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2.
J. physiol. biochem ; 70(4): 981-990, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-131431

RESUMO

Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment produced by vegetables and fruits, with tomatoes and their processed products being the most abundant sources. A high number of conjugated dienes make lycopene a powerful radical scavenger. Its antioxidant properties are considered to be primarily involved in many beneficial health effects. The present study was designed to assess the protective effect of lycopene-enriched tomato paste against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Four groups were treated with tomato paste, per os, for 28 days in doses which were equivalent to 0.5 (groups II and V) and 2.5 mg/kg b.w./day of lycopene (groups III and VI). Rats from groups IV-VI were given intraperitoneally a single dose of NDEA, 150 mg/kg b.w. Group I (control) was given distilled water. Pretreatment with tomato paste protected the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase. Their activity was recovered by 32-97 %, as compared to NDEA-treated rats. Microsomal lipid peroxidation in the liver was decreased in rats pretreated with a lower dose of tomato paste by 28 %, as compared to animals given NDEA alone. Pretreatment with tomato paste caused a decrease in plasma concentration of protein carbonyls, even below the control level, in rats given NDEA. Moreover, a 10 % reduction of DNA damage in leucocytes caused by NDEA was observed. The tomato paste tested was able to suppress NDEA-induced oxidative stress in rats (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Concentrados de Tomates , Estresse Oxidativo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Carbonilação Proteica
3.
Nutr. hosp ; 28(1): 6-15, ene.-feb. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-123104

RESUMO

Introducción: El licopeno es un carotenoide que se encuentra principalmente en el tomate, conserva sus propiedades funcionales después de ser procesado, no presenta toxicidad y posee efectos antioxidantes, antiinflamatorios y quimioterapéuticos sobre las enfermedades cardiovasculares, neurodegenerativas y algunos tipos de cáncer. Sin embargo, parece que su consumo a través de la dieta es insuficiente. Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente revisión es destacar las propiedades del licopeno y las recomendaciones para su aprovechamiento en beneficio de la salud. Métodos: Se realizó la revisión bibliográfica relacionada con el tema a través de la base de datos Pub Med. Resultados: La OMS y los gobiernos nacionales promueven a través de las guías alimentarias el consumo diario de 400 g de frutas y verduras por su contenido en sustancias antioxidantes entre ellas el licopeno. La ingesta de licopeno es muy variada con un consumo promedio entre 5 y 7 mg/día. Esta cifra causa controversia debido a que los diferentes estudios presentan grandes diferencias y no existe una cantidad recomendada, lo que impide hacer comparaciones de nivel nacional e internacional y establecer políticas y estrategias que aseguren su consumo. Conclusión: La ingesta de licopeno puede considerarse como una medida preventiva y terapéutica no farmacológica para diferentes tipos de enfermedades, pero se requiere el trabajo de los profesionales de la nutrición y la salud para incrementar su consumo a través de la educación alimentaria y proponer a partir de los resultados de investigaciones científicas sus niveles de ingesta diaria (AU)


Introduction: Lycopene is a carotenoid, which is found mainly in tomatoes, retains its functional properties after processing, is not toxic and has antioxidant, antiinflammatory and chemotherapeutics effects in cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases and in some cancers. However, it seems that its intake through the diet is inadequate. Objective: The objective of this review is to highlight the properties of lycopene and provide recommendations to improve its health benefits. Methods: We performed a literature review related to the topic through Pub Med database. Results: The WHO and national governments promote through food guides the daily consumption of 400 g of fruits and vegetables because of their contain in antioxidants including lycopene. Lycopene intake widely varies, with an average consumption between 5 and 7 mg/day. Controversy arises from the ranger of figures between different studies and the fact that there is no recommended amount, precluding comparisons of national and international level and the establishment of policies and strategies to ensure its consumption. Conclusion: Lycopene intake can be seen as a preventive measure and non pharmacological therapy for different types of diseases, but the work of professionals in nutrition and health is required to increase its intake through food education and to propose daily intakes from results of scientific research (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Alimentos Integrais/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Concentrados de Tomates
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 27(5): 1542-1546, sept.-oct. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-110185

