Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 184
Filtrar
1.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 84(4): 427-433, dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057067

RESUMO

La compresión mecánica de un nervio periférico en dos sitios diferentes a lo largo de su trayecto se define como síndrome de doble compresión. Esta enfermedad se basa en la teoría de la mayor susceptibilidad que tendría un nervio a nivel distal cuando este también se encuentra comprimido, en forma asintomática, a nivel proximal, debido a una alteración en el flujo axonal. Si bien la descompresión del túnel carpiano es una cirugía con resultados previsibles, hay pacientes operados por síndrome del túnel carpiano que no mejoran después de una cirugía, como cabría esperar. Si se excluye de este análisis a las comorbilidades, como diabetes, casos avanzados con atrofia muscular o descompresiones insuficientes, muchos de estos fracasos terapéuticos podrían estar fundamentados por el escaso diagnóstico de un segundo sitio de compresión concomitante. No obstante, existe gran controversia alrededor del síndrome de doble compresión que involucra no solo a su existencia, sino también a su incidencia y fisiopatología. El objetivo de esta publicación es presentar una revisión bibliográfica crítica del síndrome de doble compresión centrada en el compromiso del nervio mediano tanto en la muñeca como en el codo.


Double crush syndrome is the mechanical compression of a peripheral nerve at two different sites and is based on the hypothesis that a nerve that has been compressed at a distal site is especially susceptible to also be compressed, asymptomatically, at a more proximal site. While carpal tunnel release is a surgical procedure with predictable results, some patients do not improve as expected after surgery. If comorbidities such as diabetes, advanced cases presenting with muscle atrophy or incomplete decompressions are excluded from the analysis, many of these treatment failures could be explained by a second concomitant compression site, which is often underdiagnosed. The very existence of double crush syndrome is highly questioned, but also its incidence and pathophysiology. The objective of our paper is to perform a critical review of the literature available on double crush syndrome involving mainly the median nerve in the wrist and the elbow.


Assuntos
Braço , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal , Neuropatia Mediana , Nervo Mediano , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1192-1196, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012416

RESUMO

The ulnar and median nerves are widely distributed, innervating the muscles of the forearm and hand. In the latter, it also registers the sensitivity of a significant part of the skin. A series of communicating branches (CB) is described on the path of these nerves, including: 1) the Martin-Gruber communicating branch, 2) the Marinacci communicating branch, 3) the Riché-Cannieu communicating branch and 4) the Berrettini communicating branch. The aim of this study was to establish a correct denomination of these CB, using Latin and eliminating the use of eponyms. The exploratory study included books on anatomy and scientific articles that detailed the anatomical aspects of these CB. To these were added the terms that these branches presented in the various anatomical lists and terminologies. Each term proposal was done in Latin, using the corresponding gender, number and case. The CB between the median and ulnar nerves are described in anatomy texts as well as a plethora of publications. The prevalence rates of the CB range between 1.7 and 94 %; however, their inclusion in the anatomical terminologies has been limited. Based on the description of these branches and the presence of some of them in the existing terminologies, a proposal was prepared in line with the indications of the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT): 1) Ramus comunicans cum nervo ulnari, 2) Ramus comunicans cum nervo mediano, 3) Ramus communicans cum ramo profundo nervi ulnaris y 4) Ramus communicans cum nervo digitali palmari communi. Considering that terminologies are dynamic linguistic corpora, it is important to analyze constantly the incorporation of new terms that are in harmony with the scientific findings. The incorporation of new structures must follow FIPAT guidelines and include the grammatical aspects of Latin.


Los nervios ulnar y mediano presentan una amplia distribución que permite inervar músculos del antebrazo y mano, en esta última, también registran la sensibilidad de un importante territorio cutáneo. En el recorrido de estos nervios se describen una serie de ramos comunicantes (RC), entre los cuales destacan: 1) Ramo comunicante de Martin-Gruber 2) Ramo comunicante de Marinacci 3) Ramo comunicante de Riché-Cannieu y 4) Ramo comunicante de Berretini. El propósito de este trabajo fue establecer una correcta denominación de estos RC, usando para ello el latín y eliminando el uso de epónimos. El estudio exploratorio incluyó libros de anatomía y artículos científicos que detallaran los aspectos anatómicos de estos RC. A lo anterior se sumaron los términos que estos ramos presentaron en las diversas nóminas y terminologías anatómicas. Cada propuesta de denominación se realizó en latín, utilizando el género, número y caso correspondiente. Los RC entre los nervios mediano y ulnar se encuentran descritos tanto en textos de anatomía como en un sinnúmero de publicaciones. Las tasas de prevalencia de los RC fluctúan entre 1,7 y 94 %; a pesar de ello; su inclusión en las terminologías anatómicas ha sido limitado. En base a la descripción de éstos ramos y la presencia de algunos de ellos en las terminologías existentes, se elaboró una propuesta alineada con las indicaciones del Programa Federativo Internacional de Terminología Anatómica (FIPAT): 1) Ramus comunicans cum nervo ulnari, 2) Ramus comunicans cum nervo mediano, 3) Ramus communicans cum ramo profundo nervi ulnaris y 4) Ramus communicans cum nervo digitali palmari communi. Considerando que las terminologías son cuerpos lingüísticos dinámicos, resulta importante analizar constantemente la incorporación de nuevos términos que se encuentren en sintonía con los hallazgos científicos. La incorporación de nuevas estructuras debe seguir los lineamientos de FIPAT y considerar los aspectos gramaticales del latín.


Assuntos
Humanos , Nervo Ulnar/anatomia & histologia , Antebraço/inervação , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Terminologia como Assunto
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 626-631, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002268

