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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 535-541, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888779

RESUMO

Abstract Golden trumpet, Tabebuia chrysotricha, is a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest, with a broad latitudinal distribution. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of short-term changes in micro-weather conditions on structural features, and total protein and carbohydrate content of golden trumpet leaves, using structural and histochemical approaches. Leaves were harvested in four different micro-weather conditions: 1. Afternoon, after a hot, sunny day; 2. at dawn, after a previously hot, sunny day; 3. at noon, of a hot, sunny day; and 4. at noon, of a cold, cloudy day. Leaflets exposed to low light irradiance showed flattened chloroplasts, uniformly distributed within the cells, throughout the palisade parenchyma. Conversely, leaflets exposed to high light irradiance presented flattened and rounded chloroplasts, in the upper and lower palisade parenchyma cells, respectively. The strongest protein staining was found for leaves harvested at the coldest period, whereas the weakest protein staining was found for leaves harvested after a hot, sunny day. The largest and most numerous starch grains were found for leaves harvested in the afternoon, after a hot, sunny day. Conversely, the smallest and less numerous starch grains were found for leaves harvested at dawn. Analysis of the data reported herein suggests that the leaflet responses to transient changes in micro-weather conditions are likely to contribute to the golden trumpet successful establishment in the broad latitudinal distribution in which the species is found.


Resumo Ipê amarelo é uma árvore nativa da floresta Atlântica brasileira, encontrada em uma ampla distribuição latitudinal. Neste estudo, nós investigamos os efeitos potenciais de alterações de curto prazo nas condições micro-climáticas sobre características estruturais, proteína e carboidratos histoquimicamente marcados, de folhas de ipê amarelo, usando estratégias de análise estrutural e histoquímicas. As folhas foram marcadas em quatro condições microclimáticas distintas: 1. Tarde, após um dia quente e ensolarado; 2. Amanhecer, após um dia quente e ensolarado; 3. Ao meio-dia, de um dia quente e ensolarado; e 4. Ao meio-dia, de um dia frio e nublado. Folíolos expostos à baixa irradiância luminosa apresentaram cloroplastos achatados, uniformemente distribuídos no interior das células, por todo o parênquima paliçádico, enquanto que folíolos expostos à alta irradiância apresentaram cloroplastos achatados e arredondados, nas células superiores e inferiores do parênquima paliçádico, respectivamente. A marcação mais intensa para proteína foi observada para folhas coletadas no momento mais frio de coleta, enquanto que a marcação mais fraca foi observada para folhas coletadas após um dia quente e ensolarado. Os grãos de amido maiores e mais numerosos foram observados em folhas coletadas durante a tarde de dia quente e ensolarado, enquanto que os menores e menos numerosos grãos de amido foram observados em folhas coletadas ao amanhecer.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Tabebuia/anatomia & histologia , Tabebuia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Brasil , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Floresta Úmida , Microclima
2.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(spe): 205-213, 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-648549

RESUMO

Foeniculum vulgare Mill., pertencente à família Apiacea, é conhecida como erva-doce e apresenta grande importância medicinal e comercial, tanto no Brasil como em vários outros países. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa, estudar o desenvolvimento dos estômatos em plântulas de F. vulgare oriundas de sementes produzidas em sistemas de consórcio erva-doce X algodão e com aplicação do inseticida monocrotofós. A erva-doce foi cultivada em consórcio com algodão colorido cultivar BRS Safira, sendo utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: 1A2E, uma fileira de algodão e duas de erva-doce; 2A1E, duas fileiras de algodão e uma de erva-doce; ES, erva-doce solteira; onde foram distribuídos com e sem aplicação de inseticida, totalizando seis tratamentos. As sementes colhidas foram semeadas em areia e mantidas em casa de vegetação por 25 dias. Partes das plântulas (zona de transição, caule, cotilédones e folhas) foram seccionadas à mão livre, coradas e montadas em lâminas com glicerina para observação em microscópio. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: número de estômatos, diâmetro polar e equatorial dos estômatos e número de cloroplastos nas células-guarda. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 3X2; sendo realizado teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Na zona de transição e no caule observou-se aumento do número e do diâmetro polar dos estômatos quando foram utilizados sistemas de consórcio. Nos cotilédones, a erva-doce solteira proporcionou maior número de estômatos, porém com menor diâmetro e com menor quantidade de cloroplastos. Já na folha, os consórcios influenciaram positivamente o número de estômatos e de cloroplastos. De forma geral, os sistemas de consórcio e o inseticida influenciaram positivamente o desenvolvimento dos estômatos das plântulas de erva-doce.


Foeniculum vulgare Mill., belonging to the family Apiaceae, is known as fennel and has great medicinal and commercial importance, both in Brazil and in several other countries. The objective of this research was to study the development of stomata of F. vulgare seedlings grown from seeds produced in intercropping systems fennel and cotton, with application of insecticide monocrotophos. The fennel was grown in association with colored cotton BRS Safira, with the following treatments: 1A2E, one rows of cotton and two fennel; 2A1E, two rows of cotton and one fennel; ES, fennel single; were distributed with and without application of insecticide, total six treatments. The seeds were sown in sand and kept in a greenhouse for 25 days. Parts of seedlings (transition zone, stem, cotyledons and leaves) were cut freehand, stained and mounted on slides with glycerol for observation under microscope. Were evaluated the following characteristics: stomata number, polar and equatorial diameter of the stomata and chloroplasts number in guard cells. The data were analyzed in completely randomized and distributed in factorial 3x2, being conducted Tukey test at 5% probability. The transition zone and stem showed an increase of the stomata number and polar diameter the when consortium systems were used. In cotyledons, fennel single provided the highest stomata number, but with smaller diameter and fewer chloroplasts. In leaf, the consortia have positively influenced the stomata and chloroplasts number. In general, the intercropping systems and insecticide positively influenced the development of stomata in fennel plants.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Pimpinella/classificação , Estômatos de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula , Cloroplastos , Análise Fatorial , Germinação/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia
3.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(4): 467-474, 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-611451

