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1.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(5): 1414-1421, sept./oct. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-967335

RESUMO

Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a positive regulator of tumorigenesis in human cancer cells. Human AEG-1 gene is located in chromosome 8q22 having 12 exons/11 introns. Chromosome 8q22 is known to be a hot spot for genomic alterations in several cancerous cells involving HCC. The aim of the study was assess association between the negative regulatory region of AEG-1 promoter mutations and genetic susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma. The negative regulatory region of the human AEG-1 promoter was evaluated in a total of 50 Iranian hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) patients. For investigating AEG-1 promoter polymorphisms the PCR-sequencing method was used. In this study was found two new mutation C>T (-633) and G>C (-660) in the patient group. But it was not revealed the statistically significant association between any mutations in this region of the AEG-1 promoter with HCC susceptibility. According to presented data, we can say that the negative regulatory region of the AEG-1 promoter mutations did not exihibit significant relevance with hepatocellular carcinoma. We recommend further studies on the efficacy of the AEG-1 promoter in therapeutic targeting of the HCC.


Resumo: O gene AEG-1 é um regulador positivo da tumorigênese em células cancerígenas humanas. O gene humano AEG-1 está localizado no cromossomo 8q22 com 12 exons/11 introns. O cromossomo 8q22 é conhecido por ser um hotspot para alterações genômicas em várias células cancerígenas que envolvem o CHC. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a associação entre a região reguladora negativa das mutações do promotor AEG-1 e a suscetibilidade genética ao carcinoma hepatocelular. A região reguladora negativa do promotor humano AEG-1 foi avaliada em um total de 50 pacientes iranianos com carcinomas hepatocelulares (CHC). Para investigar os polimorfismos do promotor AEG-1, utilizou-se o método de sequenciação por PCR. Neste estudo foram encontradas duas novas mutações C>T (-633) e G>C (-660) no grupo de pacientes. Mas não foi revelada a associação estatisticamente significante entre quaisquer mutações nessa região do promotor AEG-1 com suscetibilidade ao CHC. De acordo com os dados apresentados, podemos dizer que a região reguladora negativa das mutações do promotor AEG-1 não demonstrou relevância significativa com o carcinoma hepatocelular. Recomendamos estudos adicionais sobre a eficácia do promotor AEG-1 no direcionamento terapêutico do CHC.


Assuntos
Pacientes , Astrócitos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Carcinogênese
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 341-353, Apr. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886284

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome. Methods: The modified Marmarou's weight drop device was used to generate non-lethal moderate TBI rat model, and further developed in vitro astrocytes culturing system. Then, we analyzed the expression changes of interested genes and protein by quantitative PCR and western blot. Results: Multiple HBO treatments significantly reduced the expression of apoptosis promoting genes, such as c-fos, c-jun, Bax and weakened the activation of Caspase-3 in model rats. On the contrary, HBOT alleviated the decrease of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 and promoted the expression of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), such as NGF, BDNF, GDNF and NT-3 in vivo. As a consequent, the neuropathogenesis was remarkably relied with HBOT. Astrocytes from TBI brain or those cultured with 21% O2 density expressed higher NTFs than that of corresponding controls, from sham brain and cultured with 7% O2, respectively. The NTFs expression was the highest in astrocytes form TBI brain and cultured with 21% O2, suggesting a synergistic effect existed between TBI and the following HBO treatment in astrocytes. Conclusion: Our findings provided evidence for the clinical usage of HBO treating brain damages.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Western Blotting , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Apoptose/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Caspase 3/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/análise
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7061, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889105

RESUMO

Andrographolide (ANDRO) has been studied for its immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotection effects. Because brain hypoxia is the most common factor of secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury, we studied the role and possible mechanism of ANDRO in this process using hypoxia-injured astrocytes. Mouse cortical astrocytes C8-D1A (astrocyte type I clone from C57/BL6 strains) were subjected to 3 and 21% of O2 for various times (0-12 h) to establish an astrocyte hypoxia injury model in vitro. After hypoxia and ANDRO administration, the changes in cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using CCK-8 and flow cytometry. Expression changes in apoptosis-related proteins, autophagy-related proteins, main factors of JNK pathway, ATG5, and S100B were determined by western blot. Hypoxia remarkably damaged C8-D1A cells evidenced by reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Hypoxia also induced autophagy and overproduction of S100B. ANDRO reduced cell apoptosis and promoted cell autophagy and S100B expression. After ANDRO administration, autophagy-related proteins, S-100B, JNK pathway proteins, and ATG5 were all upregulated, while autophagy-related proteins and s100b were downregulated when the jnk pathway was inhibited or ATG5 was knocked down. ANDRO conferred a survival advantage to hypoxia-injured astrocytes by reducing cell apoptosis and promoting autophagy and s100b expression. Furthermore, the promotion of autophagy and s100b expression by ANDRO was via activation of jnk pathway and regulation of ATG5.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Western Blotting , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção
4.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 623-633, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951871

