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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(3): 195-201, jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182731

RESUMO

Son múltiples las recomendaciones internacionales que aconsejan adaptar modelos asistenciales del entorno militar a incidentes de múltiples víctimas intencionados (IMVI) ocurridos en el entorno civil, bien por el tipo de patrón lesional, bien por aspectos de seguridad y autoprotección. Debido a la experiencia en Norteamérica, donde este tipo de situaciones son más frecuentes, casi toda la bibliografía y referencias existentes no se corresponden con un modelo de sistemas de emergencias médicas como el que existe en las distintas comunidades autónomas españolas, con sus diferentes medios y procedimientos tal y como viene estipulado por sus competencias exclusivas en esta materia. No obstante, se han detectado una serie de elementos comunes que pueden servir de referencia para elaborar un plan de respuesta a los IMVI, basados en la evidencia y utilizando principios de actuación dirigidos a una acción eficaz y eficiente. Pensamos que cada actor de los eslabones de esta cadena asistencial debe tener clara su misión, su rol y su función en las diferentes zonas de la escena, y así se intentan definir en este documento de consenso, desde un primer interviniente ocasional hasta la asistencia definitiva en los centros de referencia para pacientes traumatizados


International guidelines recommend adapting military health care protocols to emergencies involving multiple intentional-injury victims in civilian environments. Adaptations can reflect similarities in types of injuries or issues of provider safety and that arise in military and some civilian emergencies. Because more experience with such incidents has been gained in the United States, most of the literature on this topic discusses emergency medical systems that differ from the ones operating in the autonomous communities of Spain, where varying resources and procedures are mandated by local authorities charged with preparing for emergencies. However, common elements are present, offering a framework and principles to apply when drafting evidence-based plans for effective, efficient response to multiple-victim emergencies. We think that participants at each point in the chain of survival must have clear missions and understand the roles they play in the various zones that comprise the scene of an emergency. Therefore this consensus paper attempts to define the relevant principles and roles for participants at all levels, from occasional first responders up to staff at trauma referral centers


Assuntos
Humanos , Consenso , Sobrevivência , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Terrorismo , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Primária , Estados Unidos , Canadá , Austrália , Europa (Continente)
2.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 17(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184677

RESUMO

Background: Fever and pain are common conditions in the Australian healthcare setting. Whilst clinical guidelines provide important therapeutic recommendations, evidence suggests they are not always followed. Given that community pharmacy is one of the most frequently accessed primary healthcare services, it is important to understand the views and practices of community pharmacists in pain and fever. Objectives: To investigate the views and practices of Australian community pharmacists in pain and fever management, and their views on relevant clinical guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study of community pharmacists in Australia was conducted using a customised, anonymous, self-administered, online questionnaire between March and May 2018. To capture a broad range of demographics, pharmacists were recruited via local industry contacts and the Pharmaceutical Society newsletter, with further recruitment through snowball sampling. The main outcomes measured were pharmacists' views, practices and treatment recommendation of choice in pain and fever management, as well as views on clinical guidelines and training. Results: A total of 113 pharmacists completed the survey. In general, paracetamol (72%) was preferred as a recommendation over ibuprofen, and was the drug of choice for most mild to moderate pain and fever scenarios. Majority of pharmacists reported good knowledge of pain and fever management, however, only approximately half reported recent pain management training. Greater than 87% of pharmacists believe that clinical guidelines are useful in fever management, and 79% of pharmacists believe that following clinical guidelines is important in pain management. Conclusions: While most pharmacists recognise the importance of guidelines and demonstrated good pain and fever management, results suggests opportunities to promote additional education, upskilling, and research in this space to further optimise pain and fever management in the community


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional
3.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 17(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184683

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess a clinical training program on management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) incorporating a diabetes tool, the Simpler(TM) tool. Subsequently pharmacists' experience utilising the tool to deliver structured, consistent, evidence-based T2DM care was explored. Methods: Full-time non-credentialed diabetes pharmacists providing diabetes medication management services in community settings were purposively recruited. Participants had either face-to-face or online training on diabetes management using the tool which took about two hours and 20 minutes to complete. Their diabetes management knowledge was assessed pre- and post-training using quantitative methodology. They were then required to apply the tool in daily practice for one month. Feedback on both the training sessions and tool utilisation were obtained through semi-structured interviews and analysed using a qualitative approach. Results: Twelve pharmacists participated: Six from Australia and six from Malaysia. Before attending the training session, their median test score was 6.5/27, IQR 1.4 (1st marker) and 5.3/27, IQR 2.0 (2nd marker). After training, the scores doubled to 14.3/27, IQR 4.5 (1st marker) and 11.3/27, IQR 3.1 (2nd marker), showing significant improvements (p=0.002). Interview data identified perceived effectiveness factor through use of the tool. Participants found the content relevant, structured, concise and easy to understand; enabled comprehensive medication reviews; focused on achieving glycaemic improvement; facilitated documentation processes and pharmacists' role in T2DM management; and as a specific aid for diabetes management. Barriers included lack of accessibility to patients' laboratory data in Australia. Conclusions: The targeted training improved pharmacists' knowledge on diabetes management and supported the Simpler(TM) tool use in practice as a structured and beneficial method to deliver evidence-based T2DM care


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Assistência Farmacêutica/tendências , Educação Continuada em Farmácia/tendências , Malásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Competência Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 17(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184602

