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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 706-713, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098309

RESUMO

The shape of the head is considered the most important criterion in determining the standard breeds of dogs. It is of much significance to study the skull typology of the Ghanaian local dog in order to establish a template of its identification as a breed and to generate data which could be useful in the comparative anatomy of the skulls of dogs. A total of twenty skulls of adult dogs of two age groups were used in this study. 31 parameters were measured and 6 skull indices were calculated on their basis. The group of skulls from older fully grown dogs showed higher values in all parameters. Results of the current study will provide baseline reference data on skull parameters of local dolichocephalic dogs. More importantly, results obtained could be useful in veterinary applied anatomy and clinical practice in areas including forensic medicine, plastic or cosmetic maxillofacial surgery, neurosurgery of the cranium, acupuncture, nerve block and other clinical manipulations involving the head.


La forma de la cabeza se considera el criterio más importante para determinar las razas estándar de perros. Es relevante estudiar la tipología del cráneo del perro local de Ghana para establecer una plantilla de su identificación como raza y generar datos que puedan ser útiles en la anatomía comparativa de los cráneos de perros. En este estudio se utilizaron un total de veinte cráneos de perros adultos de dos grupos de edad. Se midieron 31 parámetros y se calcularon 6 índices de cráneo sobre la base de ellos. El grupo de cráneos de perros mayores completamente desarrollados mostró valores más altos en todos los parámetros. Los resultados del estudio actual proporcionarán datos de referencia sobre los parámetros del cráneo de los perros dolicocefálicos locales. Más importante aún, los resultados obtenidos podrían ser útiles en la anatomía veterinaria aplicada y la práctica clínica en áreas que incluyen medicina forense, cirugía plástica o cosmética maxilofacial, neurocirugía del cráneo, acupuntura, bloqueo nervioso y otras manipulaciones clínicas que involucran la cabeza.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Gana
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 640-644, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098300

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to obtain data on craniometric parameters in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and to define the general skull type of this species, analysing whether the craniometric classification of domestic dogs can be applied. Eleven skulls of C. thous were included in the analysis, irrespective of age and sex. The location of nine craniometric points established for craniometry in domestic dogs was determined and based on the distances between these points, 17 craniometric parameters were measured. Those parameters were used to calculate the following six craniometric indices: 53.17 ± 2.54 mm skull index, 2.33 ± 0.08 mm craniofacial index, 59.17 ± 3.57 mm neurocranial index, 125.58 ± 6.63 mm facial index, 37.52 ± 2.65 mm basal index and the index of the foramen magnum 54.47 ± 3.48 mm. According to the analysed indices, the skull shape in C. thous can be classified as mesaticephalic.


El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener datos sobre los parámetros craneométricos del zorro cangrejero (Cerdocyon thous) y definir el tipo general de cráneo de esta especie, analizando si se puede aplicar la clasificación craneométrica de los perros domésticos. Once cráneos de C. thous fueron incluidos en el análisis, independientemente de la edad y el sexo. Se determinó la ubicación de nueve puntos craneométricos establecidos para la craneometría en perros domésticos y, en función de las distancias entre estos puntos, se midieron 17 parámetros craneométricos. Esos parámetros se usaron para calcular los siguientes índices craneométricos: índice craneal de 53,17 ± 2,54 mm, índice craneofacial de 2,33 ± 0,08 mm, índice neurocraneal de 59,17 ± 3,57 mm, índice facial de 125,58 ± 6,63 mm, índice basal de 37,52 ± 2,65 mm y el índice del foramen magnum 54,47 ± 3,48 mm. Según los índices analizados, la forma del cráneo en C. thous se puede clasificar como mesaticefálica.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria , Canidae/anatomia & histologia
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 78-82, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056401

RESUMO

Dentro del espectro de conformación del cráneo, se reconocen generalmente tres amplias categorías que se corresponden con el concepto de biotipo cefálico, determinado por el Índice Cefálico. El Estos tres biotipos cefálicos son: el braquiocefálico, mesaticefálico y dolicocefálico, pero están basados en medidas lineales. A fin de revisar esta clasificación en base a su geometría, se estudiaron 53 cráneos de perros adultos, correspondientes a los tres grupos craneométricos descritos: 16 braquicéfalos, 20 mesaticéfalos y 17 dolicocéfalos. Para ello se obtuvieron fotografías en el plano ventral, en las que posteriormente se ubicaron 17 hitos anatómicos que se analizaron mediante técnicas de morfometría geométrica. De estos hitos, 5 correspondían a la zona neurocraneal y el resto al esplacnocráneo. Los tres grupos craneométricos mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos tanto por el tamaño como por la forma. Las variables que contribuyeron más a explicar la diferenciación fueron las ubicadas en el margen más lateral de los arcos cigomáticos y en la base de este mismo arco. Las variables esplacnocraneales presentaban una alometría mucho más marcada que las neurocráneos. Puesto que el arco cigomático debe ser considerado como parte del esplacnocráneo, sugerimos que es tan importante el índice cefálico (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cabeza) como el facial (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cara). La conformación neurocraneal sería mucho más conservativa y por ende el índice craneal, de mucho menor poder discriminatorio entre grupos. El cambio entre tipos se debería a los músculos masetero y temporal, que tienen su inserción en el arco.