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Pro-inflammatory cytokines and glial cells, especially microglial cells, have been implicated in persistent pain sensitization. Less is known about the role of astrocytes in pain regulation. This study aimed to observe the expression of the astrocytic biomarker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after short-term administration of central pain relievers in rats not submitted to noxious stimuli. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups, receiving for nine days- (1) amitriptyline (Amt-10 mg/kg/day, by gavage); (2) gabapentin (Gb-60 mg/kg/day, by gavage; (3) methadone (Me-4.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route [IP]); (4) morphine (Mo-10 mg/kg/day, IP); or (5) 0.9% saline solution, IP. Brain samples were collected for immunohistochemical study of GFAP expression in the mesencephalon and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The area of GFAP-positive cells was calculated using MetaMorph software and serum levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum TNF-α levels were decreased in the groups treated with Mo, Me and Gb, but not in the Amt-treated group. IL-1ß decreased only in rats treated with Me. The astrocytic expression of GFAP was decreased in the brainstem with all drugs, while it was increased in the NAc with Amt, Me and Mo


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/análise , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Astrócitos/imunologia , Citocinas/classificação
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(1): 56-63, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-778496

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the phytochemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from powdered aerial parts of Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae; T. diffusa), as well as its toxicity in astrocytes. Methods Chemical analyses of hydroethanolic extract from powdered aerial parts ofT. diffusa were carried out using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.In vitro assays using astrocytes culture were performed to evaluate cell death. Results Flavone-C, O-diglycosides, such as, luteolin-8-C-[6-deoxy-2-O-rhamnosyl]-xylo-hexos-3-uloside, apigenin-8-C-[6-deoxy-2-O-rhamnosyl]-xylo-hexos-3-uloside and apigenin-7-O-6”-p-coumaroylglucoside were the main compounds found in this hydroethanolic extract. Concentration time-effect demonstrated the toxicity of this extract at a concentration of 1,000µg/mL in astrocyte culture, after 6 and 24 hours of incubation. Conclusion In phytochemical analyses, important antioxidants (mainly flavonoids) were observed. T. diffusa extracts presented cytotoxic effect in high concentrations, leading to increased cell death in astrocyte culture.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a composição fitoquímica do extrato hidroetanólico das partes aéreas de Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae; T. diffusa) e sua toxicidade em astrócitos. Métodos Análises químicas do extrato hidroetanólico de partes aéreas de T. diffusa foram feitas por HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Os ensaiosin vitro utilizaram culturas de astrócitos para avaliar morte celular. Resultados Flavonas-C, O-diglicosídeos, como, luteolina-8-C-[6-deoxi-2-O-raminosil]-xilo-hexos-3-ulosideo, apigenina-8-C-[6-deoxi-2-O-raminosil]-xilo-hexos-3-ulosideo e apigenina-7-O-6”-p-cumaroilglucosídeo foram os principais constituintes encontrados neste extrato hidroetanólico. Uma curva tempo-concentração demonstrou toxicidade desse extrato na concentração de 1.000µg/mL, na cultura de astrócitos após 6 e 24 horas de incubação. Conclusão Nas análises fitoquímicas, importantes antioxidantes, sobretudo flavonoides, foram observados. Extratos de T. diffusa apresentaram efeitos citotóxicos em altas concentrações, ocasionando aumento de morte celular em cultura de astrócitos.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Turnera/química , Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Astrócitos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Flavonas/análise , Flavonas/toxicidade
6.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(1): 262-277, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-736428

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: O absenteísmo-doença, enquanto falta ao trabalho justificada por licença médica, é um importante indicador das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores. Em geral, características sociodemográficas e ocupacionais situam-se entre os principais fatores associados ao absenteísmo-doença. A administração pública é responsável por 21,8% dos empregos formais no Brasil. Esta população permite o estudo de uma grande variedade de categorias profissionais. OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil e os indicadores de absenteísmo-doença entre servidores municipais de Goiânia, no Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal das licenças certificadas para tratamento de saúde superiores a três dias, de todos os servidores, desde janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2010. Foram calculadas as prevalências, utilizando como critérios o número de indivíduos, os episódios e os dias de afastamento. RESULTADOS: Foram concedidas 40.578 licenças certificadas para tratamento de saúde a 13.408 servidores numa população média anual de 17.270 pessoas, o que resultou em 944.722 dias de absenteísmo. A prevalência acumulada de licença no período foi de 143,7%, com média anual de 39,2% e duração de 23 dias por episódio. A prevalência acumulada de absenteísmo-doença foi maior entre mulheres (52,0%) com idade superior a 40 anos (55,9%), com companheiro (49,9%), de baixa escolaridade (54,4%), profissionais de educação (54,7%), > 10 anos de serviço (61,9%) e múltiplos vínculos profissionais (53,7%). Os grupos de diagnósticos (CID-10) com as maiores prevalências acumuladas de licenças foram os do capítulo de transtornos mentais (26,5%), doenças osteomusculares (25,1%) e lesões (23,6%). CONCLUSÕES: Os indicadores de absenteísmo-doença expressam a magnitude desse fenômeno no serviço público e podem auxiliar no planejamento das ações de saúde do trabalhador, priorizando os grupos ocupacionais mais vulneráveis. .