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and variations of the palmaris longus nerve branch and define the feasibility of transferring this branch to the posterior interosseous nerve without tension. Thirty arms from 15 adult male cadavers were dissected after preparation with 20 % glycerin and formaldehyde intra-arterial injection. The palmaris longus muscle (PL) received exclusive innervation of the median nerve in all limbs. In most it was the second muscle of the forearm to be innervated by the median nerve. In 5 limbs the PL muscle was absent. In 5 limbs we identified a branch without sharing branches with other muscles. In 4 limbs it shared origin with the pronator teres (PT), in 8 with the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), in 2 with flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), in 4 shared branches for the PT and FCR and in two with PT, FCR, FDS. The mean length was (4.0 ± 1.2) and the thickness (1.4 ± 0.6). We investigated whether the branch for PL was long enough to be transferred to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN). The branch diameter for PL corresponds to 46 % of the PIN. The PL muscle branch presented great variability. The PL branch could be transferred to the PIN proximally to the Froshe arcade without tension in all specimens even with full range of motion of the forearm. In 13 limbs was possible the tensionless transfer to PIN distal to the branches of the supinator muscle.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las características anatómicas y las variaciones del ramo del músculo palmar largo y definir la posibilidad de transferir este ramo al nervio interóseo posterior sin tensión. Se disecaron 30 miembros superiores de 15 cadáveres de hombres adultos después de su preparación con 20 % de glicerina y formaldehído, inyectados por vía intraarterial. En todos los miembros el músculo palmar largo (PL) recibió inervación exclusiva del nervio mediano. En la mayoría de los casos, fue el segundo músculo del antebrazo inervado por el nervio mediano. En 5 miembros estaba ausente el músculo. En 5 miembros identificamos un ramo sin compartir ramos con otros músculos. En 4 miembros, compartió el origen con el músculo pronador redondo (PR), en 8 con el músculo flexor radial del carpo (FRC), en 2 con el músculo flexor superficial de los dedos (FCSD), en 4 ramos compartidos para el PR y FRC y en dos con PR, FRC, FCSD. La longitud media fue (4,0±1,2 cm) y el grosor (1,4±0,6 cm). Investigamos si el ramo del PL era lo suficientemente largo para ser transferido al nervio interóseo posterior (NIP). El diámetro del ramo para el PL corresponde al 46 % del NIP. El ramo del músculo PL presentó una gran variabilidad. El ramo del PL podría transferirse al NIP proximalmente a la «arcada de Frohse¼, sin tensión, en todas las muestras, incluso con el rango completo de movimiento del antebrazo. En 13 miembros fue posible la transferencia sin tensión al NIP distal a los ramos del músculo supinador.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Variação Anatômica , Antebraço/inervação , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Nervos Periféricos/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Transferência de Nervo
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1180-1182, Dec. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-975678

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Anomalous muscle slips of pectoralis major have been reported on several cases in the literature. Among these, chondroepitroclearis muscle is an extremely rare aberrant muscular slip originating from the pectoral region. During an educational dissection, chondroepitroclearis muscle was found on the right side in a Korean cadaver. Tendinous muscular slip originated from pectoralis major muscle, crossing the neurovascular bundle in the arm, and inserted onto medial epicondyle of the humerus. Clinical significance of these anomalous slip can cause median nerve entrapment and functionally limited movement of the humerus. We report a case of tendinous chondroepitroclearis muscle and discuss its clinical and embryological significance.


RESUMEN: En la literatura se han reportado fascículos anómalos del músculo pectoral mayor. Entre estos, el condroepicondilar medial es un fascículo muscular aberrante extremadamente raro que se origina en la región pectoral. Durante una disección educativa, se encontró esta variación en el lado derecho de un cadáver coreano. El fascículo muscular tendinoso se originó a partir del músculo pectoral mayor, cruzando el paquete neurovascular en el brazo, y se insertó en el epicóndilo medial del húmero. La importancia clínica de estos fascículos anómalos radica en la posibilidad de causar el atrapamiento del nervio mediano, causando un movimiento funcionalmente limitado del húmero. Divulgamos un caso de músculo condroepicondilar medial tendinoso y discutimos su significado clínico y embriológico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Músculos Peitorais/anatomia & histologia , Variação Anatômica , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1500-1508, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-975728

RESUMO

The anatomical relationship of the median nerve and its innervation pattern are variable and may have direct implications in surgical procedures such as distal nerve transfers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of pronator teres muscle (PTM) innervation and its clinical significance in nerve transfers. Data were collected regarding the number of median nerve branches, site of their origin, contribution with branches of other muscles and the possibility of transferring expendable branches of PTM to the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) and radial nerve. The most common origin of the branches was proximal to the humeral intercondylar line. The presence of only one PTM branch was identified in 9 limbs, in which 6 was exclusive for this muscle. The majority of specimens presented more than one branch to the PTM, with two branches in 19, although only 6 of these did not share branches with other muscles. The proximal branch of the PTM was long enough to be transferred to the AIN in 23 limbs and branches of the radial nerve in all. These transfers were possible even during the forearm prone-supination and flexion-extension of the elbow. The use of the PTM branch may be considered for transfers in C7-T1 root injuries of the brachial plexus, with care regarding the availability of multiple PTM branches and tension to the AIN and radial nerve branches.


La relación anatómica del nervio mediano y su patrón de inervación son variables y pueden tener implicaciones directas en los procedimientos quirúrgicos, como las transferencias de los nervios distales. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las variaciones anatómicas de la inervación del músculo pronador redondo (MPR) y su importancia clínica en las transferencias nerviosas. Se obtuvieron datos sobre el número de ramas del nervio mediano, el lugar de origen, la contribución con ramas de otros músculos y la posibilidad de transferir ramas prescindibles de la MPR al nervio interóseo anterior (NIA) y al nervio radial. El origen más común de las ramas fue proximal a la línea intercondilar humeral. Se identificó la presencia de una sola rama de MPR en 9 miembros superiores, de los cuales 6 fueron exclusivas para este músculo. La mayoría de los especímenes presentaron más de una rama al MPR, con dos ramas en 19 de ellos, aunque solamente 6 no compartían ramas con otros músculos. La rama proximal del MPR fue lo suficientemente larga como para ser transferida a la NIA en un total de 23 miembros superiores y ramas del nervio radial. Estas transferencias fueron posibles incluso en el antebrazo, durante la supinación y la flexiónextensión del codo. El uso de la rama MPR puede considerarse para transferencias en lesiones de raíz C7-T1 del plexo braquial, con cuidado en cuanto a la disponibilidad de múltiples ramas de MPR y tensión a la NIA y las ramas nerviosas radiales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Variação Anatômica , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(5): 575-581, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-977894