RESUMO

Chronic pain is a condition where patients continuously experience pain symptoms for at least 3 to 6 months. It is one of the leading causes of disabilities across the globe. Failure to adequately manage chronic pain often results in additional health concerns that may directly contribute to the worsening symptoms of pain. Community pharmacists are an important healthcare resource that contributes to patient care, yet their roles in chronic pain management are often not fully utilised. This review aimed to investigate and explore pharmacist-driven chronic pain educational and medication management interventions in community pharmacies on an international level, and thereby identify if there are potential benefits in modelling and incorporating these interventions in the Australian community. We found a number of studies conducted in Europe and the United States investigated the benefits of pharmacist-driven educational and medication management interventions in the context of chronic pain management. Results demonstrated that there were improvements in the pain scores, depression/anxiety scales and physical functionality in patient groups receiving the pharmacist driven-interventions, thereby highlighting the clinical benefit of these interventions in chronic pain. In conclusion, pharmacists are trustworthy and responsible advocates for medication reviews and patient education. There are currently very limited formal nationally recognised pharmacist-driven intervention programs dedicated to chronic pain management in Australian community pharmacies. International studies have shown that pharmacist-driven chronic pain interventions undertaken in community pharmacies are of benefit with regards to alleviating pain symptoms and adverse events. Furthermore, it is also clear that research around the application of pharmacist-led chronic pain interventions in Australia is lacking. Modelling interventions that have been conducted overseas may be worth exploring in Australia. The implementation of similar intervention programs for Australian pharmacists in community pharmacies may provide enhanced clinical outcomes for patients suffering from chronic pain. The recently implemented Chronic Pain MedsCheck Trial may provide some answers


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Papel Profissional , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia
5.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 16(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-174807

RESUMO

Background: Community pharmacists have a key role to play in the management of allergic rhinitis (AR). Their role is especially important because the majority of medications used to treat AR are available for purchase over-the-counter (OTC), allowing patients to self-select their own medications and bypass the pharmacists. Patients' self-selection often results in suboptimal treatment selection, undertreated AR and poor clinical outcomes. In order for pharmacists to optimise the care for AR patients in the pharmacy, pharmacists need to be able to identify patient cohorts who self-select and are at high risk of mismanagement. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and medication selected, between pharmacy customers who choose to self-select and those who speak with a pharmacist when purchasing medication for their AR in a community pharmacy and identify factors associated with AR patients' medication(s) self-selection behaviour. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a convenience sample of community pharmacies from the Sydney metropolitan area. Demographics, pattern of AR symptoms, their impact on quality of life (QOL) and medication(s) selected, were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with participants' medication self-selection behaviour. Results: Of the 296 recruited participants, 202 were identified with AR; 67.8% were female, 54.5% were >40 years of age, 64.9% had a doctor's diagnosis of AR, and 69.3% self-selected medication(s). Participants with AR who self-select were 4 times more likely to experience moderate-severe wheeze (OR 4.047, 95% CI 1.155-14.188) and almost 0.4 times less likely to experience an impact of AR symptoms on their QOL (OR 0.369, 95% CI 0.188-0.727). Conclusions: The factors associated with AR patients' self-selecting medication(s) are the presence of wheeze and the absence of impact on their QOL due to AR symptoms. By identifying this cohort of patients, our study highlights an opportunity for pharmacists to engage these patients and encourage discussion about their AR and asthma management


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Austrália/epidemiologia
6.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 16(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-174795

RESUMO

Objective: Determine baseline knowledge of antimicrobial stewardship, and safe prescribing among junior medical officers, monitor their level of participation in interactive education during protected teaching time and assess day-to-day prescribing behaviours over the subsequent 3-month period. Methods: A voluntary and anonymous survey of all non-consultant level medical officers was conducted with the use of an audience response system during mandatory face-to-face orientation sessions at a tertiary paediatric hospital. Routine prescribing audits monitored compliance with national and locally derived quality use of medicines indicators. Results: Eighty-six percent of medical officers participated by responding to at least one question (171/200). Response rate for individual questions ranged between 31% and 78%. Questions that addressed adverse drug reactions, documentation and monitoring for empiric antibiotics and the error-prone abbreviations IU and U were correctly answered by over 90% of participants. Other non-standard and error-prone abbreviations were less consistently identified. In practice, 68% of patients had complete adverse drug reaction documentation (113/166). Error-prone abbreviations were identified on 5% of audited medication orders (47/976), approximately half included a documented indication and intended dose. Conclusions: Participants demonstrated a good understanding of safe prescribing and antimicrobial stewardship. Audits of prescribing identified potential discrepancies between prescribing knowledge and behaviours


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Segurança do Paciente
7.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 16(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-171852

RESUMO

Objectives: To 1) characterise older patients taking warfarin, 2) assess these patients’ level of warfarin knowledge, and 3) describe their strengths and limitations in health literacy, and 4) explore relationships between participants’ characteristics, warfarin knowledge and health literacy. Methods: A warfarin knowledge questionnaire and Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) were administered to older patients (aged >65 years, N=34) taking warfarin in an Australian general practice setting. Results: Key gaps in participant knowledge pertained to the consequences of an international normalized ratio (INR) being below the target INR range and safety issues such as when to seek medical attention. A limitation for participants with a lower level of health literacy was the ability to appraise health information. Patients who needed assistance in completing the HLQshad significantly lower warfarin knowledge scores (p=0.03). Overseas-bornparticipants and those taking 5 or more long-term medications had lower HLQ scores for specific scales (p<0.05).Conclusion: In this study warfarin knowledge gaps and a limitation of health literacy amongst a small sample of older patients were identified. The findings suggest that education and resources may need to be tailored to the needs of older patients taking warfarin and their carers to address these knowledge gaps and limitations in health literacy. Patients who may need greater support include those that need assistance in completing the HLQ, are overseas-born, or are taking 5or morelong-term medications (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Autocuidado/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Austrália/epidemiologia
8.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 17(3): 169-174, sept. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-169680

