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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1175-1179, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-975677

RESUMO

The authors studied the morphometry and the topographical distribution of Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) in four nocturnal raptors of the order of Strigiformes, family of Strigidae: little owl, tawny owl, scops owl, eared owl. In order to recognize specialized retinal vision areas (fovea and visual streak), the number of RGCs/mm2 and the soma size in the four retinal fields (dorsal, ventral, temporal and nasal) by the histological analysis of retinal radial sections were recorded. A temporal fovea was identified in little owl, tawny owl and eared owl while in scops owl this visual area was localized near the fundus oculi. A radial visual streak ventrally directed was pointed out in the retinas of the four raptors with different shape according to its width. The Authors linked the obtained data with the predatory behavior of nocturnal raptors in their habitat.


Se estudió la morfometría y la distribución topográfica de las células ganglionares de la retina (CGR) en cuatro aves rapaces nocturnas del orden de los Strigiformes, familia Strigidae: búho pequeño, mochuelo, autillo, y cárabo. Con el objetivo de definir las áreas de visión retiniana especializadas (fóvea y campo visual), se registró el número de CGRs/mm2 y el tamaño del soma en los cuatro campos retinianos (dorsal, ventral, temporal y nasal), mediante análisis histológico de las secciones radiales de la retina. Se identificó una fóvea temporal en mochuelo, búho leonado y búho pequeño, mientras que en el búho real, esta área visual se localizó cerca del fondo de ojo. Se observó un campo radial visual dirigido ventralmente en las retinas de las cuatro aves rapaces, con diferentes formas según su extensión. Se relacionaron los datos obtenidos con el comportamiento predatorio de aves rapaces nocturnas en su hábitat.


Assuntos
Animais , Retina/citologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/citologia , Estrigiformes/anatomia & histologia
2.
Rev. Hosp. El Cruce ; (21): 51-55, 20181228.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-915436

RESUMO

El hamartoma de células astrocíticas es un tumor benigno derivado de la proliferación de astrocitos bien diferenciados. Es la lesión ocular más común en pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis tuberosa. Se describe un caso de una paciente con diagnóstico de Complejo de Esclerosis Tuberosa (CET) con compromiso multiorgánico derivado al Servicio de Oftalmología para su evaluación. La misma presenta un examen oftalmológico sin particularidades en el segmento anterior y al fondo de ojo se objetiva una lesión tumoral multinodular, sobreelevada coincidente con hamartoma de células astrocíticas.


Astrocytic hamartoma is a benign tumor caused by well-differentiated astrocyte proliferation. It is the commonest eye lesión in patients diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis. Here we describe the case of a patient diagnosed with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) with multiple organ involvement who was referred from the Ofthalmology Service for her evaluation. Her eye examination shows no particularities in the anterior segment, and the fundus examination reveals an objective high-relief multinodular tumoral lesion, consistent with an astrocytic hamartoma.


Assuntos
Relatos de Casos , Hamartoma , Retina , Esclerose Tuberosa
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(10): 1966-1971, out. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976383

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by relative or absolute lack of insulin; this can lead to several ocular manifestations, among them diabetic retinopathy and cataracts. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microangiopathy that involves retinal precapillary arterioles, postcapillary venules, and large vessels, causing them to be functionally and anatomically incompetent. Hyperglycemia seems to be the most probable cause of damage to the retina due to interference in cellular metabolism and transduction processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal thickness in eight diabetic dogs, four females and four males of different breeds and ages ranging from 6 to 15 years, by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare them with non-diabetic dogs. Assessment provided by OCT in diabetic dogs showed retinal layers thinning and loss of stratification when compared to non-diabetic dogs (198μm versus 219μm respectively), with statistical significance (p=0.008). OCT images may suggest that diabetes mellitus causes retinal neuropathy in dogs, as also seen in diabetic humans.(AU)


Diabete melito é umas das principais endocrinopatias, caracterizada pela deficiência relativa ou absoluta de insulina, que pode resultar em diversas manifestações oculares, sendo as mais frequentes a retinopatia diabética e a catarata. Retinopatia diabética (RD) é uma microangiopatia que afeta primeiramente as arteríolas pré-capilares, capilares, vênulas pós-capilares e vasos de maior calibre, causando incompetência funcional e anatômica dos vasos retinianos. A hiperglicemia parece ser a causa mais provável da lesão retiniana, interferindo nas vias de metabolismo celular e no processo de transdução. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar e comparar a espessura retiniana total em oito cães diabéticos, quatro fêmeas e quatro machos, de diversas raças, com idade variando de seis a 15 anos, com auxílio de tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) e comparar com a de cães não diabéticos. A espessura e arquitetura retiniana realizada pela OCT nos cães diabéticos, demonstrou afinamento das camadas da retina e perda da estratificação em comparação com os cães não diabéticos (198μm versus 219μm, respectivamente), sendo esta redução estatisticamente significante (p=0,008). Baseado nas imagens da OCT pode-se sugerir que a diabete melito, no cão, cause neuropatia retiniana como descrito em humanos diabéticos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinária , Retinopatia Diabética/veterinária , Cães , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/veterinária , Complicações do Diabetes
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 955-961, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954214