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study was to describe anatomical variations and clinical implications of anterior interosseous nerve. In complete anterior interosseous nerve palsy, the patient is unable to flex the distal phalanx of the thumb and index finger; in incomplete anterior interosseous nerve palsy, there is less axonal damage, and either the thumb or the index finger are affected. Methods: This study was based on the dissection of 50 limbs of 25 cadavers, 22 were male and three, female. Age ranged from 28 to 77 years, 14 were white and 11 were non-white; 18 were prepared by intra-arterial injection of a solution of 10% glycerol and formaldehyde, and seven were freshly dissected cadavers. Results: The anterior interosseous nerve arose from the median nerve, an average of 5.2 cm distal to the intercondylar line. In 29 limbs, it originated from the nerve fascicles of the posterior region of the median nerve and in 21 limbs, of the posterolateral fascicles. In 41 limbs, the anterior interosseous nerve positioned between the humeral and ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle. In two limbs, anterior interosseous nerve duplication was observed. In all members, it was observed that the anterior interosseous nerve arose from the median nerve proximal to the arch of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. In 24 limbs, the branches of the anterior interosseous nerve occurred proximal to the arch and in 26, distal to it. Conclusion: The fibrous arches formed by the humeral and ulnar heads of the pronator teres muscle, the fibrous arch of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, and the Gantzer muscle (when hypertrophied and positioned anterior to the anterior interosseous nerve), can compress the nerve against deep structures, altering its normal course, by narrowing its space, causing alterations longus and flexor digitorum profundus muscles.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as relações anatômicas e as variações do nervo interósseo anterior e suas implicações clínicas. A paralisia completa do nervo interósseo anterior resulta na incapacidade de fletir as falanges distal do polegar e indicador; na incompleta, ocorre menor dano axonal e apenas o polegar ou o indicador são afetados. Método: Este estudo baseou-se na dissecção de 50 membros de 25 cadáveres, 22 eram do sexo masculino e três do feminino. A idade variou entre 28 e 77 anos, 14 da etnia branca e 11 não branca; 18 foram preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10% e sete foram dissecados a fresco. Resultados: O nervo interósseo anterior originou-se do nervo mediano em média de 5,2 cm distal à linha intercondilar. Em 29 membros, originou-se dos fascículos nervosos da região posterior do nervo mediano e em 21 membros, dos fascículos posterolaterais. Em 41 membros, o nervo interósseo anterior posicionava-se entre as cabeças umeral e ulnar do músculo pronador redondo. Em dois membros, observou-se a duplicação do nervo interósseo anterior. Em todos os membros, registramos que o nervo interósseo anterior se desprendia do nervo mediano proximalmente à arcada do músculo flexor superficial dos dedos. Em 24 antebraços a ramificação do nervo interósseo anterior ocorreu proximalmente à arcada do músculo flexor superficial dos dedos em 26, distalmente. Conclusão: As bandas fibrosas formadas pelas cabeças umeral e ulnar do músculo pronador redondo, a arcada fibrosa do músculo flexor superficial dos dedos e o músculo de Gantzer, quando hipertrofiado e posicionado anteriormente ao nervo interósseo anterior, podem comprimir o nervo contra estruturas profundas, alterar seu curso normal, por estreitar o espaço de sua passagem, causar alterações no músculo flexor longo do polegar e no flexor profundo dos dedos da mão.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pronação , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Nervo Mediano , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 1079-1086, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-954234

RESUMO

El principal ramo del nervio mediano en el antebrazo es el nervio interóseo anterior (NIA), el cual inerva la mayoría de los músculos del plano profundo del compartimiento anterior del antebrazo. Existen diferentes descripciones sobre el punto de origen y su trayecto del NIA, así como también respecto a ramos comunicantes de este, con otros nervios del antebrazo. Algunas de estas descripciones concuerdan de que el NIA pueda atraparse en su tránsito por los arcos formados en las cabezas de origen de los músculos pronador redondo y flexor superficial de los dedos. El objetivo fue determinar el punto de origen, trayecto, músculos inervados y presencia de ramos comunicantes del NIA con otros nervios del antebrazo. Se utilizaron 30 antebrazos de cadáveres adultos brasileños fijados en formalina pertenecientes al laboratorio de anatomía de la UNCISAL, Maceió, Brasil. El punto de origen del NIA alcanzó un promedio de 46 mm con una desviación estándar de 17,54 mm, distal a la línea biepicondilar. En un 37 % de los casos, este nervio se originó en el tramo existente entre los arcos musculares mencionados y en un 23 % surgió proximal a la ubicación de estos. En todos los casos, el NIA inervó a los músculos flexor profundo de los dedos y pronador cuadrado y en un 93 % también inervó al músculo flexor largo del pulgar. Un caso presentó ramo comunicante entre el NIA y el nervio ulnar. En el 10 % de los casos, presentó la variante muscular cabeza accesoria del músculo flexor largo del pulgar. Todos estos hallazgos deben considerarse al momento de diagnosticar correctamente los diferentes síndromes de atrapamiento que afectan tanto al NIA como al nervio mediano en la región cubital y en el antebrazo. Así mismo, el éxito de procedimientos quirúrgicos de estas regiones está supeditado a un conocimiento detallado del trayecto y distribución de estos nervios.


The main branch of the median nerve in the forearm is the anterior interosseous nerve (NIA), which innervates most of the muscles of the deep plane of the anterior compartment of the forearm. There are different descriptions about the point of origin and its course, which can determine a potential entrapment of it in its transit through the arcs formed in the heads of origin of the pronator round and flexor digitorum of the fingers muscles, as well as with regard to communicating branches of the NIA with other nerves of the forearm. The aim was to determine the point of origin, course, innervated muscles and presence of communicating branches of the NIA with other nerves of the forearm. 30 forearms of Brazilian adult corpses fixed in formalin belonging to the UNCISAL anatomy laboratory were used, Maceió, Brazil. The point of origin of the NIA reached an average of 46 mm with a standard deviation of 17.54 mm, distal to the biepicondilar line. In 37 % of the cases, this nerve originated in the existing section of the muscular arches mentioned and in 23 % it arose proximal to the location of these. In all cases, the NIA inervated the flexor digitorum profundus and pronator quadratus and 93 % also inervated the flexor pollicis longus. One case presented a communicating branch between the NIA and the ulnar nerve. In 10 % of the cases, he presented the variant muscle accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus. All these findings should be considered at the time of correctly diagnosing the different entrapment syndromes that affect both the NIA and the median nerve in the ulnar region and the forearm. Likewise, the success of surgical procedures in these regions is subject to a detailed knowledge of the course and distribution of these nerves.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Variação Anatômica , Antebraço/inervação , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 531-536, jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954150

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the origin, frequency and anatomical variations of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBMN) and its clinical implications in surgical procedures such as decompression of the carpal tunnel and volar approach to the wrist. Dissection of 30 forearms from 18 adult male specimens (9 bilateral, 7 right limbs and 5 left limbs) were performed using 2.5X magnification loupe in order to better understand the PCBMN. Origin, number, length, positioning, anatomical relations and variations were recorded and analyzed. The PCBMN was identified in all dissected forearms, being the most distal branch of the median nerve in all forearms. The average origin was 4.8 cm (ranging 3.8 to 6.5 cm) proximal to the wrist flexion crease. Anatomical variations of the PCBMN are not rare and could endanger the nerve during surgical approach for the volar wrist and proximal palm. We did not find the PCBMN positioned ulnar to the fourth metacarpal axis as well as radial to the flexor carpi radialis tendon.