BACKGROUND: Sickness absence, as work absenteeism justified by medical certificate, is an important health status indicator of the employees and, overall, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics are among the main factors associated with sickness absence. Public administration accounts for 21.8% of the formal job positions in Brazil. This population allows the study of a wide range of professional categories. OBJECTIVE: To assess the profile and indicators of sickness absence among public workers from the municipality of Goiania, in the State of Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on certified sick leaves, lasting longer than three days, of all civil servants from January 2005 to December 2010. Prevalence rates were calculated using as main criteria the number of individuals, episodes and sick days. RESULTS: 40,578 certified sick leaves were granted for health treatment among 13,408 public workers, in an annual average population of 17,270 people, which resulted in 944,722 days of absenteeism. The cumulative prevalence of sick leave for the period was of 143.7%, with annual average of 39.2% and duration of 23 days per episode. The cumulative prevalence of sickness absence was higher among women (52.0%), older than 40 years old (55.9%), with a partner (49.9%), low schooling (54.4%), education professionals (54.7%), > 10 years of service (61.9%), and with multiple work contracts (53.7%). Diagnoses groups (ICD-10) with higher cumulative prevalence of sick leaves were those with mental disorders (26.5%), musculoskeletal diseases (25.1%), and injuries (23.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Indicators of sickness absence express the magnitude of this phenomenon in the public sector and can assist in planning health actions for the worker, prioritizing the most vulnerable occupational groups. .


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Fator H do Complemento , Citocinas/imunologia , Neuroglia/imunologia , Convulsões/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Sistema X-AG de Transporte de Aminoácidos/imunologia , Sistema X-AG de Transporte de Aminoácidos/fisiologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/imunologia , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Western Blotting , Clusterina/imunologia , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Imunofluorescência , Hipocampo/imunologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação/imunologia , Ácido Caínico , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
7.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 37(3): 133-139, Mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-746672

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar la sobrevida de pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico en 2009-2010 en el Perú. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de tipo cohorte retrospectivo de pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico registrados en el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SNVE) de la Dirección General de Epidemiología (DGE) y del Registro de Hechos Vitales (RHV) de la Oficina General de Estadística e Informática (OGEI) para los años 2009-2010. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 3 568 pacientes del SNVE, 51,5% eran hombres y 48,5% eran mujeres; la media de edad fue 63,9 años, 60,07% tenían 60 años o más. Se halló que 33,6% tenía adenocarcinoma de tipo intestinal, 18,7% tenía carcinoma de tipo difuso y 4,1% tenía linfoma gástrico primario. La sobrevida global fue de 29,7 ± 0,8 meses y fue mejor para los menores de 60 años (P = 0,034), para las mujeres (P = 0,014) y para el adenocarcinoma de tipo intestinal (P < 0,001). No hubo diferencias (P = 0,713) entre la sobrevida de los pacientes con linfoma gástrico y aquellos con adenocarcinoma. Para evaluar la tasa de mortalidad se incluyeron 6 069 registros de pacientes del RHV, la tasa de mortalidad nacional fue de 10,3 por cada 100 000 habitantes y las regiones con mayor mortalidad fueron Huánuco, Huancavelica y Junín. CONCLUSIONES: La sobrevida general fue de 29,7 ± 0,8 meses, las mujeres, los menores de 60 años y los pacientes con adenocarcinoma de tipo intestinal tienen mejor sobrevida. La mayor mortalidad por cáncer gástrico se concentra en las regiones más pobres del Perú, donde es probable que las condiciones de vida faciliten la alta transmisibilidad de Helicobacter pylori.


OBJECTIVE: Determine the survival rate of patients diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2009-2010 in Peru. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients diagnosed with stomach cancer registered in the National Epidemiological Surveillance System (SNVE) of the Directorate General of Epidemiology (DGE) and the Register of Vital Statistics (RHV) of the General Office of Statistics and Information (OGEI) for the years 2009-2010. RESULTS: 3 568 patients of the SNVE were included; 51.5% were men and 48.5% were women; the average age was 63.9 years; 60.07% were 60 years old or older. It was found that 33.6% had intestinal type adenocarcinoma, 18.7% had diffuse type carcinoma, and 4.1% had primary gastric lymphoma. The overall survival rate was 29.7 ± 0.8 months and was better for those under 60 years (P = 0.034), for women (P = 0.014) and for intestinal type adenocarcinoma (P< 0.001). There was no difference (P = 0.713) between the survival rate of gastric lymphomas and adenocarcinomas. In order to evaluate mortality, 6 069 patient records from the RHV were included; national mortality was 10.3 per 100 000 population; the regions with the highest mortality were Huánuco, Huancavelica, and Junín. CONCLUSIONS: The general survival rate was 29.7 ± 0.8 months; women, those under 60 years, and patients with intestinal type adenocarcinoma had better survival rates. The highest mortality from stomach cancer is concentrated in the poorest regions of Peru, where it is probable that living conditions facilitate the high communicability of Helicobacter pylori.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/fisiologia , Astrócitos/citologia , Biopolímeros/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Astrócitos/enzimologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Neurônios/enzimologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(1): 47-53, 02/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-746451

RESUMO

Objective The diabetic state induced by streptozotocin injection is known to impair oligodendroglial remyelination in the rat brainstem following intracisternal injection with the gliotoxic agent ethidium bromide (EB). In such experimental model, propentofylline (PPF) recently showed to improve myelin repair, probably due to its neuroprotective, antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PPF administration in diabetic rats submitted to the EB-demyelinating model. Materials and methods Adult male rats, diabetic or not, received a single injection of 10 microlitres of 0.1% EB solution into the cisterna pontis. For induction of diabetes mellitus the streptozotocin-diabetogenic model was used (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal route – IP). Some diabetic rats were treated with PPF (12.5 mg/kg/day, IP route) during the experimental period. The animals were anesthetized and perfused from 7 to 31 days after EB injection and brainstem sections were collected for analysis of the lesions by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results Diabetic rats injected with EB showed larger amounts of myelin-derived membranes in the central areas of the lesions and considerable delay in the remyelinating process played by surviving oligodendrocytes and invading Schwann cells after the 15th day. On the other hand, diabetic rats that received PPF presented lesions similar to those of non-diabetic animals, with rapid remyelination at the edges of the lesion site and fast clearance of myelin debris from the central area. Conclusion The administration of PPF apparently reversed the impairment in remyelination induced by the diabetic state. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(1):47-53 .