RESUMO

Fundamento y objetivo: Estudio de intervención para determinar la influencia del procedimiento culinario del tomate sobre la biodisponibilidad del licopeno. Población y método: El estudio fue realizado sobre una muestra constituida por 15 individuos que participaron de forma voluntaria. La determinación de los niveles de licopeno en las muestras sanguíneas de los pacientes se realizó mediante la técnica de HPLC. Resultados: La ingestión del producto fresco triturado no modifica, en forma significativa, los niveles de licopeno en sangre de los sujetos de la muestra. Tanto la trituración con aceite de oliva como el tratamiento térmico del tomate en combinación con aceite de oliva incrementaron, significativamente, los niveles de licopeno plasmático. Conclusiones: La biodisponibilidad del licopeno depende del procesado del producto. La asociación con ácidos grasos así como que el tratamiento térmico del tomate aumentan su biodisponibilidad (AU)


Background and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of raw and processed tomato consumption on plasma lycopene concentration in healthy volunteers. A cross-over dietary intervention study was employed. Patients and methods: Fifteen healthy subjects were included in the study. Plasma lycopene concentration was assayed by HPLC. Results: Raw crushed tomato consumption did not significantly influence plasma lycopene concentration. Consumption of raw crushed tomato with olive oil and cooked tomatoes with olive oil, significantly increased blood lycopene levels (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum , Verduras , Análise de Alimentos , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Concentrados de Tomates
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 27(5): 1605-1609, sept.-oct. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-110194

RESUMO

Introduction: Tomato is considered a healthy food due to its high content in lycopene and other health-promoting natural compounds. Tomatoes have, undoubtedly, assumed the status of a food with functional properties, considering the epidemiological evidence of reducing the risk of certain types of cancers. Objective: Samples of tomatoes from Morocco were analyzed for the mineral composition. Methods: 94 tomato samples from Morocco were analyzed. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to determine essential elements (Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn)) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry with Graphite Furnace (GAAS) was used to analyzed cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Results: The mean concentrations were 0.17 mg/kg, 0.73 mg/kg, 0.20 mg/kg, 0.44 mg/kg, 7.58 μg/kg and 15.8 μg/kg for Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively. The highest contribution to the intakes was observed for Cu (0.67% for adults) while that Zn showed the lowest contribution (0.14% for adult males and 0.20% for adult females). Conclusions: Tomatoes are a good source of essential elements for the diet, mainly iron and zinc. Tomatoes consumption does not significantly affect the intake of heavy metals (AU)


Introducción: El tomate es considerado un alimento saludable debido a su alto contenido en licopeno y otros componentes naturales promotores de salud. Indudablemente, los tomates han asumido el estatus de un alimento con propiedades funcionales, considerando desde un punto de vista epidemiológico reducir ciertos tipos de cánceres Objetivo: Analizar la composición mineral de muestras de tomates de Marruecos. Métodos: 94 muestras de tomates de Marruecos fueron analizadas. Espectrofotometría de Absorción Atómica por llama (FAAS) se usó para determinar elementos esenciales (Cobre (Cu), hierro (Fe), manganeso (Mn) y zinc (Zn) y Espectrofotometría de Absorción Atómica con cámara de grafito (GAAS) se usó para analizar cadmio (Cd) y plomo (Pb). Resultados: Las concentraciones medias fueron 0,17 mg/kg, 0,73 mg/kg, 0,20 mg/kg, 0,44 mg/kg, 7,58 μg/kg and 15,8 μg/kg para Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd y Pb, respectivamente. La contribución a la ingesta más alta fue observada para el Cu (0,67% para adultos) mientras que el Zn presentó la contribución más baja (0,14% para hombres adultos y 0,20% para mujeres adultas). Conclusión: Los tomates son una buena fuente de elementos esenciales para la dieta, principalmente hierro y zinc. El consumo de tomates no afecta significativamente a la ingesta de metales pesados (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Oligoelementos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais na Dieta/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/toxicidade , Concentrados de Tomates , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Metais Pesados/epidemiologia
6.
An. vet. Murcia ; 27: 51-64, 2011. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-106590