El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el origen, la frecuencia y las variaciones anatómicas de la rama cutánea palmar del nervio mediano (RCPNM) y sus implicaciones clínicas en procedimientos quirúrgicos como la descompresión del túnel carpiano y el abordaje palmar de la muñeca. Se realizó la disección de 30 antebrazos de 18 especímenes adultos de sexo masculino (9 bilaterales, 7 miembros derechos y 5 miembros izquierdos) utilizando una lupa de aumento de 2,5X para comprender mejor la RCPNM. Origen, número, longitud, posicionamiento, relaciones anatómicas y variaciones fueron registradas y analizadas. El RCPNM fue identificado en todos los antebrazos disecados, siendo la rama más distal del nervio mediano en todos los antebrazos. El origen promedio fue de 4,8 cm (rango de 3,8 a 6,5 cm) proximal al pliegue de flexión de la muñeca. Las variaciones anatómicas de la RCPNM no son raras y podrían poner en peligro el nervio durante el abordaje quirúrgico de la cara volar y palmar proximal de la muñeca. No encontramos el RCPNM posicionado a nivel ulnar del cuarto metacarpiano, así como radial al tendón del músculo flexor radial del carpo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pele/inervação , Mãos/inervação , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 768-777, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-954184

RESUMO

La inervación del músculo flexor superficial de los dedos (FSD) es controversial. Diversos autores describen que los ramos de este músculo surgen independiente o desde un tronco común que proviene desde el nervio mediano, dentro de la región cubital. Otras descripciones señalan la presencia de ramos adicionales en los tercios medio y distal del antebrazo. Estas diferencias también se reflejan al describir los puntos motores. El objetivo fue determinar el número, ubicación y patrones de distribución de los ramos para el FSD. Se utilizaron 30 antebrazos de cadáveres adultos brasileños formolizados. En relación al número de ramos, el 26 % presentó un solo ramo (R1). El 57 % presentó dos ramos (R1 y R2) y el 17 % presentó 3 ramos (R1, R2 y R3). Respecto al formato de origen, el 87 % de los R1 surgieron independiente, mientras que el 13 % surgió desde un tronco común. En el caso de los R2 y R3, el 100 % surgió independiente. En relación a los puntos de origen, el 90 % de los R1 se originó en el tercio proximal del antebrazo, en tanto, el 60 % de los R2 surgieron en el tercio medio, y de los 5 R3, el 60 % se originó en el tercio medio y los dos restantes surgieron en el tercio distal. Esta misma variabilidad se presentó en la distribución de los puntos motores. Respecto a los patrones de distribución de estos ramos motores se identificaron de dos tipos. El patrón I se presentó en el 85 % y se caracterizó por que todos sus ramos surgieron en un punto distal al origen del nervio interóseo anterior (NIA), en cambio, en el patrón tipo II (15 % de la muestra), el primer ramo se originó proximal al origen del NIA.


Innervation of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (FDS) is controversial. Several authors describe that the branches of this muscle arise independently or from a common trunk that comes from the median nerve, within the ulnar region. Other descriptions indicate the presence of additional branches in the middle and distal third of the forearm. These differences are also reflected when describing the motor points. The aim was to determine the number, location and distribution patterns of the branches for the FDS. 30 forearms of Brazilian adults were used. About the number of branches, 26 % presented a single branch (R1). 57 % presented two branches (R1 and R2) and 17 % presented 3 branches (R1, R2 and R3). Regarding the format of origin, 87 % of the R1 emerged independently, while 13 % emerged from a common trunk. In the case of R2 and R3, 100 % emerged independently. About the points of origin, 90 % of the R1 were originated in the proximal third of the forearm, while 60 % of the R2 emerged from the middle third, and of the 5 R3, 60 % were originated in the middle third and the remaining two emerged in the distal third. This same variability was present in the motor points distribution. Regarding the distribution patterns of these motor branches, two types were identified. Pattern I was present in 85 % and was characterized by all branches arising at a point distal to the origin of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN), however, in the type II pattern (15 % of the sample), the first branch was originated proximal to the origin of the AIN.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Antebraço/inervação , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia
10.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(3): 276-280, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-959146

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the neurotrophin mRNA expression and axon count in the median nerve of Wistar rats submitted to neural mobilization (NM) after nerve compression. Methods: Eighteen animals were randomly divided into G1 (nerve compression only), G2 (NM for 1 min), and G3 (NM for 3 min). For NM, the animals were anesthetized and the right scapula received the mobilization, adapted as indicated for humans, on alternate days, from the third to the 13th postoperative (PO) day, totaling six days of therapy. On the 14th PO day, animals were anesthetized and euthanized. Fragments of the median nerve, distal to the compression procedure, were removed for histomorphometric analysis and expression of neurotrophins, nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by RT-PCR. Results: Histomorphometric analysis revealed differences in the number of axons in the injured side, which was significantly lower in the injured limb nerve compared to the control limb, whereas the RT-PCR analysis showed no significant differences in the expression of NGF or BDNF. Conclusion: NM treatment did not affect median nerve regeneration, which maintained normal recovery rates.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão de RNAm de neurotrofinas e a contagem de axônios no nervo mediano de ratos Wistar submetidos à mobilização neural (MN) após compressão nervosa. Métodos: Foram divididos aleatoriamente 18 animais em G1 (apenas compressão nervosa), G2 (MN por 1 minuto) e G3 (MN por 3 minutos). Para a MN, os animais foram anestesiados e o membro escapular direito recebeu a mobilização, adaptada da forma indicada para humanos, em dias alternados, do terceiro ao 13° dia de pós-operatório (PO), em seis dias de terapia. No 14° dia PO, os animais foram anestesiados e eutanasiados. Fragmentos do nervo mediano, distais ao procedimento de compressão, foram retirados para análise histomorfométrica e de expressão das neutrotrofinas, fator de crescimento do nervo (NGF) e fator de crescimento derivado do cérebro (BNDF) por RT-PCR. Resultados: A análise histomorfométrica evidenciou diferenças no número de axônios nos lados lesionados, que foi significativamente menor no nervo do membro lesado comparado com o membro controle; por sua vez, a análise por RT-PCR não apontou diferenças significativas na expressão de NGF e nem de BNDF. Conclusão: O tratamento de MN não afetou a regeneração do nervo mediano, que manteve índices normais de recuperação.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Exercício Físico , Ratos Wistar , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Histologia , Nervo Mediano , Regeneração Nervosa
11.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(2): 192-199, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-899253