Within the wide conformation of skull spectrum, there are generally three recognized broad categories that correspond to the concept of cephalic biotype, determined by the cephalic index. The three cephalic biotypes are: brachiocephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic, which are based on linear measures. In order to revise this classification based on its geometry, we studied 53 skulls of adult dogs, corresponding to the three craneometric groups previously described: 16 brachycephalic, 20 mesaticephalic and 17 dolichocephalic. Images on ventral plane were obtained and 17 anatomical landmarks were subsequently located and analyzed by means of geometric morphometric techniques. Five of those landmarks corresponded to the neurocraneal area and the rest of the splanchnocranium. The three craneometric groups showed statistically significant differences between them for both size and shape. The variables that contributed to the differentiation between them were located along the edge of the zygomatic arches and on the basis of this arch. Splanchnocranial variables also presented a much more marked allometry than the neurocraneal variables. Since the zygomatic arch should be considered as part of the splanchnocranium, we suggest that the cephalic index (which takes into account the maximum width of the head) is as important as the facial index (which takes into account the maximum width of the face). The neurocraneal index would be much more conservative, and therefore less discriminatory between the groups.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Zigoma/anatomia & histologia , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(4): e2110, oct.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093251

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Universalmente se acepta que la radiografía postero-anterior de cráneo presenta menor grado de distorsión que otras imágenes radiográficas, por lo que las mediciones en ella son consideradas confiables. Objetivo: Determinar el porcentaje de distorsión que se presenta en las diferentes regiones faciales de la radiografía posteroanterior de cráneo. Métodos: Treinta cráneos humanos con sus mandíbulas fueron divididos por tres planos horizontales y cuatro verticales en quince cuadrantes; resultaron diez en el cráneo y cinco en la mandíbula. En cada uno de ellos se colocó un alambre de acero en posiciones vertical y horizontal y se midió su longitud (medida real). A cada conjunto se le tomó una radiografía en proyección postero-anterior y se midió la longitud de los alambres en la imagen (medida radiográfica). Resultados: No fue posible medir en los cuadrantes laterales del cráneo. La medida horizontal en los cuadrantes intermedios inferiores derecho e izquierdo del cráneo y en los cuadrantes intermedio y lateral de ambos lados de la mandíbula no es confiable; en el cuadrante mediano de la mandíbula se minimiza; en los cuadrantes medianos superior e inferior e intermedios superiores derecho e izquierdo del cráneo se magnifica. Las medidas verticales en todos los cuadrantes son confiables; en los cuadrantes intermedios superiores derecho e izquierdo del cráneo y en los intermedios y laterales derechos e izquierdos de la mandíbula se magnifica; en los cuadrantes intermedios inferiores y medianos superior e inferior del cráneo y mediano de la mandíbula se minimiza. La menor distorsión para ambas medidas se presenta en el cuadrante mediano superior del cráneo. Se reportan los porcentajes de distorsión para cada cuadrante. Conclusiones: Se presenta distorsión en la radiografía postero-anterior de cráneo y esta varía de una región a otra de la cara(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Universally, it has been accepted that the postero-anterior cephalogram presents less distortion than any other x-ray radiograph; for this reason, the measurements taken on it are considered reliable. Objective: To determine for a postero-anterior cephalogram, what percentage of distortion is present in different regions of the skull and mandible. Methods: Thirty human skulls with their mandibles were divided by three horizontal and four vertical planes in fifteen quadrants, resulting ten in the skull and five in the mandible. In each quadrant, one vertical and one horizontal steel wire were fixed and their lengths were measured (real value). To each set, a postero-anterior cephalogram was taken and the wire images were measured (radiograph value). Results: No measurement could be taken in the lateral quadrants of the skull. The horizontal measurement in the right and left intermediate inferior quadrants of the skull and in the right and left intermediate and lateral quadrants of the mandible is not reliable; in the median quadrant of the mandible it is minimized; in the median superior and inferior and intermediate superior right and left quadrants of the skull it is magnified. The vertical measurement in all the quadrants is reliable; in the right and left intermediate superior quadrants of the skull and right and left intermediate and lateral quadrants of the mandible it is magnified; in the right and left intermediate inferior and median superior and inferior quadrants of the skull and median quadrant of the mandible it is minimized. The minimum distortion for both measurements is present in the median superior quadrant of the skull. The percentage of distortion in each quadrant for both measurements is reported. Conclusions: Distortion is present in the postero-anterior cephalogram and it varies from one region to another of the face(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Crânio/fisiologia , Radiografia Dentária/efeitos adversos , Radiografia Panorâmica/métodos , Cefalometria/métodos
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 724-729, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002284