RESUMO

El consumo de vegetales proporciona a la dieta una amplia variedad de compuestos bioactivos que pueden ser absorbidos en el intestino durante la digestión, o llegar al intestino grueso donde son utilizados como sustratos fermentativos por la flora colónica o se mantienen intactos ejerciendo un efecto beneficioso protector sobre las células del colon. El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido evaluar la presencia de licopeno y ácidos grasos de cadena corta (AGCC) en las heces de ratas Sprague Dawley (SD) sometidas a distintas dietas. Se seleccionaron 24 ratas machos SD adultas de 12 semanas, clasificándose en tres grupos (control, grupo A y grupo B). Los animales se introdujeron en jaulas metabólicas y fueron alimentados durante 21 días con una dieta estándar y agua ad libitum (grupo control), zumo de tomate con bajo (2.7 mg/100 g) contenido en licopeno (grupo A) y zumo de tomate con alto (12 mg/100 g) contenido en licopeno (grupo B). Diariamente se recogió la orina y las heces. Se seleccionaron las muestras de heces correspondientes al inicio y fin del estudio, determinándose en ellas el contenido de licopeno colorimétricamente y los AGCC por cromatografía gaseosa. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el consumo de zumo de tomate producía un aumento del contenido de licopeno en heces proporcional a la cantidad de licopeno presente en el zumo. La presencia de licopeno en heces nos indica que no todo el licopeno presente en la dieta es absorbido. En relación al perfil de AGCC en heces se observa un cambio desde el inicio al final del estudio, destacando un aumento en el ácido butírico, consecuencia de la modificación en los substratos de fermentación asociada al cambio de alimentación de las ratas que tomaron zumo de tomate. La acción antioxidante del licopeno a su paso por el intestino grueso hasta su excreción en las heces y la formación de ácido butírico, podrían ejercer una acción beneficiosa en las células del colon, pudiéndose prevenir posibles procesos cancerígenos (AU)


A wide range of bioactive components are provided to the diet by vegetables intake, which can be absorbed by the intestinal cells during digestion process. Furthermore, some of these components are susceptible to be used as fermentative substrate by intestinal microbiota as well as playing a protective role on colon cells when maintain their original structure. The aim of this research was to evaluate the content of lycopene and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Twenty four 12 weeks old male SD rats, were selected and classified in three different groups (Control, Group A and Group B). The animals were introduced in metabolic cages and fed during a period of 21 days using a standard diet. Control Group was given ad libitum access to food and water, whereas Group B and Group A were given tomato juice with high (12 mg/100 g) and low (2.7 mg/100 g) lycopene content, respectively. Urine and faeces were picked up everyday. Both, faeces samples at the beginning and at the end of the research period were selected, analyzing lycopene content by colorimetric method and SCFA by gas-liquid chromatography. The results showed that tomato juice intake produces an increase in the amount of lycopene in faeces. This increment was directly proportional to the lycopene content in different juices. The presence of lycopene in faeces suggests that not all the lycopene ingested was absorbed. A change in the SCFA profile in faeces has been observed from the beginning to the end of the study. In this way, an increase in butyric acid level was detected in those rats which took tomato juice. This finding could be a consequence of the modification of substrates by fermentation. The antioxidant effect of lycopene through the large intestine until its excretion and the formation of butyric acid, could be able to make a positive effect on colon cells and, eventually, prevent carcinogenic processes(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Concentrados de Tomates , Carotenoides/química , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/citologia , Análise de Variância
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