RESUMO

Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) in two diurnal raptors, the buzzard (Buteo buteo) and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and in two nocturnal raptors, the little owl (Athene noctua) and tawny owl (Strix aluco), were studied in order to highlight their topographical distribution, taking into account the soma size. Cell density (RGCs/mm2) and median soma area from histological radial sections in four retinal fields (dorsal, ventral, temporal and nasal) were recorded in order to identify specialized retinal vision areas. The results showed a different RGCs distribution between diurnal and nocturnal raptors related to the location of the foveas and shape of the horizontal streak, confirming the bibliographic data. In diurnal raptors, a higher cell density was found in the temporal and central retinal fields as revealed by the presence of a temporal and a central fovea which showed a "horizontal streak". In nocturnal raptors the cell density was higher in the peripheral temporal field likely due to a temporal fovea. A peak in cell density observed in the ventral field, especially in the retina of little owls, might be linked to a more "radial visual streak". Comparing the data obtained we highlighted that the morphology and the number of RGCs are closely linked to the habitat and to the type of predation.


Se estudiaron las células ganglionares de la retina (RGC) en dos aves rapaces diurnas, el ratonero (Buteo buteo) y el cernícalo (Falco tinnunculus), y en dos aves rapaces nocturnas, el mochuelo (Athene noctua) y el búho leonado (Strix aluco), buscando resaltar su distribución topográfica, teniendo en cuenta el tamaño del soma. Se registraron la densidad celular (RGCs/mm2) y la media del área del soma de las secciones histológicas radiales en cuatro campos retinianos (dorsal, ventral, temporal y nasal) para identificar áreas de visión retinianas especializadas. Los resultados mostraron una distribución diferente de RGCs entre las rapaces diurnas y nocturnas relacionadas con la ubicación de las fóveas y la forma de la línea horizontal, lo que confirma los datos bibliográficos. En las aves rapaces diurnas, se encontró una densidad celular más alta en los campos de retina temporales y centrales como lo revela la presencia de una fóvea temporal y central que mostraba una "veta horizontal". En aves rapaces nocturnas, la densidad celular fue mayor en el campo temporal periférico probablemente debido a una fóvea temporal. Un aumento en la densidad celular, observado en el campo ventral, especialmente en la retina de los pequeños buhos, podría estar relacionado con una "línea visual radial". Comparando los datos obtenidos, resaltamos que la morfología y el número de RGC están estrechamente relacionados con el hábitat y el tipo de depredación.


Assuntos
Animais , Células Ganglionares da Retina/citologia , Aves Predatórias/anatomia & histologia , Retina/citologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 97-103, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893194

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Head trauma damages the optic nerve visual function and visual acuity.Effects of head trauma on the retina was investigated with biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical respects.The study was conducted on 30 rats with three groups: group 1 was control group (n=10). Second group was head-traumatized group (n=10) and last group was head-traumatized+Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, i.p. 20ml/kg/day). Upon head was traumatized, CAPE was applied to trauma+CAPE group and then for the following four days. At the end of 5th day, rats were anesthetized with ketamine hydroxide and then blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. MDA and GSH-Px values were compared. After blood sample, total eyes of rats were dissected for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In trauma group, degeneration in retinal photoreceptor cells, disintegrity and in inner and outer nuclear layers, hypertrophy in ganglion cells, and hemorrhage in blood vessels were observed. In the group treated with CAPE, lesser degeneration in photoreceptor cells, regular appearances of inner and outer nuclear layers, mild hemorrhage in blood vessels of ganglionic cell layer were observed. The apoptotic changes caused by trauma seen in photoreceptor and ganglionic cells were decreased and cellular organization was preserved due to CAPE treatment. CAPE was thought to induce healing process on traumatic damages.


RESUMEN: El trauma craneal daña la función visual del nervio óptico y la agudeza visual. Se investigaron los efectos del traumatismo craneal en la retina con aspectos bioquímicos, histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos. El estudio se realizó en 30 ratas distribuidas en tres grupos: grupo control (n = 10); grupo con traumatismo craneal (n = 10); grupo con traumatismo craneoencefálico + Éster fenetílico de ácido cafeico (CAPE, i.p. 20 ml / kg / día). Sobre la cabeza traumatizada, se aplicó CAPE a trauma + grupo CAPE durante los siguientes cuatro días. Al final del día 5, las ratas se anestesiaron con hidróxido de ketamina y luego se tomaron muestras de sangre para el análisis bioquímico. Se compararon los valores de MDA y GSH-Px. Después de la muestra de sangre, se disecaron los ojos de las ratas para su análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico. En el grupo de traumatismos, se observó degeneración en las células fotorreceptoras retinianas, desintegridad en capas nucleares internas y externas, hipertrofia en células ganglionares y hemorragia en los vasos sanguíneos. En el grupo tratado con CAPE, se observó una menor degeneración en las células fotorreceptoras, apariciones regulares de capas nucleares internas y externas, hemorragia leve en los vasos sanguíneos de la capa de células ganglionares. Los cambios apoptóticos causados por el trauma visto en el fotorreceptor y las células ganglionares disminuyeron y la organización celular se conservó debido al tratamiento con CAPE. Se concluyó que CAPE induce un proceso de curación en daños traumáticos.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ácidos Cafeicos/administração & dosagem , Álcool Feniletílico/administração & dosagem , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Imuno-Histoquímica , Malondialdeído/análise , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Retina/patologia
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 248-257, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893218