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the strategies adopted in this institution to diagnose and treat patients with benign tumors affecting the median nerve. Methods: A retrospective chart review study of all patients operated on between 2010 and 2015. Histology, symptoms, complementary exams, surgical techniques performed, and demographic characteristics were analyzed. Results: Fifty-four patients were included in the study. There were three neurofibromas, six schwannomas, 15 lipofibromatous hamartomas, three hemangiomas, 12 lipomas, one benign fibrohistiocytoma, and 14 synovial cysts. Complete tumoral resection was performed in 32 cases, partial resection in five, segmented nerve resection in one, nerve decompression in eight, and amputation for macrodactyly in eight. Conclusions: The most important recommendations on treating benign tumors of the median nerve are related to the clinical symptoms, tumoral growth, and tumoral nature. The surgical approach resulted in good function for 60% of the patients. However, lipofibromatous hamartomas, hemangiomas, and neurofibromas were associated with preoperative functional deficit. It may be inferred that the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors should be performed earlier.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as estratégias adotadas nesta instituição para o diagnóstico e tratamento de pacientes com tumores benignos que afetam o nervo mediano. Métodos: Um estudo de revisão retrospectivo foi feito com todos os pacientes operados entre 2010 e 2015. Foram analisados histologia, sintomas, exames complementares, técnicas cirúrgicas aplicadas e características demográficas. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 54 pacientes. Observaram-se três casos de neurofibromas, seis schwannomas, 15 hamartomas lipofibromatosos, três hemangiomas, 12 lipomas, um fibro-histiocitoma benigno e 14 cistos sinoviais. Em 33 casos, foi feita ressecção tumoral completa; em cinco, ressecção parcial; em um, ressecção segmentar de nervo; em oito, descompressão de nervo; e em oito, amputação de macrodactilia. Conclusões: As recomendações mais importantes no que diz respeito ao tratamento de tumores benignos do nervo mediano estão relacionadas aos sintomas clínicos, ao crescimento tumoral e à natureza tumoral. A abordagem cirúrgica levou a bons resultados funcionais em 60% dos pacientes. No entanto, hamartomas lipofibromatosos, hemangiomas e neurofibromas foram associados ao déficit funcional pré-operatório. Pode-se inferir que o diagnóstico e o tratamento desses tumores devem ser feitos de forma precoce.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Nervo Mediano , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 7-13, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893178

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The aim of this paper was to report the incidences of the anastomosis between deep branch of ulnar nerve and a branch of the median nerve commonly named Cannieu-Riché anastomosis (CRA) and thenar muscles innervation. The anatomical dissection of 80 limbs from 40 fresh adult cadavers were performed in the Department of Anatomy at the Medical School of the Catholic University of São Paulo. The incidence of CRA and thenar muscle innervation were studied. The CRA was found in all of the dissected hands (100 %). The abdutor pollicis brevis and the opponens pollicis muscle are innervated exclusively by median nerve in all dissected hands. The superficial head of flexor pollicis brevis was innervated by the median nerve in of 56 the hands (70 %), in 24 (30 %) it had double innervation (median nerve and deep branch of ulnar nerve). The deep head of flexor pollicis brevis were absent in 11 hands (14 %), in 52 hands (65 %), a double innervation was observed. In 14 (17.5 %) exclusively by deep branch of ulnar nerve and in 3 hands (3.6 %) exclusively by a branch of median nerve. The oblique head of adductor pollicis muscle was innervated only by deep branch of ulnar nerve in 66 hands (82 %) of dissected hands, 14 (17.5 %) had a double innervation. The transverse head of adductor pollicis was innervated exclusively by deep branch of ulnar nerve in 77 hands (96.4 %), and in 3 (3.6 %) had a double innervation. According to our study the pattern of innervation was more frequent in relation to the flexor pollicis brevis muscle and should be considered as a normal pattern, in that the superficial head receives innervation of branches of median nerve, and the deep head receives innervation of deep branch of ulnar nerve and branches of median nerve (dual innervation). The abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis received innervation exclusively by median nerve. Both the oblique and transverse head of adductor pollicis exclusively by ulnar nerve. The RCA was found in all of the dissected hands (100 %).


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo fue informar la anastomosis entre el ramo profundo del nervio ulnar y un ramo del nervio mediano (Anastomosis de Cannieu-Riché) y de la inervación de los músculos de la eminencia tenar. Se realizó la disección anatómica de 80 miembros de 40 cadáveres adultos frescos en el Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Católica de São Paulo, Brasil. Se estudió la incidencia de formación de la ACR y la inervación de los músculos tenares. La ACR se encontró en todas las manos disecadas (100 %). El músculo abductor corto del pulgar y el músculo oponente del pulgar recibían inervación exclusivamente por el nervio mediano en todas las manos disecadas. La cabeza superficial del músculo flexor corto del pulgar estaba inervada por el nervio mediano (70 %), en 24 casos, (30 %) presentó inervación doble (nervio mediano y ramo profundo del nervio ulnar). La cabeza profunda del músculo flexor corto del pulgar estuvo ausente en 11 manos (14 %), mientras que en 52 manos (65 %) se produjo una doble inervación. En 14 casos (17,5 %) se vio inervado exclusivamente por el ramo profundo del nervio ulnar y en 3 manos (3,6 %) exclusivamente por un ramo del nervio mediano. La cabeza oblicua del músculo aductor del pulgar estaba inervada sólo por el ramo profundo del nervio ulnar en 66 manos (82 %), en 14 casos (17,5 %) tenía una doble inervación. La cabeza transversa del músculo aductor del pulgar estaba inervada exclusivamente por el ramo profundo del nervio ulnar en 77 manos (96,4 %), en 3 manos (3,6 %) presentó una doble inervación. De acuerdo con nuestro estudio, el patrón de inervación más frecuente en relación al músculo flexor corto del pulgar debe ser considerado como un patrón normal, en el que la cabeza superficial recibe inervación de ramos del nervio mediano y la cabeza profunda recibe inervación del ramo profundo de nervio ulnar y ramos del nervio mediano (inervación dual). El músculo abductor corto del pulgar y el músculo oponente del pulgar recibieron inervación exclusivamente por el nervio mediano. Tanto la cabeza oblicua como transversa del músculo aductor del pulgar están inervadas exclusivamente por el nervio ulnar. La ACR se encontró en todas las manos disecadas (100 %).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Mãos/inervação , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Ulnar/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver
13.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 25(4): 131-135, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-995183