RESUMO

La influencia de la función respiratoria en el desarrollo de estructuras orofaciales y postura craneocervical ha sido ampliamente discutida. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar valores cefalométricos de la región craneocervical e hioidea en sujetos con respiración nasal y oral. Se incluyeron sujetos de entre 18 y 27 años, de ambos sexos, donde 20 presentaban diagnóstico de respiración oral y 20 no presentaban esta alteración; mediante telerradiografía lateral de cabeza y cuello se realizó análisis cefalométrico craneocervical de Rocabado y aplicación de la técnica de Penning, obteniendo medidas craneocervicales e hioideas, dimensión anterior nasofaríngea y curvatura cervical. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la prueba de normalidad Shapiro-Wilk y la prueba T para muestras independientes, considerando un valor de p <0,05 para obtener diferencias significativas; en aquellos parámetros en donde no se presentó distribución normal se aplicó la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de estudio y los valores cefalométricos analizados, a excepción de la distancia entre la base del hueso occipital y el arco posterior del atlas (p=0,03). Existen limitadas diferencias cefalométricas entre sujetos con respiración oral y respiración nasal, no asociándose el espacio aéreo nasofaríngeo con las modalidades de respiración estudiadas. Deben ser consideradas condiciones de morfología facial o mandibular, para determinar más adecuadamente la influencia de los parámetros cefalométricos en el diagnóstico del modo respiratorio en estudios futuros.


The influence of respiratory function on the development of orofacial structures and craniocervical posture has been widely discussed. The objective of the study was to compare cephalometric values of the craniocervical and hyoid region in subjects with nasal and oral respiration. Subjects between 18 and 27 years of age, of both sexes, were included, where 20 presented oral breathing diagnosis and 20 did not present this alteration; using lateral telerradiography of the head and neck, craniocervical cephalometric analysis was performed of Rocabado and Penning technique was applied, obtaining craniocervical and hyoid measurements, anterior nasopharyngeal dimension and cervical curvature. For the statistical analysis we used the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and the T test for independent samples, considering a value of p <0.05 to obtain significant differences; in those parameters where no normal distribution was presented, the MannWhitney U test was applied. No significant differences were found between the study groups and the cephalometric values ??analyzed, except for the distance between the base of the occipital bone and the posterior arch of the atlas (p=0.03). There are limited cephalometric differences between subjects with oral breathing and nasal breathing, with no association of the nasopharyngeal air space with the breathing modalities studied. Conditions of facial or mandibular morphology should be considered in order to determine more adequately the influence of cephalometric parameters in the diagnosis of the respiratory mode in future studies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Osso Hioide/anatomia & histologia , Respiração Bucal , Postura , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Obstrução Nasal , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Nasofaringe/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria , Telerradiologia , Estudo Observacional , Osso Hioide/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(1): 63-77, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991326

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: la relación entre las maloclusiones y la postura del sistema cráneo cervical ha generado un interés creciente entre los ortodontistas. Objetivo: describir la relación entre la oclusión dentaria y la postura del sistema cráneo-cervical en niños con maloclusiones clase II y clase III. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal. El universo estuvo formado por 19 niños, de 7 a 12 años, con maloclusiones clase II y III de Angle. Ingresados en el Servicio de Ortodoncia de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, en octubre del 2016. Se realizó examen bucal y telerradiografía. Los resultados se presentaron en tablas. Resultados: predominó la clase II de Angle, donde la distoclusión molar fue más marcada en el lado derecho (-2,95 mm) y en la clase III la mesioclusión mayor correspondió al izquierdo (2,25 mm como promedio). En ambas predominó la ½ unidad (36,8 % en clase II). El ángulo cráneo-vertebral y el espacio suboccipital estuvieron dentro del rango normal; 104,65º y 7,99 mm, en clase II y en clase III, 103,78º y 6,90 mm como promedio. La profundidad de la columna cervical fue 6,26 mm y 6,20 mm respectivamente; lo que significó una rectificación de columna cervical. Conclusiones: se encontró más frecuente la clase II de Angle. La posición de la cabeza fue normal en ambas clases y la columna cervical rectificada. Se identificaron relaciones inversas entre la magnitud de la maloclusión con la posición de la cabeza y la columna cervical.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the relationship between malocclusions and the crania-cervical system posture has generated a a growing interest among orthodontists. Objective: to describe the relationship between dental occlusion and the position of the crania-cervical system in children with class II and class III malocclusions. Materials and methods: cross-sectional, descriptive study. The universe was 19 children, aged from 7 to 12 years, class II and III Angle's malocclusions, admitted in the Orthodontics service of the Faculty of Stomatology of Havana in October 2016. Oral examination and teleradiography were performed. The results were presented in tables. Results: Class II of Angle predominated, where the molar distoclusion was more marked on the right side (-2.95 mm) and in class III the greater mesioclusion corresponded to the left (2.25 mm as average). In both, the ½ unit predominated (36.8% in Class II). The cranio-vertebral angle and the suboccipital space were within the normal range; 104.65º and 7.99 mm in class II and in class III 103.78º and 6.90 mm as average. The depth of the cervical spine was 6.26 mm and 6.20 mm respectively; which meant a rectification of the cervical spine. Conclusions: Angle's Class II was found more frequent. The position of the head was normal in both classes and also the rectified cervical spine. Inverse relationships were identified between the magnitude of the malocclusion and the position of the head and cervical spine. The objective of this work is to present a clinical case and the importance of a nurse intervention.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Crânio/fisiopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Estomatognático/fisiopatologia , Oclusão Dentária , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/diagnóstico , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/diagnóstico , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(9): e201900904, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054694