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The retina of vertebrates shows adaptations to the visual environment in which they evolve. Thus, there exists a relationship between the topographic distribution of retinal cells, the adaptive strategies employed, and habitat, so that, analyses of retinal ganglion cell topography provide information about the behavioral ecology of a species. Although these relationships are well documented in many vertebrates, including mammals, for species within the marsupial order, they are not well understood. However, marsupials represent an ideal group for comparative analyses of interspecific variations in the mammalian visual system because they contain species that vary in both lifestyle and habitat preference. In this paper the interspecific variation in retinal ganglion cell topography in 13 species of Australian marsupials is reviewed. The species that live in open habitats have well-defined elongated visual streaks. In contrast, forest-dwelling marsupials have poorly defined visual streaks and a more radially symmetrical arrangement of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) isodensity contours. However, the organization and degree of elongation of the visual streak varies considerably among species. The results indicate that the apparent interspecific variation is associated with activity pattern and habitat as opposed to the phylogenetic relationships among species.


RESUMEN: La retina de los vertebrados muestra adaptaciones al entorno visual en el que evolucionan. Por lo tanto, existe una relación entre la distribución topográfica de las células de la retina, las estrategias de adaptación empleadas y el hábitat, por lo que los análisis de la topografía de las células ganglionares de la retina proporcionan información sobre la ecología del comportamiento de una especie. Aunque estas relaciones están bien documentadas en muchos vertebrados, incluidos los mamíferos, para especies dentro del orden marsupiales, no se conocen bien. Sin embargo, los marsupiales representan un grupo ideal para análisis comparativos de variaciones interespecíficas en el sistema visual de mamíferos porque contienen especies que varían tanto en el estilo de vida como en la preferencia del hábitat. En este trabajo se revisa la variación interespecífica en la topografía de células ganglionares de la retina en 13 especies de marsupiales australianos. Las especies que viven en hábitats abiertos tienen bandas visuales alargadas bien definidas. Por el contrario, los marsupiales que habitan en el bosque tienen rayas visuales mal definidas y una disposición más simétrica radialmente de los contornos de isodensidad de los CGR. Sin embargo, la organización y el grado de elongación de la banda visual varía considerablemente entre las especies. Los resultados indican que la aparente variación interespecífica está asociada con el patrón de actividad y el hábitat en oposición a las relaciones filogenéticas entre las especies.


Assuntos
Animais , Marsupiais/anatomia & histologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Austrália , Ecologia
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 11(1): 20-27, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-999030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic vascular complications are associated with elevated concentrations of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). These substances can be originated endogenously by hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress, but also by dietary intake. There is indirect evidence suggesting that these complications can be prevented by lowering AGEs levels by dietary or pharmacological interventions, however its clinical benefits are still not clear enough because this would require long periods of treatment. Specific neuro-ophthalmologic tests like Multifocal Electroretinogram (MFERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) can detect retinal and myelinic nerve early changes, and thus could represent good methods to study the results of certain interventions in shorter lapses. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the effects of a pharmacological intervention designed to lower AGEs levels, on these variables. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 7 patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2), with more than 5 and less than 10 years of disease, without clinically evident micro and macrovascular disease, without renal failure, hypothyroidism nor vitamin B12 deficiency, whose AGEs dietary intake was moderately elevated or high (according to dietary recalls). Upon admission, a clinical evaluation, urine and blood samples were obtained for routine labs, plus ultrasensitive C Reactive Protein (usCRP) as an inflammatory marker, and carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) as representative of AGEs. Then a complete ophthalmologic evaluation was performed, including fundus, MFERG and VEP. After the initial evaluation, placebo capsules were prescribed (12 daily capsules, 4 with each main meal) during 3 months, repeating the same initial evaluation at completion of this period. Then the active treatment followed, with capsules containing cholestyramine (4 capsules containing 500 mg each, totaling 6 g per day). Patients were cited each month, to register adverse events and repeating the same evaluation after this second 3 months period. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 2 male patients, mean age was 55.1 ± 3.8 years, and diabetes was managed with metformin plus other oral agents or o insulin (4 cases). In addition, 4 patients received lipid lowering and 4 antihypertensive drugs. Metabolic control and lipid levels were variable (ranges of HbA1c 6.2-8.4%, LDL cholesterol 45-141 mg/dL, triglycerides 70-220 mg/dL). AGEs levels represented by CML were highly variable (median 31.7, range min-max 3.4-58.9 ug/uL). Basal usCRP was also variable (median 405.9, range min-max 265.6-490.7 mg/L). The treatment was well tolerated, except for mild constipation associated with cholestiramine intake. No significant changes in electroretinography or evoked potentials were observed when comparing the initial placebo period with cholestyramine treatment. A significant increase in triglyceride levels and decrease of vitamin D levels after cholestyramine treatment was observed. No changes were detected in serum concentrations of CML, usCRP or glycemic control, after treatment. The latter variables were not correlated with neurophthalmologic studies. DISCUSSION: In this preliminary study we did not observe changes in MFERG nor VEP after 6 g/day cholestyramine treatment, which did not induce lowering of CML levels. This could be attributed to the many limitations of a pilot study, such as a small sample size, short duration of treatment, reduced doses. However this design allowed to evaluate the patients´ tolerance to the drug and rule out adverse effects, in order to plan further studies using the necessary doses to obtain lowering of AGEs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina , Resina de Colestiramina/administração & dosagem , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Eletrorretinografia , Projetos Piloto , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisina/sangue
8.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(6): 603-611, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-896636