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados y las complicaciones de la descompresión endoscópica del túnel carpiano utilizando la técnica de dos portales realizadas por un mismo cirujano. Materiales y Método: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo que incluyó 126 pacientes consecutivos en los que se realizó la descompresión endoscópica del túnel carpiano con técnica de dos portales, entre enero de 2013 y abril de 2017. Los datos demográficos y hallazgos del examen físico fueros tomados de las historias clínicas. El seguimiento promedio fue de 40.98 meses (rango 13-66). Se evaluaron los resultados clínicos y funcionales mediante el puntaje Quick DASH pre y postoperatorio, el cuestionario de Boston postoperatorio. Asimismo, se evaluó el dolor postoperatorio (EVA), el grado de satisfacción del paciente y se documentaron las complicaciones. Resultados: El puntaje de Quick DASH medio preoperatorio fue de 33.7 puntos (DE11.05) y de 6.8 para el postoperatorio (DE 6.44) P< 0.001. El puntaje medio de Boston postoperatorio para síntomas fue de 1.24 puntos (DE 0.26) y para función fue de 1.18 (DE 0.22). Un caso fue convertido a cirugía abierta por visualización inadecuada del ligamento anular. Se registraron siete complicaciones menores (5.5%).. No hemos registrado ninguna complicación mayor. Ningún paciente debió ser reintervenido. Conclusión: La descompresión endoscópica del túnel carpiano mediante la técnica de dos portales con utilización de un tubo transparente para evaluar la descompresión es un método seguro, eficaz y predecible para el tratamiento del síndrome del túnel carpiano. El índice de complicaciones es bajo cuando es realizada por un cirujano entrenado en la técnica. Tipo de estudio: Serie de casos. Nivel de evidencia: IV


Objectives: To report the results and complications of a two portal endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) with the use of a clear tube for assessing the quality of decompression of the median nerve. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 126 consecutive cases (126 patients) where a two portal ECTR was performed. The demographic and physical examination data were obtained from the medical history. For evaluation, the preoperative and postoperative Quick DASH and the Boston Questionnaire were used and the complications were recorded. Results: The Quick DASH average score was 33.7 preoperative (SD 11.05) and 6.8 postoperative (SD 6.44) P<0.001. The Boston Questionnaire´s median average was 1.24 (SD 0.26) for symptoms and 1.18 (SD 0.22) for function. We recorded seven minor complications (5.5%): two cases of transient hypoesthesia and a permanent one of the third web space, three cases of superficial infection, and one case of postoperative neuropathic pain. No major complications or reoperations were documented. Conclusion: Two portal ECTR with the use of a clear tube for assessing the quality of decompression is a safe, effective, predictable and reproducible technique for treatment of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. The complication rate is low when performed by a trained surgeon Type of Study: Case series. Level of Evidence: IV


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artroscopia/métodos , Medição da Dor , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/cirurgia , Nervo Mediano , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 698-704, June 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893042

RESUMO

Variations of the peripheral nerve formation, communication and distribution are clinically important because such knowledge can be used for proper planning of surgeries and evaluating effects of nerve injuries and clinical imaging. Median nerve is known to have several such variations. However studies done on median nerve in Sri Lankan subjects are spars. The objective of this study was to find out anatomical variations of the median nerve with regards to its variations in roots and relations to the arteries in the axilla and arm. The study was done using 98 upper limbs of 49 formalin fixed cadavers. They were dissected and anatomy of the median nerve formations was studied focusing its variations of the roots and relation to the arteries. Anatomical variations of MN formation were observed in 33 (33.67 %) upper limbs with 4 bilateral and 25 unilateral variations. These variations were classified broadly in to two groups, variations of roots (15.3 %) and variation of arterial relations (18.37 %). There were three types of numerical variations (9.18 %) and three types of morphological variations (6.12 %) of roots. The median nerve was found to form in relation to the 2nd part of the axillary artery in 6.12 %, abnormal relation to the 3rd part of the axillary artery in 2.04 %, normal relation to the 3rd part of the axillary artery in 81.63 %, and brachial artery in 10.2 % of the specimens. The current study highlights the presence of different anatomical variations at median nerve formation with regards to its roots and arterial relations and describes three rare forms of anomalies which were not found on literature survey.