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Desmielinizantes/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Bainha de Mielina/fisiologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Xantinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Etídio/toxicidade , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesencéfalo/patologia , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Ponte/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantinas/administração & dosagem
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(3): 366-378, July-Sept. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-726786

RESUMO

Introducción. El accidente cerebrovascular es la segunda causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad en el mundo, y más de 85 % es de origen isquémico. Objetivo. Evaluar en un modelo de infarto cerebral por embolia arterial el efecto de la atorvastatina y el meloxicam, administrados por separado y de forma conjunta, sobre la respuesta neuronal, los astrocitos y la microglia. Materiales y métodos. Se sometieron ratas Wistar a embolia de la arteria carótida y a tratamiento con meloxicam y atorvastatina, administrados por separado y conjuntamente, a las 6, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Se evaluó la reacción de las proteínas COX-2, GFAP y OX-42 en las neuronas, los astrocitos y la microglia mediante inmunohistoquímica y estudios morfológicos y de densitometría. Los datos obtenidos se evaluaron por medio de un análisis de varianza y de pruebas no paramétricas de comparación múltiple. Resultados. La isquemia cerebral por embolia arterial incrementó significativamente (p<0,001) la reacción de los astrocitos y la microglia, en tanto que la atorvastatina y el meloxicam, administrados por separado y de forma conjunta, la redujeron. La isquemia produjo acortamiento de las proyecciones de los astrocitos, engrosamiento celular, ruptura de las expansiones protoplásmicas (clasmatodendrosis) y cambios morfológicos en la microglia propios de diversas etapas de actividad. En las zonas circundantes del foco se incrementó la reacción inmunológica de la COX-2 y se redujo en el foco isquémico, en tanto que el meloxicam y la atorvastatina redujeron significativamente (p<0,001) la reacción inmunológica en la zona circundante del foco, restableciendo la marcación de la ciclooxigenasa en el foco isquémico. Conclusión. La combinación de meloxicam y atorvastatina atenúa la respuesta de los astrocitos y la microglia en el proceso inflamatorio posterior a la isquemia cerebral por embolia arterial, reduciendo la degeneración neuronal y restableciendo el equilibrio morfológico y funcional del tejido nervioso.


Introduction: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the first cause of disability in the world, with more than 85% of the cases having ischemic origin. Objective: To evaluate in an embolism model of stroke the effect of atorvastatin and meloxicam on neurons, astrocytes and microglia. This evaluation was done administering each medication individually and in association. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were subjected to carotid arterial embolism and treatment with meloxicam and atorvastatin at 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of COX-2 protein, GFAP and OX-42 in neurons, astrocytes and microglia by densitometric and morphological studies. Data were evaluated by variance analysis and non-parametric multiple comparison. Results: Cerebral ischemia by arterial embolism increased significantly the reactivity of microglia and astrocytes (p<0.001), whereas it was reduced by atorvastatin, meloxicam and their association. Ischemia produced astrocytic shortening, cellular thickening, protoplasmic rupture expansions (clasmatodendrosis) and microglial morphological changes characteristic of various activity stages. In perifocal areas, immunoreactivity of COX-2 was increased and in the ischemic focus it was reduced, while meloxicam and atorvastatin significantly reduced (p<0.001) perifocal immunoreactivity, restoring the marking of cyclooxygenase in the ischemic focus. Conclusion: These results suggest that the meloxicam-atorvastatin association attenuates astrocytic and microglial response in the inflammatory process after cerebral ischemia by arterial embolism, reducing neurodegeneration and restoring the morphological and functional balance of nervous tissue .


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Heptanoicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Embolia Intracraniana/complicações , Degeneração Neural/prevenção & controle , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Tiazinas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Atorvastatina , /análise , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/patologia , Biomarcadores , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/patologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/análise , Ácidos Heptanoicos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inflamação , Embolia Intracraniana/patologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/análise , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Tiazinas/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(4): 282-286, ago. 2014. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-734386