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective : to determine the functional and morphological effects at rabbits retina of PS80 concentration used in the preparation of intravitreal drugs. Methods: eleven New Zealand rabbits received a intravitreal injection of 0.1ml of PS80. As control, the contralateral eye of each rabbit received the same volume of saline. Electroretinography was performed according to a modified protocol, as well as biomicroscopy and retina mapping before injection and seven and ten days after. Animals were euthanized in the 30th day and the retinas were analyzed by light microscopy. Results: eyes injected with PS80 did not present clinical signs of intraocular inflammation. Electroretinography did not show any alteration of extent and implicit time of a and b waves at scotopic and photopic conditions. There were no morphological alterations of retinas at light microscopy. Conclusion: intravitreal injection of PS80 in the used concentration for intravitreal drug preparations do not cause any functional or morphological alterations of rabbit retinas. These results suggest that PS80 is not toxic to rabbit retinas and may be safely used in the preparation of new lipophilic drugs for intravitreal injection.


RESUMO Objetivo: determinar os efeitos funcionais e morfológicos na retina de coelhos da concentração de PS80 utilizada na preparação de drogas intravítreas. Métodos: onze coelhos New Zealand receberam injeção intravítrea de 0,1ml de PS80. Como controle, o olho contralateral de cada coelho recebeu o mesmo volume de soro fisiológico. Foram realizados eletrorretinogramas de acordo com o protocolo modificado, biomicroscopia e mapeamento de retina antes da injeção, sete e dez dias depois. Os animais foram sacrificados no 30o dia e as retinas analisadas por microscopia de luz. Resultados: os olhos injetados com PS80 não apresentaram sinais clínicos de inflamação intraocular. O eletrorretinograma não apresentou alteração de amplitude e tempo implícito das ondas a e b nas condições escotópica e fotópica. Não houve alteração morfológica da retina na microscopia de luz. Conclusão: a injeção intravítrea de PS80 na concentração utilizada na preparação de drogas intravítreas não causa alterações funcionais e morfológicas na retina de coelhos. Esses resultados sugerem que o PS80 não é tóxico para a retina de coelhos e pode ser usado com segurança na preparação de novas drogas lipofílicas para injeção intravítrea.


Assuntos
Animais , Polissorbatos/administração & dosagem , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Retina/fisiologia , Coelhos , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrorretinografia , Injeções Intravítreas
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 840-844, Sept. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893061

RESUMO

Traumatic head injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. As a result of head trauma occurring in the retina of the various biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical effects were investigated. Sprague­Dawley rats were subjected to traumatic brain injury with a weight-drop device using 300 g-1 m weight­height impact. Twenty one rats were divided into three groups, as group 1 (vehicle-treated control), group 2 (vehicle-treated trauma) group 3 trauma + Potentilla fulgens ( P. Fulgens) 400 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Distilled water was used as vehicle. All rats were decapitated 5 days after the induction of trauma, and the protective effects of P. Fulgens were evaluated by histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. Although further studies are necessary to evaluate the time-and dose-dependent neuroprotective effects of P. Fulgens. Depending on whether trauma inhibits apoptosis of photoreceptor cells, ganglion cells, it is thought that the the support against the degeneration of neural connections can be considered. This study indicates that P.Fulgens is potentially useful for the treatment of eye disorders induced by traumatic brain injury.


El trauma de cráneo es una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Como resultado de un traumatismo craneal, la retina puede sufrir diversos efectos bioquímicos, histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos. Veintiún ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron sometidas a lesión craneal traumática con un dispositivo, de caída de peso, usando un impacto de 300 g-1 m de peso-altura. Las ratas fueron divididas en tres grupos: grupo 1 (control), grupo 2 (traumatismo) y grupo 3 trauma + Potentilla fulgens (400 mg / kg / día, i. p.). Se usó agua destilada como vehículo en todos los grupos. Las ratas fueron decapitadas 5 días después de la inducción del trauma, y se evaluaron los efectos protectores de P. Fulgens mediante análisis histológicos, inmunohistoquímicos y bioquímicos. Es necesario realizar más estudios para evaluar los efectos neuroprotectores, dependientes del tiempo y la dosis, de P. Fulgens. Dependiendo si el trauma inhibe la apoptosis de las células fotorreceptoras, se estima que la disposición de las células ganglionares ayuda contra la degeneración de las conexiones neuronales. P. Fulgens ha demostrado ser efectivo para el tratamiento de los trastornos oculares inducidos por lesión cerebral traumática.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Traumatismos Oculares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Potentilla/química , Retina/patologia , Traumatismos Oculares/etiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1063-1068, Sept. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893094

RESUMO

Head trauma affects the optic nerve visual function and visual acuity. As a result of head trauma occurring in the retina of the various biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical effects were investigated. The protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum was evaluated on the damage to the retina of the rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to traumatic brain injury with a weight-drop device using 300 g-1 m weight-height impact. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as group 1 control, 2 group trauma, 3 group trauma+Gonoderma lucidum (20 mL/kg per day via gastric gavage) Ganoderma lucidum was administered for 7 days after trauma.All rats were decapitated 5 days after the induction of trauma, and the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum in retina were evaluated by histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. The antioxidant effect of Ganoderma lucidum on the cellular degeneration extracellular matrix and retinal barrier in retina after head trauma was investigated.