Las variaciones de la comunicación, formación y distribución del nervio periférico son clínicamente importantes para la planificación adecuada de las cirugías y para evaluar los efectos de las lesiones nerviosas y la imagen clínica. En el nervio mediano se han observado varias de estas variaciones. Sin embargo, son escasos los estudios realizados del nervio mediano en sujetos de Sri Lanka. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer las variaciones anatómicas del nervio mediano con respecto a sus raíces y las relaciones con las arterias axilar y braquial. El estudio se realizó utilizando 98 miembros superiores de 49 cadáveres fijados con formalina. Se disecó y se estudió la anatomía de las formaciones de los nervios medianos, enfocando sus variaciones a nivel de las raíces y las relaciones con las arterias. Se observaron variaciones anatómicas de la formación de nervio mediano en 33 miembros superiores (33,67 %) con 4 variaciones bilaterales y 25 unilaterales. Estas variaciones se clasificaron ampliamente en dos grupos, variaciones de raíces (15,3 %) y variación de las relaciones arteriales (18,37 %). Existen tres tipos de variaciones numéricas (9,18 %) y tres tipos de variaciones morfológicas (6,12 %) de las raíces. Se encontró que el nervio mediano se formaba en relación con la 2 parte de la arteria axilar en el 6,12 %, relación anormal con la 3 parte de la arteria axilar en 2,04 %, relación normal con la 3 parte de la arteria axilar en el 81 ,63 % y braquial en el 10,2 % de los especímenes. El presente estudio señala la presencia de diferentes variaciones anatómicas en la formación del nervio mediano con respecto a sus raíces y relaciones arteriales y describe tres anomalías raras que no se encontraron en la investigación bibliográfica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Artéria Axilar/anatomia & histologia , Artéria Braquial/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Mediano/anormalidades , Variação Anatômica , Cadáver
15.
Clinics ; 72(6): 358-362, June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-840091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anatomic variations of the bifid median nerve, persistent median artery and persistent median vein in Chinese individuals and their relationship with carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: One hundred and sixty median nerves were examined using ultrasonography and colour Doppler ultrasonography. The location, shape, and size of the bifid median nerve, persistent median artery and persistent median vein were recorded. The cross-sectional area of the bifid median nerve (two trunks) was measured at the level of the pisiform. RESULTS: Among the 160 wrists examined, a bifid median nerve was observed in 15 (9.4%) wrists, and a persistent median artery was observed in 12 (7.5%) wrists. These two variations either coexisted or were observed independently, and the probability of coexistence (6.3%) was higher than the probability of existing independently (bifid median nerve only 3.1%, persistent median artery only 1.3%). The cross-sectional area of the radial trunk was greater than (13 in 15, 86.7%) the cross-sectional area of the ulnaris trunk. Persistent median vein was observed in 9 wrists (5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The persistent median artery and bifid median nerve tend to coexist, and the persistent median vein sometimes runs parallel to the persistent median artery. Their positional relationship in carpal tunnel is uncertain, and thus, preoperative ultrasound is necessary. These three variations do not present any additional risk for the development of carpal tunnel syndrome.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Mediano/diagnóstico por imagem , Punho/irrigação sanguínea , Artérias/anormalidades , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/etiologia , Nervo Mediano/anormalidades , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Punho/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(2): 122-128, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-844222

RESUMO

Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a well and widely recognized cause of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In the rheumatoid wrist, synovial expansion, joint erosions and ligamentous laxity result in compression of the median nerve due to increased intracarpal pressure. We evaluated the published studies to determine the prevalence of CTS and the characteristics of the median nerve in RA and its association with clinical parameters such as disease activity, disease duration and seropositivity. A total of 13 studies met the eligibility criteria. Pooled data from 8 studies with random selection of RA patients revealed that 86 out of 1561 (5.5%) subjects had CTS. Subclinical CTS, on the other hand, had a pooled prevalence of 14.0% (30/215). The cross sectional area of the median nerve of the RA patients without CTS were similar to the healthy controls. The vast majority of the studies (8/13) disclosed no significant relationship between the median nerve findings and the clinical or laboratory parameters in RA. The link between RA and the median nerve abnormalities has been overemphasized throughout the literature. The prevalence of CTS in RA is similar to the general population without any correlation between the median nerve characteristics and the clinical parameters of RA.


Resumo A artrite reumatoide (AR) é uma causa bem e amplamente reconhecida de síndrome do túnel do carpo (STC). No punho acometido pela artrite reumatoide, a expansão sinovial, as erosões articulares e a frouxidão ligamentar resultam em compressão do nervo mediano decorrente do aumento da pressão intracarpal. Avaliaram-se os estudos publicados para determinar a prevalência de STC e as características do nervo mediano na AR e sua associação com parâmetros clínicos, como a atividade e duração da doença e a soropositividade. Preencheram os critérios de elegibilidade 13 estudos. Os dados agrupados dos oito estudos com seleção aleatória de pacientes com AR revelaram que 86 de 1.561 (5,5%) indivíduos tinham STC. Por outro lado, a STC subclínica teve uma prevalência combinada de 14% (30/215). A área de seção transversa do nervo mediano dos pacientes com AR sem STC foi semelhante à de controles saudáveis. A grande maioria dos estudos (8/13) não apresentou relação significativa entre os achados no nervo mediano e os parâmetros clínicos ou laboratoriais na AR. A ligação entre a AR e as anormalidades do nervo mediano foi excessivamente valorizada em toda a literatura. A prevalência de STC na AR é semelhante à da população em geral, sem qualquer correlação entre as características do nervo mediano e os parâmetros clínicos da AR.


Assuntos
Humanos , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Articulação do Punho/patologia , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/patologia , Nervo Mediano/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/etiologia , Incidência , Prevalência
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 52-55, Mar. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-840932

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the incidence of unusual formation of the median nerve in Thai cadavers. Two hundred and ninety-two upper limbs were dissected and observed. The results showed that 5 out of 292 (1.71 %) arms had unusual splitting of median nerve that supplied the flexor arm muscles. Concomitantly, the musculocutaneous nerve was absent. In 4 out of 5 variant arms (80 % or 1.37 % of total upper limbs), each median nerve was unusually formed by 3 roots; the first and second roots were from lateral cord and the third one from medial cord. The union of the second lateral and medial roots to become a median nerve distantly extended in the arm. The second lateral roots gave off small muscular branches to the upper part of flexor arm muscles. Knowledge of such anatomical variations is helpful for surgeons in performing of brachial plexus surgery.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la incidencia en la formación inusual del nervio mediano en cadáveres tailandeses. Se disecaron y observaron 292 miembros superiores. En 5 casos (1,71 %) se presentó una división inusual del nervio mediano que suministraba los nervios para los músculos flexores del brazo. Concomitantemente, el nervio musculocutáneo estaba ausente. En 4 de los 5 casos (80 % o 1,37 % del total de los miembros superiores), cada nervio mediano se formó por 3 raíces; la primera y segunda raíces procedían del fascículo lateral y la tercera del fascículo medial. La unión de la segundas raíces lateral y medial formaban el nervio mediano distalmente en el brazo. Las segundas raíces laterales daban pequeños ramos musculares a la parte superior de los músculos flexores del brazo. El conocimiento de tales variaciones anatómicas es útil para los cirujanos en la realización de la cirugía del plexo braquial.


Assuntos
Humanos , Variação Anatômica , Nervo Mediano/anormalidades , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Extremidade Superior/inervação , Cadáver , Tailândia
18.
J. vasc. bras ; 16(1): f:56-l:59, Jan.-Mar. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841405

RESUMO

Abstract During dissection conducted in an anatomy department of the right upper limb of the cadaver of a 70-year-old male, both origin and course of the radial and ulnar arteries were found to be anomalous. After descending 5.5 cm from the lower border of the teres major, the brachial artery anomalously bifurcated into a radial artery medially and an ulnar artery laterally. In the arm, the ulnar artery lay lateral to the median nerve. It followed a normal course in the forearm. The radial artery was medial to the median nerve in the arm and then, at the level of the medial epicondyle, it crossed from the medial to the lateral side of the forearm, superficial to the flexor muscles. The course of the radial artery was superficial and tortuous throughout the arm and forearm. The variations of radial and ulnar arteries described above were associated with anomalous formation and course of the median nerve in the arm. Knowledge of neurovascular anomalies are important for vascular surgeons and radiologists.


