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Rev. toxicol ; 34(2): 136-142, jul.-dic. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169824

RESUMO

En el presente estudio, se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de los datos publicados de concentraciones de cafeína y su principal metabolito, la paraxantina, en el agua como matriz ambiental. Se recopilan las concentraciones de muestras procedentes de aguas influentes y efluentes de estaciones depuradoras de agua residual (EDAR), de aguas superficiales y de aguas potables de España. Los valores máximos de cafeína estarían ubicados en la provincia de Madrid con una concentración de 13.167 ngL-1 en agua superficial. Le sigue la provincia de Sevilla con 3.840 ngL-1 en agua de influente. La máxima concentración de cafeína en agua potable también se situaría en Madrid con 75 ngL-1. Con el método de cocientes de riesgo (Hazard quotients, HQs), los resultados indican que Madrid podría presentar posibles efectos adversos con un valor de HQ=0,25. El riesgo de aparición de cafeína en los ecosistemas acuáticos estaría relacionado con la densidad de población y la proximidad de núcleos poblacionales al medio fluvial, y su aparición en el agua superficial y potable estaría estrechamente ligada a la ineficiencia de los sistemas de depuración de aguas residuales y estaciones de tratamiento de aguas potables. Se necesitan estudios de toxicidad crónica para evaluar el riesgo real que podría tener la cafeína de forma aislada y combinada con otros contaminantes emergentes sobre los organismos expuestos (AU)


Literature review of caffeine in surface waters and Hazard quotients analysis in Spain. More and more research is being conducted on emerging contaminants. This study undertakes a literature review of data from concentrations of caffeine and its metabolite paraxanthine in wáter as a biological matrix. The concentrations of samples from influent and effluents wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), surface wáter and drinking water from Spain are collected. The maximum values of caffeine found in the literature are located in Madrid province with a concentration equal to 13,167 ngL-1 in surface water and 5,690 ngL-1. It follows Seville province with 3,840 ngL-1 in influent WWTP. The highest concentration of caffeine in drinking water also is located in Madrid with 75 ngL-1. Risk characterization with Hazard quotients (HQ) of caffeine as an environmental pollutant on our aquatic ecosystems is made. Madrid is the riskiest region with a HQ= 0.25 value. Risk occurrence of caffeine in aquatic ecosystems is related to opulation density and the proximity of towns to the fluvial environment. The appearance of caffeine in surface water and drinking water would be closely linked to the inefficiency of wastewater treatment systems and drinking water treatment plants. Inefficient sewage-treatment systems are shown to be closely linked with the emergence of caffeine in drinking and surface water. Chronic toxicity studies are needed to reveal the real risk that single and combined caffeine could have with other emerging pollutants on exposed organisms because, even though the amounts of caffeine are microgL-1 to ngL-1, the effect on organisms is not known when they are exposed to these amounts on a continuous basis into the environmental compartments (AU)


Assuntos
Cafeína/toxicidade , Poluição da Água/análise , Poluentes da Água/isolamento & purificação , Águas Superficiais , Água Potável/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Fauna Aquática/análise
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