El traumatismo craneal afecta al nervio óptico en relación a su función y la agudeza visual. Se estudiaron los diversos efectos bioquímicos, histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos en la retina producidos por una lesión y trauma a la cabeza. En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto protector de Gonaderin lucidum sobre el daño a la retina de ratas. Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron sometidas a una lesión cerebral traumática con un dispositivo de caída de peso usando un impacto de 300 g-1 m de peso-altura. Treinta ratas se dividieron en tres grupos: grupo 1, de control; grupo 2, trauma; grupo 3, de trauma + Gonoderma lucidum (20 ml / kg día, a través de una sonda gástrica). Ganoderma lucidum se administró durante 7 días después del trauma. Todas las ratas fueron decapitadas 5 días después. La inducción del trauma y los efectos protectores de Ganoderma lucidum en la retina fueron evaluados mediante análisis histológicos, inmunohistoquímicos y bioquímicos. Se investigó el efecto antioxidante de Ganoderma lucidum sobre la degeneración celular en la matriz extracelular y la barrera retiniana en la retina después del traumatismo craneal.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Reishi/química , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/tratamento farmacológico , Imuno-Histoquímica , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doenças Retinianas/etiologia , Retina/patologia
11.
Clinics ; 72(2): 81-86, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-840045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of laser pan-retinal photocoagulation with or without intravitreal bevacizumab injections on macular choroidal thickness parameters in eyes with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: High-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients undergoing laser treatment were prospectively enrolled in this study. One eye was randomly selected for laser treatment combined with bevacizumab injections, study group, whereas the corresponding eye was subjected to laser treatment alone, control group. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging was used to measure the macular choroidal thickness prior to and 1 month after treatment. Measurements in both groups were compared. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01389505. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (38 eyes) with a mean±standard deviation age of 53.4±9.3 years were evaluated, and choroidal thickness measurements for 15 patients were used for comparison. The greatest measurement before treatment was the subfoveal choroidal thickness (341.68±67.66 μm and 345.79±83.66 μm for the study and control groups, respectively). No significant difference between groups was found in terms of macular choroidal thickness measurements at baseline or after treatment. However, within-group comparisons revealed a significant increase in choroidal thickness parameters in 10 measurements in the study group and in only 5 temporal measurements in the control group when 1-month follow-up measurements were compared to baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: The macular choroidal thickness does not appear to be significantly influenced by laser treatment alone but increases significantly when associated with bevacizumab injections in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Because bevacizumab injections reduce short-term laser pan-retinal photocoagulation-induced macular edema, our findings suggest that the choroid participates in its pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina/patologia , Corioide/patologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Acuidade Visual , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Terapia Combinada , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Injeções Intravítreas
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5396, 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839263

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common and specific microvascular complications of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of kaempferol and explore its underlying molecular mechanisms. The mRNA expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PGF) and the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF were measured by qTR-PCR and ELISA assay, respectively. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) proliferation, migration, and sprouting were measured by CCK-8 and transwell, scratching wound, and tube formation assays, respectively. Protein levels were determined by western blot. High glucose (25 mM) increased the mRNA expression levels of VEGF and PGF as well as the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF in HRECs, which can be antagonized by kaempferol (25 µM). Kaempferol (5-25 µM) significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, migration distance and sprouting of HRECs under high glucose condition. The anti-angiogenic effect of kaempferol was mediated via downregulating the expression of PI3K and inhibiting the activation of Erk1/2, Src, and Akt1. This study indicates that kaempferol suppressed angiogenesis of HRECs via targeting VEGF and PGF to inhibit the activation of Src-Akt1-Erk1/2 signaling pathway. The results suggest that kaempferol may be a potential drug for better management of DR.