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: Ganoderma lucidum, a kind of mushroom used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities, was investigated in the present study for its possible healing effect on calvarial defects with bone grafts. Methods: Wistar male rats (n = 30) were divided into 3 groups: 1) the control (defect) group (n = 10), 2) defect and graft group (n = 10), and 3) defect, graft, and G. lucidum treated group (n = 10). The G. lucidum was administered to the rats at 20 mL/kg per day via gastric lavage. Results: In the defect and graft group, osteonectin positive expression was observed in osteoblast and osteocyte cells at the periphery of the small bone trabeculae within the graft area. In the defect, graft, and G. lucidum treated group, osteonectin expression was positive in the osteoblast and osteocyte cells and positive osteonectin expression in new bone trabeculae. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was positive in the inflammatory cells, fibroblast cells, and degenerated collagen fibril areas within the defect area. Conclusion: This study shows that, with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, G. Lucidum is an important factor in the treatment of calvarial bone defects.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Crânio/cirurgia , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante Ósseo , Reishi/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Crânio/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(3): e201900306, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989063

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of allopurinol administration on osteoinductive reaction and bone development with graft material. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, calvarial bone defect was only created without any treatment. In the Defect + Graft group, allograft treatment was performed by forming 8 mm calvarial bone defect. In the Defect + Graft + Allopurinol group, alloplastic bone graft was placed in the calvarial bone defect and then, allopurinol (50 mg/kg/day) treatment was intraperitoneally applied for 28 days. Results: Histopathological examination revealed inflammation, congestion in the vessels, and an increase in osteoclast cells in the defect area. We also observed that new osteocyte cells, increase in connective tissue fibers, and new bone trabeculae. Osteopontin expression was positive in osteoblast cells and lacunated osteocyte cells were located in the periphery of the new bone trabeculae. Osteopontin expression was also positive in osteoblasts and osteocytes cells of new bone trabeculae in the graft site. Conclusion: It has been shown that allopurinol treatment in rat calvaria defects may induce osteoblastic activity, matrix development, mature bone cell formation and new bone formation when used with autogenous grafts.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Crânio/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Alopurinol/farmacologia , Crânio/lesões , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Autoenxertos
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900704, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038112

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: The effects of resveratrol administration on calvarial bone defects with alloplastic graft material was investigated for osteoinductive reaction and bone development in rats. Methods: Healthy male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 10 rats. Groups were as follows: control (defect) group, defect + graft group, and defect + graft + resveratrol group. A calvarial bone defect was created in all groups, alloplastic bone grafts were applied to the defect in the 2nd and 3rd group, resveratrol (5 mg/kg/day) was added to the drinking water of the animals following graft application for 28 days in the 3rd group. Results: Increase in osteoclasts and necrotic changes were observed histopathologically in the control group. In the 2nd group, reduction of inflammation, congestion of blood vessels, increased osteblastic activity, osteoinductive effect, progression of osteocyte development and increased collagen fibers in connective tissue were observed. In the 3rd group, osteoblasts seemed to secrete bone matrix and accelerate osteoinductive effect with increased osteopregenitor activity and positive osteopontin and osteonectin expressions. Conclusion: Resveratrol treatment was thought to be an alternative and supportive drug for implant application by inducing new bone formation in the calvaral defect region as a result of short-term treatment.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Crânio/cirurgia , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Substitutos Ósseos/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Crânio/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Osteonectina/administração & dosagem , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Substitutos Ósseos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Osteopontina/administração & dosagem
10.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 82(4): 161-167, dic. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-985211