RESUMO

Existen múltiples evidencias de alteraciones neuronales y gliales en etapas avanzadas de la enfemedad de Alzheimer con abundantes depósitos cerebrales de beta amiloide, aunque hay pocos datos de cambios tempranos que podrían contribuir al desarrollo de la enfermedad. Evaluamos alteraciones morfológicas neuronales y gliales, y cambios cognitivos y emocionales tempranos en ratones transgénicos PDAPP-J20 (Tg), portadores del gen humano de APP (amyloid precursor protein) mutado, a los 5 meses de edad, aún sin depósitos amiloides en el hipocampo y con niveles bajos de péptidos amiloides cerebrales. Mediante inmunohistoquímica para NeuN, los Tg presentaron menor número de neuronas piramidales y granulares en el hipocampo, junto con un menor volumen de la estructura, en comparación con los controles no transgénicos. La neurogénesis se encontró afectada, evidenciada por reducido número de neuronas DCX+ en el giro dentado. En la región CA3, hubo una menor densidad de sinaptofisina sugiriendo alteraciones sinápticas entre neuronas granulares y piramidales, sin cambios en la densidad de espinas dendríticas en CA1. Utilizando microscopía confocal, observamos una disminución del número de astrocitos GFAP+ con una reducción de la complejidad celular, sugiriendo atrofia glial. Se detectó un déficit cognitivo (reconocimiento de localización novedosa de un objeto) y un aumento de la ansiedad (campo abierto) en los Tg, con aumento en los núcleos c-Fos+ en amígdala, evidenciando el papel de la emocionalidad en los inicios de la enfermedad. El estudio de las alteraciones iniciales en la enfermedad amiloide podría contribuir al desarrollo de métodos de diagnóstico temprano y de terapéutica preventiva.


Although there is strong evidence about neuronal and glial disturbances at advanced stages of Alzheimer’s disease, less attention has been directed to early, pre-amyloid changes that could contribute to the progression of the disease. We evaluated neuronal and glial morphological changes and behavioral disturbances in PDAPP-J20 transgenic (Tg) mice, carrying mutated human APP gene (amyloid precursor protein), at 5 months of age, before brain amyloid deposition occurs. Using NeuN immunohistochemistry we found decreased numbers of pyramidal and granular neurons in the hippocampus associated with a reduction of hippocampal volume in Tg mice compared with controls. Neurogenesis was impaired, evidenced by means of DCX immunohistochemistry in the dentate gyrus. In the CA3 region we found a decreased density of synaptophysin, suggesting synaptic disturbance, but no changes were found in CA1 synaptic spine density. Using confocal microscopy we observed decreased number and cell complexity of GFAP+ astrocytes, indicating potential glial atrophy. Cognitive impairment (novel location recognition test) and increased anxiety (open field) were detected in Tg mice, associated with more c-Fos+ nuclei in the amygdala, possibly indicating a role for emotionality in early stages of the disease. The study of early alterations in the course of amyloid pathology could contribute to the development of diagnostic and preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Astrócitos/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/patologia , Sinaptofisina/isolamento & purificação
12.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(6): 431-436, ago. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-685404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diabetic hyperglycemia on astrocyte function, estimated by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein - GFAP - immunohistochemical expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male rats received a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) and were submitted 10 days later to a single injection of 10 microlitres 0.1% EB solution or 0.9% saline solution into the cisterna pontis. Ten microliters of 0.1% EB or 0.9% saline solution were also injected in non-diabetic rats. Animals were anesthetized and perfused through the heart 15 and 31 days after EB or saline injection, and brainstem sections were collected for ultrastructural analysis and GFAP immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The GFAP brown-stained areas were evaluated by colorimetry using a computerized image analysis system and the results have shown that diabetes hindered the increase of GFAP astrocyte expression in the EB-injected group compared to non-diabetic animals. However, diabetes did not affect GFAP response in the saline-injected group or in control animals. CONCLUSION: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic condition reduced astrocytic GFAP expression following gliotoxic injury.


OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da hiperglicemia na função astrocitária, estimada pela expressão imuno-histoquímica da proteína glial fibrilar ácida - GFAP. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratos machos adultos receberam uma injeção intravenosa única de estreptozotocina (50 mg/kg) e foram submetidos, 10 dias após, à injeção de 10 microlitros de solução de BE 0,1% ou de salina 0,9% na cisterna pontina. Dez microlitros de BE 0,1% ou salina 0,9% foram também injetados em ratos não diabéticos. Os animais foram anestesiados e perfundidos por via intracardíaca aos 15 e 31 dias pós-injeção de BE ou salina, e amostras de tronco encefálico foram coletadas para estudo ultraestrutural e análise imuno-histoquímica para a GFAP. RESULTADOS: Utilizando um sistema computadorizado de análise de imagens, os resultados das áreas coradas em marrom pela GFAP, medidas por colorimetria, mostram que o diabetes reduziu o aumento de expressão dessa proteína no grupo injetado com BE em comparação aos animais não diabéticos, mas não alterou a resposta no grupo injetado com salina ou nos controles diabéticos. CONCLUSÃO: O estado diabético induzido pela estreptozotocina reduziu a expressão astrocitária de GFAP após dano gliotóxico.