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the introduction stage of basketball participants in countries that are ranked within the top 20 basketball countries by FIBA. Through the use of semi structured interviews, data was collected from 16 technical experts from 6 countries. We analyzed the introductory phase determining: the age at which participants start in the programs; the different avenues or forms of entry in to the sport; the objectives defined and pursued in these stages; the structure of the competitive contests and the multi-sport involvement and specialization. The data revealed an age range of 5 to 12 years for the introduction of participants to basketball. Various settings for the introduction in the sport were found to exist. USA stands out with a maximum of 7 options. Regarding the main objectives in basketball introduction, the data revealed a balance between the three learning domains, with a slight increase of the affirmative and psychomotor over the cognitive. In terms of competition there is a common standard across countries that contests during the period of introduction are focused in enjoyment and stimulation. Several strategies are used in all countries, (e.g. reducing the size of the ball, number of players, height of the basket) are used to accommodate the game to the children abilities and to the objectives of the introductory stage. In terms of multi-sport participation and the ages at which specialization in basketball should occur, opinions are favorable to a multi-sport diversification, and the average age of specialization was 15 (AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la etapa de presentación de los participantes de baloncesto de los países que se clasifican dentro de los 20 países de baloncesto superior por la FIBA. Mediante el uso de entrevistas semiestructuradas, se recogieron datos de 16 expertos técnicos de 6 países. Hemos analizado la fase de introducción determinando: la edad en que los participantes comienzan en los programas; las diferentes vías o formas de entrada en el deporte; los objetivos perseguidos y definidos en estas etapas; la estructura competitiva y la participación multe-deportiva y la edad de especialización. Los datos revelaron un rango de edad de 5 a 12 años para la presentación de los participantes al baloncesto. Se comprueba la existencia de varios parámetros para la introducción en el deporte. USA se destaca con un máximo de 7 opciones. En cuanto a los principales objetivos en la introducción de baloncesto, los datos revelaron un equilibrio entre los tres dominios de aprendizaje, con un ligero aumento de la afirmativa y psicomotor sobre el desarrollo cognitivo. En cuanto a la competición, hay un estándar común en los países definiéndose el disfrute y la estimulación como los objetivos principales. Varias estrategias se utilizan en todos los países, (por ejemplo, la reducción del tamaño de la bola, número de jugadores, la altura de la canasta) se utilizan para acomodar el juego de las habilidades de los niños y para los objetivos de la etapa de introducción. En cuanto a la participación del multe-deporte y las edades en las que la especialización en el baloncesto debe ocurrir, las opiniones son favorables a una diversificación multe-deporte, y la edad media de especialización fue de 15 anos (AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a fase de introdução de participantes de basquete de países que são classificados dentro dos primeiros 20 países de basquete pela FIBA. Através do uso de entrevistas semiestruturados, os dados foram recolhidos a partir de 16 especialistas técnicos de 6 países. Analisou-se a fase introdutória determinando: a idade em que os participantes começam nos programas; os diferentes caminhos ou formas de entrada para a modalidade; os objetivos definidos e perseguidos nessa fase; a estrutura competitiva, o envolvimento multidesportivo e a especialização. Os dados revelaram uma faixa etária de 5 a 12 anos para a introdução de participantes para o basquete. Foram reveladas várias formas de introdução na modalidade. Os EUA destaca-se com um máximo de 7 opções. Em relação aos principais objetivos, os dados revelaram um equilíbrio entre os três domínios de aprendizagem, com um ligeiro aumento da afirmativa e psicomotor sobre o cognitivo. Em termos de competição há um padrão comum entre os países centrando-se os objetivos competitivos na diversão e estimulação. Várias estratégias são utilizadas em todos os países, (por exemplo, reduzindo o tamanho da bola, o número de jogadores, altura do cesto) para acomodar o jogo às capacidades crianças e aos objetivos da fase introdutória. As opiniões dos especialistas são favoráveis à participação multidesportiva e a idade em que a especialização deve ocorrer em basquetebol, foi em média de 15 anos (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Basquetebol/psicologia , Basquetebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora , Basquetebol/classificação , Basquetebol/educação , Austrália , Brasil , Alemanha , Espanha , Estados Unidos
9.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 14(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-156627

RESUMO

Background: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. Objective: This study aimed to examine customers’ key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Methods: Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale) examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. Results: A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%). Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%), trust in the products (73%), and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95%) were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. Conclusions: High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or existing levels of stress and health (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Farmácias , Farmácia/métodos , Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados/métodos , Ansiedade/complicações , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia
10.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 14(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-153716