RESUMO

La solicitud de estudios de imagen en pacientes con trauma cervical es muy frecuente en la práctica diaria. Esa patología es causa relativamente frecuente de discapacidad en pacientes jóvenes junto con el trauma encéfalo craneano. En un porcentaje no despreciable de los casos, las lesiones traumáticas comprometen la unión cráneo- cervical y en esos pacientes, la morbi-mortalidad es más significativa. La transición entre el cráneo y el raquis se basa en un conjunto de estructuras óseas relacionadas por articulaciones muy móviles y estabilizadas por un grupo de ligamentos y músculos que le brindan al mismo tiempo gran solidez. Para una correcta interpretación de los estudios de imagen de uso corriente en la clínica, es fundamental un sólido conocimiento anatómico de la unión cráneo-cervical y sus componentes. Es el objetivo de esta revisión, sistematizar la anatomía de la unión cráneo-cervical con especial énfasis en sus ligamentos, analizar la fisiología de sus movimientos y el concepto de estabilidad para luego realizar una correlación con tomografía computada multi-detector y resonancia magnética.


The request of imaging techniques in patients with cervical spine trauma is very common in clinical practice. Cervical trauma is a relatively common cause of disability in young patients. In a significant percentage of cases traumatic injuries compromise the cranio-cervical junction with more important morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. The transition between the skull and the spine is based on a set of bony structures, high mobility joints, and stabilization mechanism formed by a group of ligaments and muscles. A solid anatomical knowledge of the cranio-cervical junction and its components is essential for a correct interpretation of current high resolution imaging studies. The goal of this review is highlight the anatomy of the cranio-cervical junction with special emphasis on the ligaments, analyze the biomechanics of their movements and the concept of stability. At last but not leastwe will establish a correlation with multidetector computed tomography and high-resolutionmagnetic resonance imaging.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Cervicais/fisiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Membrana Tectorial/anatomia & histologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Ligamentos Longitudinais/anatomia & histologia , Lesões do Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/complicações
12.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 82(3): 107-113, set. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-977271

RESUMO

Objetivo Determinar la frecuencia de las complicaciones observadas durante la trombectomía en el ictus isquémico agudo. Materiales y Métodos Se revisó de forma retrospectiva las trombectomías realizadas en nuestra institución cuando los ictus isquémicos tuvieron una indicación de tratamiento endovascular. Se registraron los diferentes dispositivos utilizados en ese periodo de tiempo y si presentaron relación con el desarrollo de las complicaciones inmediatas mediante arteriografía. Resultados De un total de 228 casos, se registraron complicaciones en el 16,6% de los casos. Se identificaron embolias (n » 31), hemorragias subaracnoideas (n » 2), hemorragia gangliobasal (n » 1), vasoespasmo (n » 1), disección (n » 1) y peusoaneurismas (n » 2). La embolia a nuevos territorios se presentó solo en 5 casos. Discusión El tratamiento endovascular ha demostrado ser efectivo para la recanalización en oclusión de gran vaso. El uso de dispositivos presume un riesgo por la manipulación de los vasos. Conclusión La embolia fue la complicación más frecuente. El tratamiento endovascular en el ictus genera un desenlace clínico favorable de los pacientes, al mismo tiempo, el bajo porcentaje de complicaciones que encontramos no suponen una afectación negativa en el desenlace final.


Purpose To determine the complications we observed during thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods We reviewed retrospectively thrombectomies performed in our institution when endovascular treatment for stroke was done. The different devices used in this period of time were recorded and we determined if these were related to the development of immediate complications duringthe procedure visualized in arteriography. Results We had 228 cases, complications were found in 16.6% of the cases. Embolisms (n » 31), subarachnoid hemorrhages (n » 2), gangliobasal hemorrhage (n » 1), vasospasm (n » 1), dissection (n » 1) and peusoaneurysms (n » 2) were identified. 5 embolisms happened to new territories during thrombectomy. Discussion Endovascular treatment has been shown to be effective for recanalization in large vessel occlusion. The use of devices presumes a risk for the manipulation of the vessels. Conclusion Embolism was the most frequent complication. The endovascular treatment in the acute stroke produces a favorable clinical outcome of the patients and we found a low percentage of complications that would not suppose a negative affectation in the final outcome.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Trombectomia/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Espanha , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Cateterismo/métodos , Cateterismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Stents/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudo Multicêntrico , Trombectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia , Hemorragia
13.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(3): 270-276, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-959243