Assuntos
Humanos , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/antagonistas & inibidores , Retina/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imuno-Histoquímica
13.
Rev. Soc. Colomb. Oftalmol ; 50(2): 80-82, jul.-dic.2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-885034

RESUMO

La retina, esencial en la función visual del globo ocular, es un tejido neurosensorial sensible a la luz situado en la superficie interna del globo ocular. La luz que incide en la retina desencadena una serie de fenómenos químicos y eléctricos que finalmente se traducen en impulsos nerviosos que son enviados hacia el cerebro a través del nervio óptico. Este tejido tan importante para el desarrollo y procesamiento de la visión no se encuentra exenta de patologías que pueden generar daños parciales o totales en su estructura y que pueden llegar a comprometer zonas tan importantes como la mácula y su área central, la fóvea.El número de patologías que pueden afectar la retina es muy variado, nos dedicaremos a comentar solo las patologías más comunes por las características de nuestra población, nutrición, situación geográfica y desarrollo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Retina , Oftalmopatias , Descolamento Retiniano , Doenças Retinianas
14.
Rev. Soc. Colomb. Oftalmol ; 50(2): 83-85, jul.-dic.2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-885035

RESUMO

The retina, essential in the visual function of the eyeball, is a light-sensitive neurosensory tissue located on the inner surface of the eyeball. The light that reaches the retina triggers a series of chemical and electrical phenomena that eventually result in nerve impulses that are sent to the brain through the optic nerve. This tissue, which is so important for the development and processing of vision, is not exempt from pathologies that can generate partial or total damage to its structure and which can compromise important areas such as the macula and its central area, the fovea. There is a variety of pathologies that can aff ect the retina. We will review the most common pathologies due to the characteristics of our population, nutrition, geographical situation and development.


Assuntos
Humanos , Retina , Oftalmopatias , Descolamento Retiniano , Doenças Retinianas
16.
Bogotá; IETS; mayo 2016. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-846875

RESUMO

Tecnologías evaluadas: Intervención: Ranibizumab; Comparadores: Aflibercept y bevacizumab. Población: Pacientes con degeneración macular relacionada a la edad en Colombia. Perspectiva: Tercer pagador, el Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (SGSSS). Horizonte temporal: El horizonte temporal de este AIP en el caso base corresponde a un año. Adicionalmente, se reportan las estimaciones del impacto presupuestal para los años 2 y 3, bajo el supuesto de la inclusión en el POS en el año 1. Costos incluidos:\tCosto de medicamentos; \tCostos de procedimientos e insumos. Fuente de costos: SISMED; Manual tarifario ISS 2001. Escenarios: Escenario 1: inclusión de todos los medicamentos al POS sin\r\ncambio en las características del mercado (precios), participación del bevacizumab del 100%; Escenario 2: inclusión de todos los medicamentos al POS con ajustes en los precios del ranibizumab y aflibercept, la\r\nparticipación será del 33.3% para cada uno de los medicamentos. Resultados: Bajo las condiciones actuales, el esfuerzo presupuestal que del SGSSS al incluir los tres medicamento al plan de beneficios se\r\nestima en 1.3 billones de pesos para el primer año de adopción; Este incrementaría en 348 y 448 mil millones de pesos para el segundo y tercer año respectivamente.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Ranibizumab/administração & dosagem , Retina/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Tecnologia Biomédica , Colômbia , Custos e Análise de Custo/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(1): 320-329, Mar. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-780512

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that hypoxia retards the growth of fish, reduces the survival of their larvae, deforms their vertebral column, but despite this teleost fish have the ability to completely regenerate many of their tissues, particularly the retina. As we do not have enough information about the effects of hypoxia on the eyeball, orbit and retina of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we propose the following objectives: 1) Compare the morphological changes of the eyeball of fish subject to hypoxia and normoxia. 2) Determine changes in the orbit structure. 3) Describe the retina of salmon alevins. 4). Recognize hypoxic cells using the anti-Hif1a antibody in the retina of alevins as a sensor. 5) Determine the Shh morphogenic expression in alevins exposed to different times of hypoxia. Around 1,000 Salmo salar alevins were placed in a continuous water flow of 9 °C at 100 % SatO2 and alevins maintained at a hypoxia of 60 % SatO2. The latter were transferred to normoxia (at days two, four, and eight after hatching). A control group maintained at continuous normoxia and another at continuous hypoxia was also considered. All the alevins were euthanized at 950 UTAs (±2 months after hatching). Diaphonization (double-stain) according to the Hanken & Wassersug technique was undertaken to describe the morphology of the periocular cartilage and to measure the ocular diameter. The HIF-1a factor antibody 1:50, and the anti-Shh antibody dilution of 1:100 were used. The alevins after hatching had large eyeballs with the optic cup having an embryonic shape, even a choroidal fissure. The greatest thickness was observed in the nasal ventral zone which corresponds to a zone of pluripotent cells. The optic cup aspect with embryonic characteristics has only been reported in salmonids. The central retina of the alevins those were cultivated with a 60 % saturation of O2 for two, four or eight days had positive immunostaining when analyzed with the anti-HIF1a antibody hypoxia sensor. The inner ganglion and nuclear layers had immunopositive cells, with the highest in the alevins that were two days in hypoxia and the lowest when the hypoxia was chronic. Nevertheless, in the latter case the alevins had anatomical deformation of the eyeball and periocular cartilage. The anti-Shh antibody clearly shows a gradient that is expressed in the germinative zone and in the cells of the inner ganglion and nuclear layers. The eyeball and particularly the retina in salmon alevins are an example of neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis.