Assuntos
Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Tronco Encefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etídio/toxicidade , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/efeitos adversos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(2): 693-699, jun. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-687126

RESUMO

Several animal model studies have shown that Diabetes mellitus can affect on the activity of hippocampus astrocytes, but these studies reported controversial findings. This study was done to evaluate the preventive and treatment effect of Urtica dioica (U. dioica) on astrocytes density in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male albino Wistar rats were randomly allocated equally into control, diabetic, U. dioica treatment and U. dioica preventive groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by STZ (80 mg/kg/BW). One week after injection of the streptozotocin, animals in treatment group were received hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/BW /day) for 4 weeks by intraperitoneally. In preventive group, diabetic rats were received 100 mg/kg/BW/ daily hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica for 5 days before STZ injection. Then, animals were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the right dorsal hippocampus, stained with PTAH. The area densities of the astrocytes were measured. The number of astrocytes in CA1 of controls, diabetic treatment and preventive groups was 19.00+/-5.5, 17.14+/-6.4, 21+/-8.1 and 16.48+/-3.2, respectively. The densities of astrocytes in CA3 of controls, diabetic, treatment and preventive groups were 25.45+/-7.60, 21.54+/-7.5, 23.75+/-5.6 and 19.89+/-3.8, respectively. The density of astrocytes in diabetic rats reduced in comparison with controls (P<0.05). In CA1 and CA3, in spite of preventive administration, treatment of diabetic rats with U. dioica significantly increased the astrocytes. This study showed that treatment with U. dioica extract can help compensate for the CA1 and CA3 subfields of hippocampus astrocytes in diabetic rats.


Varios estudios en modelos animales han mostrado que la diabetes mellitus puede afectar la actividad de los astrocitos del hipocampo, pero estos resultados son controvertidos. Este estudio se realizó para evaluar el efecto preventivo y de tratamiento de la Urtica dioica (U. dioica) en la densidad de los astrocitos en los subcampos CA1 y CA3 del hipocampo en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina (STZ). Veintiocho ratas Wistar albinas macho fueron asignadas al azar por igual en grupos control, diabético, con tratamiento U. dioica y preventivo con U.dioica. La hiperglucemia se indujo por STZ (80 mg/kg/peso corporal). Una semana después, los animales del grupo tratamiento recibieron el extracto hidroalcohólico de U. dioica (100 mg/kg/peso corporal/día) durante 4 semanas vía intraperitoneal. El grupo preventivo, recibió 100 mg/kg/peso corporal/día de extracto hidroalcohólico U. dioica durante 5 días antes de la inyección de STZ. Los animales fueron sacrificados, se tomaron secciones coronales del hipocampo dorsal derecho y se tiñeron con PTAH. Fueron medidas las densidades de área de los astrocitos. El número de astrocitos en CA1 de los grupos de ratas control, diabéticas, con tratamiento de U. dioica y preventivo con U. dioica fue 19,00+/-5,5, 17,14+/-6,4, 21+/-8,1 y 16,48+/-3,2, respectivamente. Las densidades de los astrocitos en CA3 de los grupos de ratas control, diabéticas, con tratamiento de U. dioica y preventivo con U. dioica fue 25,45+/-7,60, 21,54+/-7,5, 23,75+/-5,6 y 19,89+/-3,8, respectivamente. La densidad de los astrocitos en las ratas diabéticas se redujo en comparación con los controles (P <0,05). En CA1 y CA3, a pesar de la administración preventiva, sólo el tratamiento de ratas diabéticas con U. dioica aumentó significativamente los astrocitos. Este estudio mostró que el tratamiento con extracto de U. dioica puede ayudar a compensar los astrocitos de los subcampos CA1 y CA3 del hipocampo en ratas diabéticas.


Assuntos
Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Astrócitos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Hipocampo , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Urtica dioica/química , Astrócitos/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Ratos Wistar
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(2): 212-219, abr. 2013. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-670398

RESUMO

Astrocytes play a vital role in neuronal protection, homeostasis, vascular interchange and the local immune response. Some viruses and parasites can cross the blood-brain barrier and infect glia. Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, can seriously compromise the central nervous system, mainly in immune-suppressed individuals, but also during the acute phase of the infection. In this report, the infective capacity of T. cruzi in a human astrocyte tumour-derived cell line was studied. Astrocytes exposed to trypomastigotes (1:10 ratio) produced intracellular amastigotes and new trypomastigotes emerged by day 4 post-infection (p.i.). At day 6 p.i., 93% of the cells were infected. Using flow cytometry, changes were observed in both the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules and the chemokine secretion pattern of astrocytes exposed to the parasite. Blocking the low-density lipoprotein receptor on astrocytes did not reduce parasite intracellular infection. Thus, T. cruzi can infect astrocytes and modulate the immune response during central nervous system infection.


Assuntos
Humanos , Astrócitos/parasitologia , Astrocitoma/parasitologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Astrocitoma/imunologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Colomb. med ; 44(1): 31-36, Jan.-Mar. 2013. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-691792

RESUMO

Introduction:The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is essen-tial for early diagnosis, neurologic recovery, the early onset of drugtreatment and the prognosis of ischemic events. Experimental modelsof cerebral ischemia can be used to evaluate the cellular response phe-nomena and possible neurological protection by drugs.Objective:To characterize the cellular changes in the neuronal po-pulation and astrocytic response by the effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide(DMSO) on a model of ischemia caused by cerebral embolism.Methods:Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 5).The infarct was induced with α-bovine thrombin (40 NIH/Unit.). Thetreated group received 90 mg (100 μl) of DMSO in saline (1:1 v/v) in-traperitoneally for 5 days; ischemic controls received only NaCl (pla-cebo) and two non-ischemic groups (simulated) received NaCl andDMSO respectively. We evaluated the neuronal (anti-NeuN) and as-trocytic immune-reactivity (anti-GFAP). The results were analyzed bydensitometry (NIH Image J-Fiji 1.45 software) and analysis of variance(ANOVA) with the Graph pad software (Prism 5).Results:Cerebral embolism induced reproducible and reliable lesionsin the cortex and hippocampus (CA1)., similar to those of focal mo-dels. DMSO did not reverse the loss of post-ischemia neuronal im-mune-reactivity, but prevented the morphological damage of neurons,and significantly reduced astrocytic hyperactivity in the somato-sen-sory cortex and CA1 (P <0.001).Conclusions:The regulatory effect of DMSO on astrocyte hyperreac-tivity and neuronal-astroglial cytoarchitecture , gives it potential neu-roprotective properties for the treatment of thromboembolic cerebralischemia in the acute phase.