RESUMO

Objective: Impulsiveness has been the subject of much research, but little is known about the possible relationship between craniofacial anatomy and impulsiveness. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between one aspect of craniofacial structure (the angle of inclination of the forehead) and impulsiveness. Method: Photographs in profile were obtained from 131 volunteers who had been fined for driving at high speed and were undergoing a court-mandated driving license point-recovery course. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P), and Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (V). The angle of the slant of the forehead was measured with a photographic support and a protractor. Results: High positive concordance was found between forehead inclination and 14 out of the 15 impulsiveness factors studied. Conclusions: The angle of inclination of the forehead was significantly associated with self-reported impulsiveness in this sample of traffic violators.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Testa/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Sexuais , Cefalometria/métodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Autorrelato , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/anatomia & histologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 483-487, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954141

RESUMO

The piriform aperture is an anatomical structure generally pear-shaped, formed by some facial bones. The knowledge of its morphological presentation is of significant importance for performing a surgical procedure. This study aimed to analyze the morphometry and shape of the piriform aperture in human skulls, considering the sexual dimorphism of this structure. One hundred (100) human skulls were evaluated. The measurements were made with a digital caliper rule. Two parameters were analyzed: the height of the piriform aperture (R-ANS) - distance between the bottom edge of internasal suture to the anterior nasal spine; width (PA-W) - the longest distance in a transverse plane. Its form was evaluated according to seven types described in the literature and the sex differentiation (based on the Vanrell frame). For data analysis between sexes, we used the Student's t-test (p<0.05; CI: 95 %). In this study it was observed that the height (R-ANS) of the piriform aperture in males (31.4 mm) was higher than in females (29.4 mm), without significant differences. The width (PA-W) had equal means values for both sexes (25.7 mm). Regarding the shape of the pyriform aperture, it was found that the type I (pear) is the most common in males (43.6 %) and in women the type VII (rounded) is the predominant type (36 %). When sexes were evaluated in a combined manner, it was observed that the most common was the type I (pear - 39.1 %) and the less common were type III (diamond - 0.0 %), type II (inverted heart - 1.6 %) and type IV (inverted heart - 3.1 %). Knowledge of these morphometric data and piriform aperture formats is essential for surgical procedures involving this anatomical region. The results, particularly those related to the shape of the piriform aperture in women, may contribute to future work related to this facial structure, leading to better surgical decisions.


La apertura piriforme es una estructura anatómica generalmente en forma de pera, formada por algunos huesos faciales. El conocimiento de su presentación morfológica es de importancia en los procedimientos quirúrgicos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la morfometría y la forma de la apertura piriforme en cráneos humanos, teniendo en cuenta el dimorfismo sexual de esta estructura. Se evaluaron cien cráneos humanos y las mediciones se realizaron con una regla de pinza digital. Se analizaron dos parámetros: la altura de la apertura piriforme - distancia entre el margen inferior de la sutura internasal y la espina nasal anterior; ancho de la distancia mayor en un plano transversal. Su forma fue evaluada según siete tipos descritos en la literatura y la diferenciación de sexo (basada en el marco de Vanrell). Para el análisis de datos entre los sexos, se utilizó la prueba t de Student (p <0,05; IC: 95 %). En este estudio se observó que la altura (R-ANS) de la apertura piriforme en los hombres (31,4 mm) era más alta que en las mujeres (29,4 mm), sin diferencias significativas. El ancho (PA-A) tenía valores medios iguales para ambos sexos (25,7 mm). En cuanto a la forma de la apertura piriforme, se encontró que el tipo I (pera) es el más común en los hombres (43,6 %) y en las mujeres el tipo VII (redondeado) es el tipo predominante (36 %). Cuando se evaluaron los sexos en conjunto, se observó que el más común fue el tipo I (pera - 39,1 %) y los menos comunes fueron el tipo III (diamante - 0,0 %), tipo II (corazón invertido - bajo la espina nasal 1,6 %) y tipo IV (corazón invertido a nivel de la espina nasal- 3,1 %). El conocimiento de estos datos morfométricos y formatos de apertura piriforme es esencial para los procedimientos quirúrgicos que involucran esta región anatómica. Los resultados, en particular los relacionados con la forma de la apertura piriforme en las mujeres, pueden contribuir al trabajo futuro relacionado con esta estructura facial, lo que llevará a mejores decisiones quirúrgicas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Nasal/anatomia & histologia
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 354-361, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886281

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To compare bone regeneration in critical-sized defects in rat calvarium using demineralized bone matrix and calcium phosphate cement. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each. Two defects of 5-mm were made in the parietal bones of each animal. Group I had calcium phosphate cement placed in the experimental defect, Group II had filled with demineralized bone matrix and Group III had with the combination of the matrix and cement in equal parts. All animals had one defect left unfilled to serve as controls. Five animals in each group were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks. Histomorphometric analysis was used to quantify the amount of new bone within the defects. Results: The results showed that demineralized bone matrix-treated defects had significantly more new bone at 4 weeks compared to calcium phosphate cement-treated defects (p=0.03) and also had significantly more new bone at 8 weeks compared to unfilled defects (p=0.04). Conclusions: The demineralized bone matrix was superior to calcium phosphate cement in bone regeneration. It seems that calcium phosphate cement acted by inhibiting the osteogenesis when associated with a demineralized bone matrix and this combination should not be recommended.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimentos para Ossos/farmacologia , Matriz Óssea , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Substitutos Ósseos/farmacologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Crânio/efeitos dos fármacos , Crânio/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Teste de Materiais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Ratos Wistar
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 243-247, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893217