Se ha demostrado que la hipoxia retarda el crecimiento de los peces, reduce la supervivencia de sus larvas, deforma su columna vertebral, pero a pesar de esto, este pez teleósteo tiene la capacidad de regenerar completamente muchos de sus tejidos, en particular la retina. Como no existe suficiente información sobre los efectos de la hipoxia en el bulbo ocular, la órbita y retina del salmón del Atlántico (Salmo salar), los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1) Comparar los cambios morfológicos del bulbo ocular del pescado sujetos a hipoxia y normoxia; 2) Determinar los cambios en la estructura de la órbita; 3) Describir la retina de los alevines de salmón; 4) Reconocer las células hipóxicas utilizando el anticuerpo anti-Hif1a en la retina de alevines como un sensor; 5) Determinar la expresión morfogenética de Shh en alevines expuestos a diferentes momentos de hipoxia. Alrededor de 1.000 alevines Salmo salar se colocaron en un flujo continuo de agua a 9 °C, con 100 % de SatO2 y otros alevines se mantuvieron con una hipoxia de 60 % SatO2. Estos últimos fueron trasladados a normoxia (en los días dos, cuatro y ocho después de la eclosión). Un grupo control se mantuvo a normoxia continua y otro grupo a hipoxia continua. Todos los alevines se sacrificaron a 950 UTA (+ dos meses después de la eclosión). Se realizcón una diafonización (doble tinción), de acuerdo con la técnica de Hanken & Wassersug, para describir la morfología del cartílago periocular y para medir el diámetro ocular. Se utilizaron el anticuerpo anti-Hif1a a una dilución 1:50, y el anticuerpo anti-Shh a una dilución de 1:100. Los alevines después de la eclosión presentaron grandes bulbos oculares, con la copa óptica con forma embrionaria, incluso una fisura coroidea. El mayor espesor se observó en la zona ventral nasal que corresponde a una zona de células pluripotentes. El aspecto de la copa óptica con características embrionarias sólo se ha informado en los salmónidos. La retina central de los alevines fueron cultivadas con una saturación de 60 % de O2 para dos, cuatro y ocho días, y presentó inmunotinción positiva cuando se analizó con el sensor de hipoxia, el anticuerpo anti-HIF1a. El ganglio interior y las capas nucleares presentaron células immunopositivas, con los niveles más altos en los alevines con dos días de hipoxia y niveles más bajos en hipoxia crónica. Sin embargo, en éste último caso los alevines presentaron una deformación anatómica del bulbo ocular y el cartílago periocular. El anticuerpo anti-Shh mostró claramente un gradiente expresado en la zona germinativa y en las células del ganglio interior y las capas nucleares. El bulbo ocular y en particular la retina en alevines de salmón son un ejemplo de plasticidad neuronal y neurogénesis.


Assuntos
Animais , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Hipóxia , Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Salmo salar/anatomia & histologia
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 4-8, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-771903

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess whether hyaloid adhesion is more prevalent in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) than in control patients and to evaluate whether it is more prevalent in exudative AMD than in non-exudative AMD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, controlled analytical study. Patients from the Ophthalmology Department of the Public Service Hospital of the State of São Paulo were included if they were diagnosed with AMD that was confirmed by fundus biomicroscopy and fluorescein angiography. Patients were divided into three groups: patients without a vitreoretinal disease (controls), patients with exudative AMD, and patients with non-exudative AMD. For the optimal study of the vitreoretinal interface, all patients were subjected to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT; Cirrus HD-OCT, version 4000; Carl Zeiss Meditec) and ultrasonography (UltraScan®, Alcon). Results with p values of ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: We assessed 75 eyes of 23 patients with AMD (14 women and nine men) and 15 the control patients (11 women and four men). In total, 33 eyes had AMD that was consistent with the inclusion criteria, of which 11 had the non-exudative form (non-atrophic) and 22 had the exudative form (11 active and 11 disciform scars). Adherence was observed in eight eyes in the control group (26.67%), in seven eyes with exudative AMD (31.82%), and in five eyes with non-exudative AMD (45.45%). Conclusion: Patients with exudative and non-exudative forms of AMD did not present with higher vitreoretinal adhesion than control patients as assessed by SD-OCT and ultrasound. Moreover, patients with exudative AMD (neovascular membrane and disciform scar) did not reveal a higher adherence than those with non-exudative AMD when evaluated by the same methods.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se a adesão hialoidea é mais prevalente em pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada a idade (DMRI) (exsudativa e não exsudativa) comparado ao grupo controle e avaliar se a prevalência é maior na forma exsudativa comparada a forma não exsudativa. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, analítico, de grupo controle, com os pacientes atendidos no Departamento de Retina do Serviço de Oftalmologia do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo (HSPE), que tiveram o diagnóstico de DMRI confirmado após a biomicroscopia de fundo e angiofluoresceinografia. Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos, um composto por pacientes sem doenças vitreorretinianas (30 olhos), outro pacientes com DMRI exsudativa (22 olhos) e o terceiro grupo por pacientes com DMRI não exsudativa (11 olhos). Para melhor estudo da interface vitreorretiniana, todos os pacientes foram submetidos aos exames de SD-TCO (Cirrus HD-TCO, versão 4000; Carl Zeeis Meditec) e ultrassonografia (UltraScan®, Alcon). Foram considerados significativos os resultados com valor de p≤0,05. Resultados: Foram avaliados 75 olhos de 23 pacientes com DMRI e 15 no grupo controle, sendo que apenas 33 olhos que apresentavam DMRI obedeciam aos critérios de inclusão, sendo 11 pertencentes à forma seca (nenhuma forma atrófica) e 22 à forma exsudativa (11 de forma ativa e 11 disciforme). A adesão foi encontrada em oito olhos no grupo controle (26,67%), em sete olhos com DMRI exsudativa (31,82%) e em cinco olhos no grupo DMRI não exsudativa (45,45%). Conclusão: Neste estudo, pacientes com DMRI (formas exsudativa e não exsudativa) não apresentaram maior adesão vitreorretiniana quando comparados ao grupo controle, ao serem avaliados através SD-TCO (Cirrus HD-TCO, versão 4000; Carl Zeeis Meditec) e ultrassonografia (UltraScan®, Alcon). Neste estudo, pacientes com DMRI exsudativa (ativa e disciforme) não apresentaram maior adesão quando comparados à forma seca, ao serem avaliados pelos mesmos métodos.