Assuntos
Ratos , Isquemia Encefálica , Embolia , Neuroglia , Astrócitos , Gliose , Imuno-Histoquímica
16.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-666274

RESUMO

Evidências científicas do aumento da concentração da proteína S100B no sangue de pacientes esquizofrênicos são muito consistentes. No passado essa informação era principalmente considerada como reflexo da disfunção astroglial ou da barreira hematoencefálica. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa de publicações no PubMed até o dia 15 de junho de 2011 visando estabelecer potenciais ligações entre a proteína S100B e as hipóteses correntes da esquizofrenia. RESULTADOS: A S100B está potencialmente associada com as hipóteses dopaminérgica e glutamatérgica. O aumento da expressão de S100B tem sido detectado em astrócitos corticais em casos de esquizofrenia paranoide, enquanto se observa uma redução da expressão em oligodendrócitos na esquizofrenia residual, dando suporte à hipótese glial. Recentemente, a hipótese da neuroinflamação da esquizofrenia tem recebido atenção crescente. Nesse sentido, a S100B pode funcionar como uma citocina secretada por células gliais, linfócitos CD8+ e células NK, levando à ativação de monócitos e microglia. Além disso, a S100B apresenta propriedades do tipo adipocina e pode estar desregulada na esquizofrenia, devido a distúrbios da sinalização de insulina, levando ao aumento da liberação de S100B e ácidos graxos do tecido adiposo. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão de S100B em diferentes tipos celulares está envolvida em muitos processos regulatórios. Atualmente, não pode ser respondido qual mecanismo relacionado à esquizofrenia é o mais importante


Scientific evidence for increased S100B concentrations in the peripheral blood of acutely ill schizophrenia patients is consistent. In the past, this finding was mainly considered to reflect astroglial or blood-brain barrier dysfunction. METHODS: Using Entrez, PubMed was searched for articles published on or before June 15, 2011, including electronic early release publications, in order to determine other potential links between S100B and current hypotheses for schizophrenia. RESULTS: S100B is potentially associated with the dopamine and glutamate hypotheses. Supporting the glial hypothesis, an increased expression of S100B has been detected in cortical astrocytes of paranoid schizophrenia cases, while decreased oligodendrocytic expression has been observed in residual schizophrenia. Recently, the neuroinflammation hypothesis of schizophrenia has gained attention. S100B may act as a cytokine after secretion from glial cells, CD8+ lymphocytes and NK cells, activating monocytes and microglial cells. Moreover, S100B exhibits adipokine-like properties and may be dysregulated in schizophrenia due to disturbances in insulin signaling, leading to the increased release of S100B and free fatty acids from adipose tissue. DISCUSSION: Dysregulation of pathways related to S100B appears to play a role in schizophrenia. However, S100B is expressed in different cell types and is involved in many regulatory processes. Currently, "the most important" mechanism related to schizophrenia cannot be determined


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Células Matadoras Naturais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Neurópilo , Oligodendroglia , Adipócitos , Antipsicóticos/farmacocinética
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2013. [166] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-720635

RESUMO

A Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA) é a doença neurodegenerativa do neurônio motor que acomete indivíduos adultos e promove a perda progressiva das funções motoras. A evolução é rápida (2 a 5 anos) e culmina na morte por complicações e falência dos músculos respiratórios. Descrições recentes sugerem a contribuição de tipos celulares não neuronais, particularmente o astrócito e a microglia, para a morte do neurônio motor. O camundongo transgênico SOD1G93A, que carrega a SOD1 humana mutada, foi utilizado neste trabalho. Estudos comportamentais apontaram alterações motoras importantes no animal transgênico a partir de 90 dias de vida e permitiram selecionar, então, as idades pré-sintomáticas de 40 dias e 80 dias para os estudos moleculares. A análise da expressão gênica nos animais transgênicos e selvagens destas duas idades foi realizada por microarray utilizando-se a plataforma que contém o genoma completo do camundongo e detectou 492 e 1105 transcritos diferencialmente expressos nos animais de 40 e 80 dias, respectivamente. Estes resultados foram validados por PCR quantitativa (qPCR). As análises bioinformáticas dos resultados identificaram 17 e 11 vias moleculares super-representadas nas idades de 40 dias e 80 dias, respectivamente. Destas, as vias endocitose, sinapse glutamatérgica, proteólise mediada por ubiquitina, via de sinalização de quimiocina, fosforilação oxidativa, processamento e apresentação de antígeno e junção oclusiva foram comuns a ambas as idades. Ainda, as vias sinapse glutamatérgica e fagossomo foram sugeridas como potencialmente mais importantes em animais transgênicos de 40 dias e 80 dias, respectivamente. Transcritos específicos foram analisados em amostras enriquecidas de células (astrócito, microglia e neurônio motor) microdissecadas a laser do corno anterior da medula espinal dos animais. Os transcritos Cxcr4, Slc1a2 e Ube2i foram avaliados por qPCR nas amostras enriquecidas de astrócitos dos animais de 40 dias...