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of serotonin syndrome is increasing due to the widening use of serotonergic drugs. Identification of serotonin syndrome is challenging as the manifestations are diverse. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in care and inappropriate treatment. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if staff of community pharmacies in Australia could identify the symptoms of serotonin syndrome in simulated patients and recommend an appropriate course of action. Methods: Agents acting on behalf of a simulated patient were trained on a patient scenario that reflected possible serotonin syndrome due to an interaction between duloxetine and recently prescribed tramadol. They entered 148 community pharmacies in Australia to ask for advice about a 60 year old male simulated patient who was ‘not feeling well’. The interaction was audio recorded and analysed for degree of access to the pharmacist, information gathered by pharmacy staff, management advice given and pharmacotherapy recommended. Results: The simulated patient’s agent was consulted by a pharmacist in 94.0% (139/148) of cases. The potential for serotonin syndrome was identified by 35.1% (52/148) of pharmacies. Other suggested causes of the simulated patient’s symptoms were viral (16.9%; 25/148) and cardiac (15.5%; 23/148). A total of 33.8% (50/148) of pharmacies recommended that the simulated patient should cease taking tramadol. This advice always came from the pharmacist. Immediate cessation of tramadol was advised by 94.2% (49/52) of pharmacists correctly identifying serotonin syndrome. The simulated patient was advised to seek urgent medical care in 14.2% (21/148) of cases and follow up with a doctor when possible in 68.2% (101/148) of cases. The majority of pharmacies (87.8%; 130/148) did not recommend non-prescription medicines. Conclusion: While not identifying the cause of the simulated patient’s symptoms in the majority of cases, community pharmacies recommended appropriate action to minimise the health impact of serotonin syndrome by advising to cease tramadol and/or referring to a doctor and not recommending non-prescription medicines to treat symptoms. Raising pharmacists’ awareness of the signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome, and the importance of taking a comprehensive medication history when assessing a set of symptoms, may help community pharmacies further reduce serotonin syndrome toxicity (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Síndrome da Serotonina/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Paciente , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Tratamento Farmacológico/instrumentação , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Redes Comunitárias , Prática Profissional/organização & administração , Austrália/epidemiologia , Tramadol/uso terapêutico
11.
Pharm. care Esp ; 18(1): 28-42, 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-149614

RESUMO

Introducción: Los organismos internacionales farmacéuticos reclaman una educación farmacéutica más centrada en el paciente, que de apoyo a las funciones de la atención farmacéutica. Para ello, se han desarrollado marcos de competencias, que no siempre se han asociado a los correspondientes contenidos docentes. Objetivo: Identificación sistemática de los contenidos programáticos del área de farmacia práctica, mediante la creación de un árbol de codificación de contenidos. Método: Análisis cualitativo de los contenidos docentes de asignaturas del área de farmacia práctica de los planes de estudios de las facultades de farmacia de Australia, Canadá, Estados Unidos, y Nueva Zelanda. Los syllabus fueron obtenidos de las páginas web de las facultades de farmacia, excluyendo las que no tenían el plan de estudios completo disponible en inglés. Se solicitó a los responsables de las asignaturas información adicional por correo electrónico. Se creó un árbol de contenidos inicial a partir de directrices del Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Se realizó un proceso iterativo de codificación dirigida, para obtener el árbol final de códigos que permitiese clasificar los contenidos docentes del área de farmacia práctica. Resultados: Se incluyeron 110 facultades (Australia=15; Canadá=5; Estados Unidos=89; y Nueva Zelanda=1), con 8733 asignaturas, de las que 1703 (19.5%) pertenecían al área de farmacia práctica y presentaban syllabus con información detallada. Se obtuvo respuesta con información adicional de 119 asignaturas. El análisis de contenido convirtió el árbol inicial de 39 categorías, en un árbol final de codificación con 3 niveles jerárquicos y 69 categorías. Conclusión: En los países del análisis, aproximadamente el 20% de las asignaturas pertenecen al área de farmacia práctica. Se ha conseguido un árbol de codificación y clasificación de los contenidos docentes de farmacia práctica. Futuros estudios deberían mapear las asignaturas actuales para determinar si los contenidos identificados están siendo enseñados


Introduction: International pharmaceutical institutions claim for a more patient-focused pharmacy education, which can support pharmaceutical care processes. Consequently, competencies frameworks have been developed, but they not always are associated with teaching contents. Objective: Systematic identification of pharmacy practice curricular contents, by means of creating a content codification tree. Method: Qualitative analysis of course contents of pharmacy practice disciplines from the curricular descriptions pharmacy schools from Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand. Syllabuses were retrieved from pharmacy schools websites, excluding those without the complete program in English. Additional information was requested by email to course responsible. An initial content coding tree was created based on the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education standards. An iterative directed coding was done to obtain the final coding tree that would allow the complete codification of pharmacy practice educational contents. Results: A total of 110 schools were included (Australia=15; Canada=5; United States=89; y New Zealand=1), with 8733 courses, and 1703 (19.5%) corresponded to pharmacy practice area and presented syllabus with complete information. Additional information was obtained from 119 courses. Content analysis converted the initial tree with 39 categories to a final coding tree with 3 hierarchical levels and 69 categories. Conclusion: In countries under analysis, about 20% of courses fit in pharmacy practice area. A coding tree to classify pharmacy practice teaching contents was created. Future studies should map current courses to identify if these curricular contents are being taught


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmacêuticos , Competência Profissional , Currículo/tendências , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Faculdades de Farmácia/tendências , Acreditação , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Portugal/epidemiologia
12.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 13(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-140789