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Retina/patologia , Corpo Vítreo/patologia , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Membrana Epirretiniana/patologia , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Degeneração Macular , Fatores de Risco , Retina/fisiopatologia , Aderências Teciduais , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Corpo Vítreo/fisiopatologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875311

RESUMO

Previously described in humans and domestic animals, retinal dysplasia has three clinical forms: focal/multifocal, geographic and total. A young orphan crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from wildlife, male, approximately 45 days old referred to the Wildlife Medicine and Ophthalmology Services of the "Governador Laudo Natel" Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal Campus, SP, Brazil, where it received primary outpatient care. The patient was in good general health condition, without hematological, biochemistry or serological alterations and no signs of visual impairment. Indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy showed retinal changes in the left eye, distributed over the tapetal area in the form of grayish folds and rosettes. In the affected areas, tapetal reflectivity was reduced. No other ophthalmic abnormalities were observed. This is the first report of retinal dysplasia in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from wildlife.(AU)


Descrita no homem e em animais domésticos, a displasia de retina, se apresenta nas formas focal/multifocal, geográfica e completa. Um espécime de cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous) de vida livre, macho, com 45 dias de vida foi capturado e encaminhado aos Serviços de Medicina de Animais Selvagens e de Oftalmologia do Hospital Veterinário "Governador Laudo Natel" da Universidade Estadual Paulista ­ Unesp, Câmpus Jaboticabal-SP, Brasil, onde recebeu atendimento primário ambulatorial. O paciente apresentava-se em bom estado geral, sem alterações hematológicas e sorológicas, e não havia sinais de déficit visual. A oftalmoscopia binocular indireta mostrou alterações retinianas no olho esquerdo, distribuídas na área tapetal na forma de pregas e de rosetas de coloração acinzentada. Nas áreas acometidas, a reflectividade tapetal estava reduzida. Não foram observadas outras alterações oftálmicas. Trata-se do primeiro relato de literatura sobre displasia retiniana em cachorrodo-mato (Cerdocyon thous).(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Displasia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Displasia Retiniana/veterinária , Oftalmoscopia/veterinária , Retina/patologia
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(6): 1589-1598, nov.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-768161

RESUMO

Sildenafil citrate is a type-5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE-5), able to inhibit type-6 phosphodiesterase (PDE-6) as well, providing clinical benefits and paraeffects, some of them potentially related to the retina. The effects of the sildenafil on the retrobulbar and retinal circulation were studied in 27 adult male rabbits of the White New Zealand breed. The electric activity of the retina was evaluated before and at the end of the treatments, and immunohistochemistry studies were conducted. An amplitude increase of the b wave was found in the mixed response of cones and rods after 7 days of treatment with sildenafil citrate. However, in the other evaluations and periods, the values did not differ from the basal ones. Through immunohistochemistry, no significant decrease of the expression of PDE-5 and PDE-6 proteins was observed. Based on the results obtained, it is possible to admit that the sildenafil citrate did not change the expression of PDE-5 and PDE-6, neither the electroretinographic activity of the retina of male rabbits of the White New Zealand breed.


O citrato de sildenafil é um inibidor da fosfodiesterase do tipo 5 (PDE-5), capaz de inibir também a fosfodiesterase do tipo 6 (PDE-6), proporcionando benefícios clínicos e paraefeitos, alguns deles potencialmente relacionados à retina. Foram estudados efeitos do sildenafil sobre a circulação retrobulbar e a retiniana em 27 coelhos machos adultos, da raça Nova Zelândia Branco. Avaliou-se a atividade elétrica da retina antes e ao término dos tratamentos e realizaram-se estudos à imunoistoquímica. Encontrou-se aumento da amplitude da onda b na resposta mista de cones e de bastonetes, após 7 dias de tratamento com citrato de sildenafil. Entretanto, nas demais avaliações e períodos, os valores não divergiram dos basais. Pela imunoistoquímica, não se observou diminuição significativa da expressão das proteínas PDE-5 e PDE-6. Com base nos resultados obtidos, é possível admitir que o citrato de sildenafil não alterou a expressão de PDE-5 e PDE-6, tampouco, a atividade eletrorretinográfica da retina de coelhos machos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Citrato de Sildenafila/efeitos adversos , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Eletrorretinografia/veterinária , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária
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