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset motor neuron neurodegenerative disease that leads to the progressive loss of muscular functions. It is a fast progression disorder (2 to 5 years) culminating in death by respiratory failure. Recent findings suggest that non neuronal cell types, especially astrocytes and microglia, might contribute to the neuronal death. The transgenic mouse SOD1G93A, carring human mutant SOD1, was used in this study. Behavioral studies pointed to the onset of the clinical symptoms occurring at 90 days in the animal model, thus, allowing the selection of the pre-symptomatic ages of 40 and 80 days to the molecular studies. Gene expression analysis of transgenic mice and their non-transgenic littermates at those ages was performed by using a microarray platform containing the whole mouse genome and has detected 492 and 1105 differentially expressed genes at 40 days and 80 days old mice, respectively. These results were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Bioinformatic analysis of the results identified 17 and 11 over-represented molecular pathways at 40 days and 80 days, respectively. Of these, endocytosis, glutamatergic synapse, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, chemokine signaling pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, antigen processing and presentation and also tight junction were common to both ages. Furthermore, glutamatergic synapse and fagosome were suggested as potentially more important at 40 and 80 days, respectively. Specific transcripts were analyzed on enriched samples of cells (astrocytes, microglia and motor neuron) obtained by laser microdissection from the ventral horn of mouse spinal cord. The transcripts Cxcr4, Slc1a2 and Ube2i were evaluated by qPCR in enriched samples of astrocytes of the 40 days old mice, and Cxcr4 and Slc17a6 were analyzed in motor neuron samples at this age. Cxcr4 has been found decreased in astrocytes from transgenic mice and increased in the motor neurons of these animals...


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Astrócitos , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Microglia , Neurônios Motores , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
18.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 35(supl.2): S92-S100, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-691402

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases are pathological conditions that have an insidious onset and chronic progression. Different models have been established to study these diseases in order to understand their underlying mechanisms and to investigate new therapeutic strategies. Although various in vivo models are currently in use, in vitro models might provide important insights about the pathogenesis of these disorders and represent an interesting approach for the screening of potential pharmacological agents. In the present review, we discuss various in vitro and ex vivo models of neurodegenerative disorders in mammalian cells and tissues.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Astrócitos , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença de Huntington/etiologia , Microglia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia
19.
Biol. Res ; 46(1): 27-32, 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-676817

RESUMO

Axons and glial cells are the main components of white matter. The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter tract in mammals; in rodents, 99% of the cells correspond to glia after postnatal day 5 (P5). The area of the CC varies through life and regional differences related to the number of axons have been previously described. Whether glial cell density varies accordingly is unknown; thus the aim of this study was to estimate glial cell density for the genu, body and splenium -the three main regions of CC-, of P6 and P30 rats. Here we report that the density of CC glial cells reduced by ~10% from P6 to P30. Even so, the density of astrocytes showed a slight increase (+6%), probably due to differentiation of glioblasts. Interestingly, glial cell density decreased for the genu (-21%) and the body (-13%), while for the splenium a minor increase (+5%) was observed. The astrocyte/glia ratio increased (from P6 to P30) for the genu (+27%), body (+17%) and splenium (+4%). Together, our results showed regional differences in glial cell density of the CC. Whether this pattern is modified in some neuropathologies remains to be explored.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Corpo Caloso/citologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/fisiologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Fatores Etários , Astrócitos/citologia , Contagem de Células , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Corpo Caloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Morfogênese
20.
Psychol. neurosci. (Impr.) ; 5(2): 207-213, July-Dec. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-671547

RESUMO

The mother-child relationship is fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of synaptic networks and physiological and emotional development. Animal models including maternal separation have been used to study changes at behavioral and neurobiochemical levels. Due to the relevance of glial cells during development, our aim was to determine if short periods of maternal separation during breastfeeding induce permanent changes in a number of astrocytes labeled with the glial fibrillary acidic protein in different brain areas. Wistar rats were housed under standard laboratory conditions with reversed light/dark cycle; food and water ad libitum. Pups were separated from their mothers for 6 h daily during breastfeeding period. On day 22, pups were separately housed according to gender and treatment. At day 60, subjects were evaluated in the elevated plus maze and, after processing for immunohistochemistry, 20-μm sections were made. Prefrontal cortex, paraventricular nucleus, preoptic area, hippocampus and amygdala were localized. Labeled cells were quantified using Image-J program. Results showed that separated females had more entries into open arms and spend more time as compared with the control groups. In the prefrontal cortex we identified a decrease in staining cells in separated females, whereas there was an increase in staining cells in separated males. In the hippocampus and preoptic area, we observed a decrease only in separated males. We did not find any differences in the paraventricular nucleus or amygdala. Our results indicate that maternal separation during breastfeeding induces permanent changes in the number of astrocytes in different brain areas of both males and females.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neuroglia , Transmissão Sináptica , Desmame , Modelos Animais , Plasticidade Neuronal
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