Resumo Durante dissecção de membro superior direito de um cadáver de 70 anos, do sexo masculino, conduzida em um departamento de anatomia, foram observadas anomalias tanto na origem quanto no curso das artérias radial e ulnar. Após descer 5,5 cm desde a borda inferior do músculo redondo maior, a artéria braquial anomalamente se bifurcava em uma artéria radial medialmente, e em uma artéria ulnar lateralmente. No braço, a artéria ulnar se encontrava ao lado do nervo mediano, e seguia um curso normal no antebraço. A artéria radial se encontrava medialmente ao nervo mediano no braço e, então, no nível do epicôndilo medial, ela cruzava do lado medial para o lado lateral do antebraço, na superfície dos músculos flexores. O curso da artéria radial era superficial e tortuoso em todo o braço e antebraço. As variações das artérias radial e ulnar aqui descritas foram associadas a formação e curso anômalos do nervo mediano no braço. Conhecimento sobre anomalias neurovasculares são importantes para cirurgiões vasculares e radiologistas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Artéria Radial/anormalidades , Artéria Ulnar/anormalidades , Anatomia , Artéria Braquial/anatomia & histologia , Dissecação/métodos , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia
19.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 52(2): 169-175, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-844119

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the anatomical variations of the pronator teres muscle (PTM) and its implication in the compression of the median nerve, which passes through the humeral and ulnar heads of the PTM. METHODS: For the present study, 100 upper limbs from human cadavers from the anatomy laboratory were dissected. Forty-six specimens were male and four, female, whose aged ranged from 28 to 77 years; 27 were white and 23, non-white. A pilot study consisting of six hands from three fresh cadaver dissections was conducted to familiarize the authors with the local anatomy; these were not included in the present study. RESULTS: The humeral and ulnar heads of PTM were present in 86 limbs. In 72 out of the 86 limbs, the median nerve was positioned between the two heads of the PTM; in 11, it passed through the muscle belly of ulnar head of the PTM, and in three, posteriorly to both heads of the PTM. When both heads were present, the median nerve was not observed as passing through the muscle belly of the humeral head of PTM. In 14 out of the 100 dissected limbs, the ulnar head of the PTM was not observed; in this situation, the median nerve was positioned posteriorly to the humeral head in 11 limbs, and passed through the humeral head in three. In 17 limbs, the ulnar head of PTM was little developed, with a fibrous band originating from the ulnar coronoid process, associated with a distal muscle component near the union with the humeral head. In four limbs, the ulnar head of the MPR was represented by a fibrous band. In both limbs of one cadaver, a fibrous band was observed between the supinator muscle and the humeral head of the PTM, passing over median nerve. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that these anatomical variations in relationship median nerve and PTM are potential factors for median nerve compression, as they narrow the space through which the median nerve passes.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar as variações anatômicas do músculo pronador redondo (MPR) e suas implicações na compressão do nervo mediano, que passa entre as cabeças umeral e ulnar do MPR. MÉTODO: Foram dissecados 100 membros superiores de cadáveres adultos pertencentes ao laboratório de anatomia; 46 cadáveres eram do sexo masculino e quatro do feminino. A idade variou entre 28 e 77 anos; 27 eram da etnia branca e 23, não branca. Um estudo piloto que incluiu três cadáveres frescos foi feito, para familiarização dos autores com a anatomia regional. Esses não foram incluídos no estudo. RESULTADOS: Em 86 membros, observou-se a presença das cabeças umeral e ulnar do MPR. Em 72 dos 86 membros, o nervo mediano estava posicionado entre as cabeças umeral e ulnar do MPR; em 11, esse encontrava-se através da massa muscular da cabeça ulnar do MPR e em três, o nervo mediano estava posicionado posteriormente às duas cabeças do MPR. Nos casos em que as duas cabeças do músculo estavam presentes, não se observou o nervo mediano passando através da massa muscular da cabeça umeral do MPR. Em 14 dos 100 membros dissecados, a cabeça ulnar do MPR não estava presente. Nessa situação, o nervo mediano posicionava-se posteriormente à cabeça umeral em 11 membros e através da cabeça umeral em três membros. Em 17 membros, a cabeça ulnar estava muito pouco desenvolvida, com conformação fibrosa em sua origem no processo coronoide da ulna, associada a um componente muscular distal, próximo a sua união com a cabeça umeral. Em quatro membros, a cabeça ulnar do MPR estava representada apenas por uma banda fibrosa. Nos dois membros de um cadáver, observou-se uma expansão fibrosa que saía do músculo supinador para a cabeça umeral do MPR, passando como uma cinta sobre o nervo mediano. CONCLUSÕES: Esses resultados sugerem que as variações anatômicas na relação nervo mediano e MPR representam fatores potenciais para compressão nervosa, por estreitar o espaço no qual passa o nervo mediano.


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Cadáver , Nervo Mediano , Pronação , Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico
20.
Motriz (Online) ; 23(4): e1017100, 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-895023

RESUMO

AIMS: Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) is a new and promising technique for tissue repair, however, there is still a gap about its action on peripheral nerve injury, as well as its association with physical exercise. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the PRF associated with physical exercise in a model of median nerve compression. METHODS: 42 rats, divided into: Control, non-injured limb, and other six groups with nerve lesion (Control lesion; Treated with PRF; Treadmill walking; Free swimming; PRF and treadmill; PRF and swimming). The lesion model was performed with median nerve compression. To obtain the PRF, 1.5 mL of blood was centrifuged and the fibrin clot positioned directly over the compression region. The exercise protocols were performed during 2 weeks. The evaluations performed were grip strength tests and histologic analysis. RESULTS: both, grip strength and histomorphometric evaluations (fiber numbers and axon density) did not present significant differences between the treated and lesion groups, however, in the morphological evaluation it was possible to distinguish characteristics of the repair process for the treated groups. CONCLUSION: a slight qualitative improvement was observed for the treated groups, especially when it was associated PRF with free swimming.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Terapia por Exercício , Fibrina , Nervo Mediano , Força Muscular , Ratos Wistar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA