173099

RESUMO

Pasung is a way of handling the mentally ill in the several Indonesian communities. In many cases, when the patients leave the hospital they are once again turned out by their families and returned to the pasung. This study aims to identify and explore the means of preventing mentally ill patients in the community from being subjected to pasung through a test of Daulima's Pasung Decision Questionnaire that measures a family's intention to use pasung.This study tested the content validity and reliability of Daulima's Pasung Decision Questionnaire by using the Spearman-Brown single test-single trial. The respondents were 300 people drawn from five provinces in Indonesia: West Sumatra, East Kalimantan, West Nusa Tenggara, West Java and the Special Capital Region of Jakarta. The validity and reliability results showed that the content of this instrument is valid once improvements had been made to the statement items numbers 16 and 17. It was also shown to be reliable by the consistency of the responses with an alpha value of 0.729. This means that responses to the instrument are consistent and are reliable measures of the level of intention of the mentally ill patient's family to use pasung


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Defesa das Pessoas com Deficiência , Indonésia , Comparação Transcultural , Recusa do Médico a Tratar/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Neuropsiquiatr ; 37(132): 575-592, jul.-dic. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169257

RESUMO

Nosotras somos enfermeras con muchos años de experiencia trabajando en psiquiatría. Durante todos estos años, partiendo del modelo biologicista habitual en el que nos formamos, hemos estado buscando un modelo de trabajo que se corresponda con nuestros valores y creencias y, sobre todo, que sea verdaderamente útil para las personas con las que trabajamos. El presente artículo relata nuestro viaje en busca de ese modelo de trabajo partiendo del panóptico foucaltiano, el construccionismo social, la narrativa y otras influencias como la terapia breve y la indagación apreciativa, definiendo nuestra posición postpsiquiátrica. Planteamos también algunos desafíos de nuestra mirada posmoderna para nuestro trabajo cotidiano. Sabemos que no es un modelo teórico completo y tampoco pretendemos que lo sea. Contamos nuestro camino y lo compartimos para quien pueda serle útil (AU)


We are nurses with several years of experience working in psychiatry. During all these years, starting from the common biological model in which we were trained, we have been in search of a model of work that corresponds to our values and beliefs and, above all, that is truly useful for the people with whom we work. The present article describes our journey in search of this model starting with the Foucauldian Panopticon, social constructionism, narratives and other influences such as brief therapy and appreciative inquiry, defining our own postpsychiatric position. Our postmodern views also pose challenges to our daily work. We know that it is not a complete theoretical model and we do not aim it to be such a model. We inform about our own way and share it for whoever might find it useful (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência à Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/tendências , Terapia Narrativa/tendências , Relações Interpessoais , Empatia , Psiquiatria Biológica/tendências , Pós-Modernismo , Acolhimento , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Percepção Social
19.
Asclepio ; 69(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2017.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-169347

RESUMO

A escritora Maura Lopes Cançado circulou no mundo dos hospitais psiquiátricos entre as décadas de 1950, 1960 e 1970. Em uma de suas internações (1959-1960), a terceira no Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional, complexo hospitalar da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, escreveu um diário que foi posteriormente publicado como o livro Hospício é Deus-Diário I. A aliança entre o vivido e a ficção, na qual transitou a narradora em seu diário, criou uma obra ímpar na perspectiva dos comentadores acadêmicos e críticos literários. No campo da história da loucura e da psiquiatria, sua obra oferece possibilidades novas de compreensão da configuração da assistência psiquiátrica, das práticas científicas e terapêuticas e dos diversos sujeitos que circularam no mundo dos hospitais psiquiátricos brasileiros, na década de 1950, operando um deslocamento em relação aos lugares tradicionais de enunciação que conhecemos. Neste artigo, escolhi observar as problematizações de Maura sobre o cotidiano institucional e o próprio ato da escrita de um diário, que oscilam entre ensinar os outros e cuidar de si. Realizei portanto, uma análise enunciativa da narrativa, que valoriza as coisas ditas por ela como uma das verdades sobre o hospital psiquiátrico, a ciência médica e suas práticas, os loucos e a loucura (AU)


The writer Maura Lopes Cançado circulated in the world of the psychiatric hospitals between the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. During one of hospitalizations (1959-1960), the third time in the National Psychiatric Center, a hospital complex in Rio de Janeiro, the writer wrote a diary that was later published as the book Hospice is God-Diary I. The bond between the live lived by her and the fiction, which the narrator transited in her diary, creating a unique work from the perspective of academic commentators and literary critics. In the history field of madness and psychiatry, this work offers new possibilities for understanding the configuration of psychiatric care, scientific and therapeutic practices and the various subjects that circulated in the world of Brazilians psychiatric hospitals, in the 1950s, operating a displacement in relation to traditional places of enunciation that are known. In this article, I chose to observe the problematizations of Maura about the institutional daily life and the fact of writing a diary, which oscillate between teaching others and the care of the self. Therefore, I did an enunciative analysis of the narrative, that values the things that were said by her as one of the truths about the psychiatric hospital, medical science and its practices, the mad and the madness (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Brasil/epidemiologia , Narrativas Pessoais como Assunto , População Institucionalizada
20.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 26(2): 103-109, ago. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-164810

RESUMO

This study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention designed to foster more positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness among college students in Delhi. A total of 50 young people participated in a one-time education and contact based intervention. Attitudes towards persons with mental illness were assessed before the intervention, immediately after it and at a one week follow-up. Results indicated increased feelings of benevolence, community mental health ideology and less authoritarianism at the post-intervention assessments. Reduction in endorsement of social restrictiveness was also observed but only in the case of the immediate post-assessment. We also observed a greater recognition of needs, increased positive descriptions, decreased negative descriptions and reduced labelling after the intervention. These results support the efficacy of education and contact-based strategies for reducing mental illness stigma. Implications of the findings for low-middle income countries like India are discussed


El estudio valoró la eficacia de una intervención diseñada para favorecer unas actitudes más positivas hacia las personas con trastornos mentales entre los universitarios de Delhi. Un total de 50 jóvenes participaron en una intervención educativa y de contacto. Se evaluaron las actitudes hacia las personas con enfermedades mentales antes, justo después y una semana después de la intervención. Los resultados aumentaron los sentimientos de benevolencia, y la ideología de salud mental comunitaria y redujeron el autoritarismo en las evaluaciones después de la intervención. También se apreció una disminución del apoyo de la restricción social, pero solo en el caso de la evaluación inmediatamente posterior. Asimismo, se observó un mayor reconocimiento de las necesidades, más descripciones positivas, menos descripciones negativas y se redujeron las etiquetas después de la intervención. Estos resultados respaldan la eficacia de las estrategias de educación y contacto para reducir el estigma de los trastornos mentales. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos hallazgos para países de ingresos bajos-medios como la India


Assuntos
Humanos , Estigma Social , Discriminação Social , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Índia , Empatia , Permissividade
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