RESUMO

Background: Effective communication enables healthcare professionals and students to practise their disciplines in a professional and competent manner. Simulated-based education (SBE) has been increasingly used to improve students’ communication and practice skills in Health Education. Objective: Simulated learning modules (SLMs) were developed using practice-based scenarios grounded in effective communication competencies. The effect of the SLMs on Pharmacy students’ (i) Practice skills and (ii) Professionalism were evaluated. Methods: SLMs integrating EXCELL competencies were applied in the classroom to study their effect on a number of learning outcomes. EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) Program is a schematic, evidence-based professional development resource centred around developing participants’ selfefficacy and generic communication competencies. Students (N=95) completed three hours of preliminary lectures and eight hours of SLM workshops including six scenarios focused on Pharmacy Practice and Experiential Placements. Each SLM included briefing, role-plays with actors, facilitation, and debriefing on EXCELL social interaction maps (SIMs). Evaluations comprised quantitative and qualitative survey responsed by students before and post-workshops, and post-placements, and teachers’ reflections. Surveys examine specific learning outcomes by using pharmacy professionalism and pharmacy practice effectiveness scales. Responses were measured prior to the commencement of SLMs, after completion of the two workshops and after students completed their block placement. Self-report measures enabled students to self-assess whether any improvements occurred. Results: Student responses were overwhelmingly positive and indicated significant improvements in their Pharmacy practice and professionalism skills, and commitment to professional ethics. Qualitative feedback strongly supported students’ improved communication skills and confidence. Teacher reflections observed ecological validity of SLMs as a method to enhance professionalism and communication skills, and suggested ways to improve this teaching modality. Conclusion: Inclusion of SLMs centred on practice and professionalism was evaluated as an effective, teaching strategy by students and staff. The integration of SIMs in SLMs has potential for wider application in clinical teaching (AU)


Antecedentes: La comunicación efectiva permite a los profesionales de la salud y estudiantes ejercer sus disciplinas de un modo profesional y competente. La educación basada en la simulación (SBE) se ha usado crecientemente para mejorar la comunicación de los estudiantes y las habilidades prácticas. Objetivo: Se desarrollaron módulos de aprendizaje simulados (SLM) usando escenarios basados en la práctica y apoyados en competencias de comunicación efectiva. Se evaluó el efecto de los SLM en (i) las habilidades prácticas y (ii) el profesionalismo de los estudiantes de farmacia. Métodos: Se utilizaron en clase SLM que integraban las competencias EXCELL para estudiar su efecto en varios resultados de aprendizaje. El programa EXCELL (EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership) es un recurso de desarrollo profesional basado en la evidencia centrado en desarrollar la autoeficacia de los participantes y sus competencias genéricas de comunicación. Los estudiantes (N=95) completaron tres horas de sesiones teóricas y ocho horas de talleres SLM que incluían seis escenarios centrados en los lugares de prácticas tuteladas. Cada SLM incluía un resumen, role-plays con actores, facilitación y un resumen final con deliberación sobre mapas de interacción social (SIM) del EXCELL. Las evaluaciones contenían cuestionarios cualitativos y cuantitativos respondidos por los estudiantes antes y después de los talleres y después de las prácticas, y las reflexiones de los profesores. Los cuestionarios examinaban resultados de aprendizaje específicos usando escalas de profesionalismo en farmacia y de efectividad del ejercicio farmacéutico. Las respuestas se midieron antes del comienzo de los SLM, después de completar dos talleres, y después de que los estudiantes completasen su bloque de prácticas tuteladas. Las mediciones autocomunicadas permitieron a los estudiantes a auto-evaluar si existían mejoras. Resultados: Las respuestas de los estudiantes fueron extremamente positivas e indicaron mejoras significativas en su práctica y profesionalismo, y compromiso con la ética profesional. El feed-back cualitativo soportó fuertemente la mejora de habilidades de comunicación y confianza. Las reflexiones del profesor observaban una validez natural de los SLM como método para aumentar el profesionalismo y las habilidades de comunicación, y sugirieron modos de mejorar esta modalidad docente. Conclusión: La inclusión de SLM centrados en la práctica y el profesionalismo fue evaluada como una estrategia docente efectiva por los estudiantes y el personal. La integración de los SIM en los SLM tiene un potencial para otras aplicaciones en la docencia clínica (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem , Simulação/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/organização & administração , Aptidão/fisiologia , Competência Clínica/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica/normas , /normas , Educação em Farmácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália/epidemiologia
13.
Span. j. psychol ; 18: e31.1-e31.12, 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-137220

RESUMO

The specific aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the English version of the Health-Related Quality of Life for Drug Abusers Test (HRQoLDA Test) applying the Rasch model, and emphasizing fit between empirical data and theoretical Rasch model assumptions; item(s) category probability curve; and precision in terms of information function. In this study, the authors present the results of the translation and adaptation of the original Spanish version to English, as applied to a sample of substance users in Australia. The authors evaluated 121 adults recruited from inpatient and outpatient treatment facilities in Sydney, Australia. The Rating Scale Model was used in the psychometric analysis of the English version of the HRQoLDA Test. The items and persons revealed a fit between the reported data and the model. It was also demonstrated that respondents did not discriminate among the five response categories, which led to a reduction to three response categories. The adaptation of the TECVASP to the English language, renamed the HRQoLDA test, as developed with an Australian sample revealed adequate psychometric properties (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas , Austrália
14.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 12(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-125672

RESUMO

Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentionswould be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. Objective: The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods: A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results: ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003) while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy. Conclusion: Complex factors including university experiences are involved in shaping students’ satisfaction and perception of career. This may relate to challenges in the community pharmacy sector, job opportunities inhospital and limited understanding of the pharmaceutical industry. The results offer insight for the profession in terms of entry into various roles and also to pharmacy educators for their roles in shaping curricula and placement experiences that attract future graduates to defined career pathways in pharmacy (AU)


Antecedentes: En Australia, la profesión de farmacia ha sufrido muchos cambios para adaptarse a las necesidades de la comunidad. En los últimos años han aparecido preocupaciones sobre la evidencia que se va produciendo de la saturación de mano de obra en los sectores tradicionales del ejercicio de la farmacia. No se sabe cómo perciben los actuales estudiantes del último año de farmacia las diferentes salidas profesionales en este entorno cambiante. Por ello, sería importante investigar las experiencias de los estudiantes con su curso, la interacción con la profesión y sería un paso importante evolucionar en la comprensión de sus intenciones de carrera, ya que estos estudiantes constituyen una gran proporción de la futura fuerza laboral de farmacia. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue, por tanto, investigar en los estudiantes del último año, las perspectivas de carrera y las razones para la selección de farmacia, la satisfacción con su selección de farmacia como un curso terciario y la posible futura carrera profesional, los factores que afectan a la satisfacción y la intención de futuras salidas profesionales. Métodos: Encuesta transversal cuantitativa a los estudiantes del último año de 3 Universidades australianas, seguida de entrevistas cualitativas semi-estructuradas a una muestra de conveniencia a estudiantes del último año de la Universidad de Sydney. Resultados: El «interés en la salud y la medicina» fue la razón más importante para elegir farmacia (n=238). La mayoría de los estudiantes estaban «algo satisfechos» con la elección de farmacia (35,7%) como curso y posible ejercicio profesional. Se encontraron asociaciones positivas entre la satisfacción y razones para inscribirse en farmacia, tales como «sentir que farmacia es una buena profesión» (p=0,003), mientras que las asociaciones negativas incluían «inscribirse en farmacia como paso para medicina u odontología» (p=0,001). Los resultados cualitativos y cuantitativos mostraron que las percepciones más frecuentes sobre los farmacéuticos comunitarios era «cambiante», mientras que los farmacéuticos hospitalarios y la industria eran descritos como «competitivos» e «investigación», respectivamente. La intención de salida profesional más frecuente era la farmacia comunitaria, seguida de la hospitalaria. Conclusión: Factores complejos, que incluyen las experiencias universitarias, están involucrados en la conformación de la satisfacción y percepción de las salidas en los estudiantes. Estos pueden estar relacionados con retos en el sector de farmacia comunitaria, oportunidades de trabajo en hospital y entendimiento limitado de la industria farmacéutica. Los resultados ofrecen una aproximación para la profesión en términos de aparición de los varios papeles y también a los educadores por su papel en la conformación de currículos y selección de lugares de prácticas que atraigan a los futuros graduados a definir su carrera profesional en farmacia (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Papel Profissional , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Austrália
15.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 12(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-121063

RESUMO

Objective: To understand how the formal curriculum experience of an Australian undergraduate pharmacy program supports students’ professional identity formation. Methods: A qualitative ethnographic study was conducted over four weeks using participant observation and examined the ‘typical’ student experience from the perspective of a pharmacist. A one-week period of observation was undertaken with each of the four year groups (that is, for years one to four) comprising the undergraduate curriculum. Data were collected through observation of the formal curriculum experience using field notes, a reflective journal and informal interviews with 38 pharmacy students. Data were analyzed thematically using an a priori analytical framework. Results: Our findings showed that the observed curriculum was a conventional curricular experience which focused on the provision of technical knowledge and provided some opportunities for practical engagement. There were some opportunities for students to imagine themselves as pharmacists, for example, when the lecture content related to practice or teaching staff described their approach to practice problems. However, there were limited opportunities for students to observe pharmacist role models, experiment with being a pharmacist or evaluate their professional identities. While curricular learning activities were available for students to develop as pharmacists e.g. patient counseling, there was no contact with patients and pharmacist academic staff tended to role model as educators with little evidence of their pharmacist selves. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the current conventional approach to the curriculum design may not be fully enabling learning experiences which support students in successfully negotiating their professional identities. Instead it appeared to reinforce their identities as students with a naïve understanding of professional practice, making their future transition to professional practice challenging (AU)


Objetivo: Entender como la experiencia del currículo formar de un curso australiano de pregrado de farmacia apoya la formación de identidad profesional. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo etnográfico durante cuatro semanas usando la observación de los participantes y se examinó la experiencia del ‘típico’ estudiante desde la perspectiva de un farmacéutico. Se mantuvo un periodo de una semana de observación para cada uno de los grupos de los cuatro años (esto es, para los cursos de primero a cuarto) que componen el currículo de pregrado. Se recogieron los datos a través de observación de la experiencia formal del currículo usando notas de campo, un cuaderno de reflexión y entrevistas informales con 38 estudiantes de farmacia. Se analizaron los datos temáticamente usando un marco analítico a priori. Resultados: Nuestros hallazgos mostraron que el currículo observado era una experiencia curricular convencional que se centraba en la provisión de conocimientos técnicos y proporcionaba algunas opciones de enlace con la práctica. Existían algunas oportunidades para que los estudiantes se imaginasen así mismos como farmacéuticos, por ejemplo cuando el contenido de las clases estaba relacionado con la práctica o cuando el personal docente describía su abordaje de problemas prácticos. Sin embargo, hubo escasas oportunidades para que los estudiantes observaran modelos del papel del farmacéutico, experimentasen siendo farmacéuticos o evaluasen sus identidades profesionales. Aunque había actividades de aprendizaje curricular para que los estudiantes desarrollasen como farmacéuticos, p.e. consejo a pacientes, no había contacto con pacientes y el personal docente tendía a actuar como educadores con poca evidencia de ellos mismos como farmacéuticos. Conclusión: Estos hallazgos sugieren que el abordaje actual convencional del diseño del currículo puede no ser capaz de capacitar experiencias de aprendizaje que apoyen a los estudiantes en la adquisición de sus identidades profesionales con éxito. Por el contrario, parecía reforzar sus identidades como estudiantes con una comprensión naif de la práctica profesional, dificultando su transición al futuro ejercicio profesional (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Farmacêuticos/tendências , Faculdades de Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Currículo/tendências , Avaliação Educacional , Prática Profissional , Papel Profissional , Austrália
16.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 22(3): 175-184, dic. 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-118213

RESUMO

Este artículo ofrece una descripción general del temprano desarrollo del acogimiento y protección en Australia y Nueva Zelanda como telón de fondo de una revisión de los sistemas y políticas de protección infantil y del perfil de protección actual en ambos países. Se sondean los aspectos más importantes en los que se ha centrado la reforma de las políticas y se elaboran iniciativas legislativas y normativas para fomentar la seguridad infantil y fortalecer a la familia. Se proporciona una revisión de las últimas tendencias relativas a las medidas de separación familiar, como los itinerarios y dispositivos de acogimiento y las políticas de permanencia. El artículo perfila estudios empíricos australianos seleccionados que se centran en los resultados en protección: estabilidad del acogimiento, resultados en salud mental y educativos en los niños atendidos, el abuso en el acogimiento y las medidas de separación familiar de los itinerarios por medio de la reunificación y la superación de la edad máxima. Otros temas abordados son la sobrerrepresentación de niños indígenas en los sistemas de acogimiento en ambos países y los retos de mantener los lazos culturales. El artículo concluye con un breve análisis comparativo de las semejanzas y diferencias de los sistemas de bienestar infantil en ambos países (AU)


This article provides an outline of the early development of care and protection in Australia and New Zealand as a backdrop to an overview of child protection systems and policies and the current child protection profile in both countries. Key issues that have become the focus of policy reform are canvassed and legislative and policy initiatives to promote child safety as well as strengthen families are elaborated. An overview of trends in relation to out of home care, including routes into care, care arrangements and permanency policies is provided. The article profiles selected research studies from Australia focusing on outcomes of care: stability of care, mental health and educational outcomes of looked after children, abuse in care, and routes out of care through reunification and aging out. Other issues treated are the overrepresentation of indigenous children in care systems in both countries and the challenges of maintaining cultural connections. The article concludes with a brief comparative analysis identifying similarities and differences in child welfare systems in both countries (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Política Pública , /organização & administração , Criança Abandonada , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/organização & administração , Bem-Estar da Criança , Austrália , Nova Zelândia , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Comparação Transcultural , Política Pública
17.
Med. prev ; 18(1): 36-40, ene.-mar. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-110263

RESUMO

La comparación de sistemas sanitarios permite una mejor comprensión de los modelos descritos. Analizamos la estructura de la sanidad australiana desde el prisma comparativo del SNS español y en el marco del contexto en el que aparecen, con el objetivo de evidenciar las fortalezas y debilidades de ambos sistemas. Australia y España son países similares en desarrollo y políticas sociales, poseen sistemas de financiación pública y cobertura conceptualmente universal, así como vocación hacia la equidad. Sin embargo, las distintas condiciones demográficas y de recursos naturales de ambos estados significan una ejecución de la organización y provisión del sistema sanitario muy distinta, en la que una mayor cobertura y coordinación en el sistema australiano es contrapesada por una menor burocracia y menor coste “de bolsillo” para el paciente español (AU)


The comparison of different Healthcare Systems allows for a better understanding of the models studied. We analyse the structure of the Australian Healthcare system through the comparative looking glass of the Spanish National Health System within the framework in which they were established; aiming to elicit the strengths and weaknesses of both systems. Australia and Spain are similar countries in terms of development and social and welfare policies. They both support publicly funded systems with conceptually universal access and a vocation towards health equity. However, the specific conditions of both nations –demographic, geographic and of natural resources– translate into a highly different organisation and delivery of healthcare provision. The better co-ordination and coverage of the Australian system is counter-balanced by relatively less bureaucracy and significantly lower out-of –pocket expenses for the Spanish client (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Estrutura dos Serviços/organização & administração , Austrália , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Especialização/tendências
18.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 17(1): 85-99, ene.-jun. 2011. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-98331

RESUMO

En este artículo se analizan los orígenes y la situación actual del psicólogo educativo en dos países de gran relevancia dentro de la Psicología como son Estados Unidos y Australia. En el primer caso, se hace una revisión desde el origen de la psicología escolar que data de 1890, fecha en la que se funda la Asociación Americana de Psicología (APA), hasta nuestros días. El avance y desarrollo de la psicología educativa en este país ha confluido en la elaboración de algunas propuestas muy interesantes de formación y acreditación del psicólogo educativo, basadas en el establecimiento de sus competencias académicas y profesionales. Dada su gran relevancia, se revisan en este artículo los modelos de competencias propuestos por las dos principales asociaciones que representan a este colectivo, como son la Asociación Nacional Americana de Psicólogos Escolares (NASP) y la Asociación Americana de Psicología (APA). En el segundo caso, se revisa la situación del psicólogo educativo en Australia, desde sus orígenes, que datan de comienzos del siglo XX, hasta su situación actual, en la que asociaciones importantes como la Asociación Australiana de Psicología y la Australian Guidance and Counsellor Association juegan un papel muy relevante en la regulación de la preparación necesaria y funciones del psicólogo educativo. Finalmente, se destacan algunas tendencias de futuro que marcarán de manera significativa la evolución de la psicología educativa en este país y que, como veremos a lo largo de este monográfico, comparten semejanzas con la situación de otros países (AU)