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The most prominent issues in paleopathology concerning skull lesions are skull trepanation and artificial deformation of the skull. From the very beginnings of this scientific field, these two groups of alterations have been the focus of interest. Since the second half of the 19th century, countless pathologists, surgeons and ethnologist have dealt with this issue. The interest is still great. Nevertheless, numerous questions regarding skull trepanation and artificial deformation are yet to be answered. The first trepanned skull finds were discovered in France and Hungary. The finds in Hungary are interesting because a large number of trepanned skulls were found in a relatively small area. On the skull remains found in the grave discovered in the Òmoravica-Koplaló cemetery and labelled MO-90, left of the Sutura sagittalis there is a hole about 1cm in diameter. There are no pathological lesions along the edge or around the hole.


RESUMEN: Los temas más destacados en la paleopatología con respecto a las lesiones del cráneo son la trepanación y la deformación artificial éste. Desde los comienzos en esta área científica, estos dos grupos de alteraciones han sido el foco de interés. Desde la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, un número importante de patólogos, cirujanos y etnologistas se han enfocado e interesado en este tema. Sin embargo, aún existen preguntas y numerosas dudas sobre la trepanación del cráneo y la deformación artificial. Los primeros hallazgos de cráneos trepanados se descubrieron en Francia y Hungría. Los hallazgos en Hungría son interesantes debido a que es un área relativamente pequeña, pero fueron encontrados una gran cantidad de cráneos trepanados. En los restos de cráneos encontrados en la tumba del cementerio Òmoravica-Koplaló y etiquetados como MO-90, a la izquierda de la sutura sagital se observó un foramen de aproximadamente 1 cm de diámetro. No hay lesiones patológicas a lo largo del margen, tampoco alrededor del foramen.


Assuntos
Humanos , Crânio/patologia , Trepanação , Paleopatologia , Sérvia , Crânio/cirurgia
18.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 18(1): 103-112, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013075

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: to assess the interrater reliability of the Saint-Anne Dargassies Scale in assessing neurological patterns of healthy preterm newborns. Methods: twenty preterm newborns met the inclusion criteria for participation in this prospective study. The neurologic examination was performed using the Saint-Anne Dargassies Scale, showing normal serial cranial ultrasound examination. In order to test the reliability, the study was structured as follows: group I (rater 1/physiotherapist; rater 2/neonatologist); group II (rater 3/physiotherapist; rater 4/child neurologist) and the gold standard (expert and professor in pediatric neurology). Results: high interrater agreement was observed between groups I - II compared with the gold standard in assessing postural pattern (p<0.01). Regarding the assessment ofprimitive reflexes, greater agreement was observed in the evaluation of palmar grasp reflex and Moro reflex (p< 0.01) for group I compared with the gold standard. An analysis of tone demonstrated heterogeneous agreement, without compromising the reliability of the scale. The probability of equality between measurements of head circumference in the two groups, compared with the gold standard, was observed. Conclusions: the Saint-Anne Dargassies Scale demonstrated high reliability and homogeneity with significant power of reproducibility and may be capable to identify preterm newborns suspected of having neurological deficits.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a confiabilidade inter-observadores na avaliação do padrão neurológico de recém-nascidos pré-termo saudáveis pela Escala de Saint-Anne Dargassies. Métodos: vinte recém-nascidos pré-termos foram selecionados com base nos critérios de inclusão para participarem deste estudo prospectivo. O exame neurológico foi realizado utilizando a Escala de Saint-Anne Dargassies e os exames de ultra-som craniano seriados normais. Para testar a confiabilidade da escala o estudo foi estruturado da seguinte forma: grupo I (examinador 1 /fisioterapeuta; examinador 2 / neonatologista); grupo II (avaliador 3 /fisioterapeuta; avaliador 4 / neurologista infantil) e o padrão-ouro (expert e professor em neurologia pediátrica). Resultados: foi observado uma concordância alta inter-observadores entre os grupos I -II em comparação com o padrão ouro na avaliação padrão postural (p<0,01). Em relação à avaliação dos reflexos primitivos, observou-se maior concordância na avaliação do reflexo palmar e do reflexo de Moro (p<0,01) para o grupo I em comparação com o padrão-ouro. Uma análise do tônus demonstrou acordo heterogêneo, sem comprometer a confiabilidade da escala. Observou-se a probabilidade de igualdade entre as medidas do perímetro cefálico nos dois grupos em comparação com o padrão-ouro. Conclusões: a Escala de Saint-Anne Dargassies demonstrou alta confiabilidade e homogeneidade com poder significativo de reprodutibilidade podendo identificar recém-nascidos pré-termo com suspeita de déficit neurológico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Triagem Neonatal , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Exame Neurológico , Manifestações Neurológicas , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Cefalometria
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 35-40, Mar. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-893183