In this article we analyze the origins and the current situation of educational psychologists in two countries of great relevance for Psychology: the United States and Australia. In the first case, a review is conducted from the origins of school psychology, dating back to 1890 ? when the American Psychological Association (APA) was founded ? to the present day. The advance and development of educational psychology in this country has provided the elaboration of some very interesting proposals about professional preparation and accreditation of the educational psychologist, based on the establishment of their academic and professional competences. Given the great relevance of these proposals, we review the competences models proposed by the two main associations that represent these professionals: The American Psychological Association (APA) and the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). With regard to Australia, we analyze the situation of the educational psychologist there, from the origins of this figure -dating back of the beginning of the twentieth century- up to their current situation. Important associations like the Australian Psychological Association and the Australian Guidance and Counsellor Association have played a very relevant role in the regulation of the professional preparation and functions of the educational psychologist. Finally, we outline some future trends that are likely to impact on the evolution of the educational psychologist in Australia. These issues share similarities with the situation of other countries reviewed in this special monographic edition (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Educacional/tendências , Psicologia , Competência Profissional , Papel Profissional , Austrália , Estados Unidos , Acreditação/tendências , Sociedades , Responsabilidade Legal
19.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 46(supl.2): 3-12, mar. 2010. ilus, mapa, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-85083

RESUMO

El 11 de junio de 2009, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró establecida la situación de pandemiadebida a un nuevo virus influenza A (H1N1) de origen porcino. El virus empezó a producir casos de gripeen el mes de marzo en México, y a partir de mediados de abril en 6 semanas se extendió por todo el mundo.Su transmisibilidad es ligeramente superior a la de la gripe estacional; en cambio, su patogenicidad y virulenciason bajas. Los grupos más afectados han sido los niños, jóvenes y adultos de menos de 30 años. Lamortalidad se ha concentrado en las personas de 20 a 50 años.La pandemia ha producido en los países de clima templado 2 ondas epidémicas. La primera se desarrollódesde mediados de abril hasta mediados de agosto y afectó, en primer a lugar, a México, Estados Unidos yluego a España, Reino Unido, Japón y otros países del hemisferio norte. Unas semanas después, coincidiendocon el inicio de la estación gripal, afectó a los países del hemisferio sur, en especial Argentina, Chile,Australia y Nueva Zelanda, en los que concluyó a finales de septiembre u octubre.La segunda ola se ha desarrollado en el hemisferio norte, iniciándose a comienzos de septiembre en EstadosUnidos y México, y unas semanas más tarde en los países europeos; a mediados de diciembre se hadado por concluida, aunque la actividad gripal persiste. Esta segunda ola ha sido mucho más intensa que laprimera(AU)


On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared an established pandemic due to a new influenzavirus A (H1N1) of swine origin. Initial cases were detected in Mexico in March and within 6 weeks thevirus had spread worldwide.The transmissibility of influenza A (H1NA) is slightly higher than that of the seasonal virus, but itspathogenicity and virulence are low. The main target groups of this new virus have been children andyoung adults under 30 years old. Mortality has affected mainly persons aged between 20 and 50 years old.In areas with temperate climates, two epidemic waves have occurred. The first one, from mid-April to mid-August, affected Mexico, the United States and, consecutively, Spain, England, Japan, and other countries inthe northern hemisphere. A few weeks later, coinciding with the beginning of the influenza season, theH1N1 epidemic started in the southern hemisphere countries, especially Argentina, Chile, Australia andNew Zealand; in these countries, the epidemic finished at the end of September or October.The second wave affected the northern hemisphere, starting in the United States and Mexico at thebeginning of September, and a few weeks later in European countries. In mid-December, this wave wasconsidered to have ended, although some influenza activity persists. The intensity of this second wave washigher compared to the first one(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/classificação , Fatores de Virulência , México/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Japão , Argentina/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia
20.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 127-133, mar. 2010. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-81256

RESUMO

La pandemia de gripe A H1N1 supone un reto para el sistema sanitario, en general, y para las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI), en particular, por lo que tendrá sin duda repercusiones sobre el proceso de donación de órganos y tejidos. Por una parte, en un escenario posible de escasez de camas de la UCI y de dificultades para mantener la actividad quirúrgica a un ritmo normal, será necesario realizar un esfuerzo para crear las condiciones que aseguren el mantenimiento de la actividad trasplantadora, que no debe considerarse una actividad electiva. El otro problema relacionado con el impacto de la pandemia sobre la donación de órganos es la posibilidad de que un donante con gripe pueda transmitir la enfermedad vírica a los receptores. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo clarificar esta cuestión, y revisar los datos existentes sobre la posibilidad de transmisión del virus de la gripe con los órganos o los tejidos trasplantados, las recomendaciones que se han dado en otros países y las que ha elaborado un grupo de trabajo ad hoc, constituido por representantes de la Organización Nacional de Trasplantes, del Ministerio de Sanidad y Política Social, de las coordinaciones autonómicas de trasplantes y de diversas sociedades científicas, incluida la Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias (AU)


The pandemic strain of H1N1 supposes a challenge to the health care system in general and for Intensive Care Units (ICU) in particular. Therefore, it will undoubtedly have repercussions on the organ and tissue donation process. In a possible scenario of bed shortage in the ICU and difficulties in maintaining the surgical activity at a normal pace, a significant effort must be made to assure the maintenance of normal transplant activity, which should not be considered as an elective surgical procedure. Another problem related with the impact of the pandemic on the organ donation process is the possibility that a donor with influenza virus could transmit the disease to recipients. This work aims to clarify this issue, reviewing existing data on the potential transmission of influenza viruses with transplanted organs or tissue, the recommendations published in other countries and those developed in Spain by an ad hoc work group that is made up by representatives from the National Transplant Organization, the Ministry of Health and Social Policy, Regional Offices of Transplant Coordination, and various scientific societies, including SEMICYUC (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Doadores de Tecidos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/normas , Algoritmos , Argentina , Austrália , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Nova Zelândia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Espanha , Reino Unido
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