RESUMO

RESUMEN: Hace aproximadamente once mil años el ser humano pasó de alimentarse de los animales que cazaba o pescaba y los frutos y plantas que recolectaba, a aquellos que podía crecer a voluntad mediante la agricultura. Este cambio alteró dramáticamente la forma de la cabeza ósea y particularmente de la cara, que se hizo más grácil, y además se redujo el aporte de nutrientes claves. Con la industrialización, hubo un gran deterioro de la salud oral. Al abandono de una dieta cazadora recolectora incluso se le ha atribuido el origen de maloclusiones dentales, debido a la reducción del estrés masticatorio y con ello un menor tamaño relativo del maxilar y la mandíbula respecto a los dientes. Hoy en día, existiendo una mayor conciencia de la población respecto de sus cuidados y de su entorno, la adopción de dietas que excluyen cierto tipo de alimentos como los animales ha ganado adeptos. La dieta vegetariana presenta varias características que pueden afectar el metabolismo general y el óseo en particular, de manera similar a como lo hizo la agricultura en el pasado. La presente revisión busca analizar los cambios de la dieta humana, del punto de vista nutricional y mecánico y cómo estos afectaron la forma de la cara. Esto con el objetivo de comprender los posibles efectos de la introducción de alimentaciones de tipo restrictivas, como la vegetariana, en el organismo y particularmente en la anatomía facial.


SUMMARY: Approximately eleven thousand years ago humans beings went from feeding on animals they hunted or fished and fruits and plants they gathered, to crops they could grow through agriculture. This change dramatically altered the shape of the skull, particularly the face, which became more gracile, and also reduced the contribution of key nutrients. Along with industrialization, there was great deterioration of oral health. Leaving behind the hunter-gatherer diet has even been attributed to the origins of dental malocclusions, as masticatory stress was reduce, and reducing the size of the maxilla and mandible with respect to the teeth. Nowadays, there is greater awareness in the general population regarding personal care and their surroundings. Diets that exclude certain types of foods such as animal products are becoming more prevalent. The vegetarian diet has several characteristics that can affect metabolism, particularly the bones, as did the change from hunter-gatherer to agriculture in the past. The present review seeks to analyze the changes of the human diet, from the nutritional and mechanical point of view and how these have affected the shape of the face. This in order to understand the possible effects of the introduction of restrictive type feeds, such as the vegetarian diet in the body, particularly in facial anatomy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Dieta Vegetariana , Transição Nutricional , Face/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Mastigação/fisiologia
20.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 17: e18019, 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-906083

RESUMO

Aim: The present investigation intended to compare the craniometric variations of two samples of different nationalities (Brazilian and Scottish). Materials and methods: The Brazilian sample consisted of 100 modern complete skulls, including 53 female skulls and 47 male skulls, and the Scottish sample consisted of 100 historical skulls (61 males, 39 females) and 36 mandibles (24 males, 12 females). The cranial measurement protocol was composed of 40 measurements, 11 bilateral and 29 unilateral, and the measurement protocol of the mandible was composed of 15 measurements, with six that were bilateral and nine that were unique. The comparative analysis of the metric variability between the two samples was performed using the means and medians analysis, the t-test, the Wilcoxon test, and the coefficient of variance, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The results showed that, among the 72 analysed variables, 44 measurements (61.11%) presented statistical differences between the samples. The Scottish skull tends to have a cranial length (GOL diff=5.53), breadth (XCB diff=3.78) and height (NPH diff=5.33) greater than the Brazilian skulls, and the Scottish mandibles tend to show a higher mandibular ramus height (MRH diff=9.25), a higher mandibular body height (HMB diff=6.37) and a larger bigonial breadth (BGB diff=5.29) than the Brazilians. The discriminant analysis of the 51 cranial measurements and 21 mandibular measurements showed a variation of the percentage of accuracy between 46.3-83.8%. Conclusion: The metric analysis demonstrated that there is variability between the two samples studied (61,11%), but a concrete cause cannot be determined considering the multifactorial aspects of the variations of form and size


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Antropologia Física , Cefalometria , Antropologia Forense , Odontologia Legal , Ciências Forenses , Crânio
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