RESUMO

Objetivou-se, com a realização da pesquisa, avaliar modificações fisiológicas e anatômicas em plantas de melissa, cultivadas sob malhas termorrefletoras (Aluminet®), em diferentes níveis de sombreamento, visando conhecer a plasticidade fenotípica em resposta de adaptação a diferentes quantidades de luz. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por plantas submetidas a pleno sol e a 20 e 60 por cento de intensidade luminosa, e arranjados conforme o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC). As quantificações de clorofila foram feitas em quatro repetições, as medições das epidermes e parênquimas foram repetidas 15 vezes e utilizou-se 10 repetições para as avaliações das características de cloroplastos e grãos de amido destes. Plantas submetidas a 20 por cento de intensidade luminosa apresentaram maior quantidade de clorofila a e, portanto, maior razão clorofila a/b. Comparativamente, as folhas de melissa a pleno sol e a 60 por cento de luz apresentaram células da epiderme adaxial mais espessas, mas as células da epiderme abaxial mostraram características encontradas em folhas de sombra, ou seja, mais finas. Quanto maior a intensidade luminosa, maior o número de cloroplastos, porém, a pleno sol mostraram-se mais finos e com menor área. Os grãos de amido de plantas cultivadas sob ambientes sombreados tiveram maior área e ocuparam maior parte nos cloroplastos de plantas a 60 por cento de intensidade luminosa. Assim, plantas de melissa, quando submetidas ao sombreamento, tiveram plasticidade fenotípica.


The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological and anatomical modifications in lemon balm plants, cultivated under thermo-reflector nets (Aluminet®) at different levels of shading, in order to understand the phenotypic plasticity in adaptation response to different light quantities. The treatments were characterized by plants subjected to full sun and 20 and 60 percent of luminous intensity, and arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). The quantifications of chlorophylls were done in four replicates, the measurements of epidermis and parenchymas were repeated 15 times and 10 replicates were used to evaluate characteristics of chloroplasts and their starch grains. Plants subjected to 20 percent of luminous intensity showed higher quantity of chlorophyll a and, therefore, higher chlorophyll a/b ratio. Lemon balm leaves under full sun and 60 percent of light showed thicker adaxial epidermis cells, but the abaxial epidermis cells showed characteristics found in shaded leaves, i.e., they were slender. The higher the light intensity, the larger the number of chloroplasts; however, under full sun, they were slender and had smaller area. The starch grains of leaves grown under shaded environments showed larger area and, at 60 percent of luminous intensity, occupied the largest part of chloroplasts. Thus, lemon balm plants, subjected to shading conditions, showed phenotypic plasticity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Adaptação à Escuridão/fisiologia , Adaptação à Escuridão/genética , Melissa/análise , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Brasil , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/química , Epiderme Vegetal/anatomia & histologia , Epiderme Vegetal/fisiologia , Epiderme Vegetal/genética
4.
Biol. Res ; 43(1): 99-111, 2010. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-548034

RESUMO

The basic body plan of a plant is established early in embryogenesis when cells differentiate, giving rise to the apical and basal regions of the embryo. Using chlorophyll fluorescence as a marker for chloroplasts, we have detected specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells at specific stages of embryogenesis. Non-randomly distributed chloroplast-containing cells are seen as early as the globular stage of embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. In the heart stage of embryogenesis, chloroplast containing cells are detected in epidermal cells as well as a central region of the heart stage embryo, forming a triangular septum of chloroplast-containing cells that divides the embryo into three equal sectors. Torpedo stage embryos have chloroplast-containing epidermal cells and a central band of chloroplast-containing cells in the cortex layer, just below the shoot apical meristem. In the walking-stick stage of embryogenesis, chloroplasts are present in the epidermal, cortex and endodermal cells. The chloroplasts appear reduced or absent from the provascular and columella cells of walking-stick stage embryos. These results suggest that there is a tight regulation of plastid differentiation during embryogenesis that generates specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells in specific cell layers at specific stages of embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/embriologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Arabidopsis/ultraestrutura , Fluorescência , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(11): 1435-1444, Nov. 2006. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-437826

RESUMO

Evidence based on immunological cross-reactivity and anti-diabetic properties has suggested the presence of insulin-like peptides in plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of insulin-like proteins in the leaves of Bauhinia variegata ("pata-de-vaca", "mororó"), a plant widely utilized in popular medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. We show that an insulin-like protein was present in the leaves of this plant. A chloroplast protein with a molecular mass similar to that of bovine insulin was extracted from 2-mm thick 15 percent SDS-PAGE gels and fractionated with a 2 x 24 cm Sephadex G-50 column. The activity of this insulin-like protein (0.48 mg/mL) on serum glucose levels of four-week-old Swiss albino (CF1) diabetic mice was similar to that of commercial swine insulin used as control. Further characterization of this molecule by reverse-phase hydrophobic HPLC chromatographic analysis as well as its antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced mice showed that it has insulin-like properties. Immunolocalization of the insulin-like protein in the leaves of B. variegata was performed by transmission electron microscopy using a polyclonal anti-insulin human antibody. Localization in the leaf blades revealed that the insulin-like protein is present mainly in chloroplasts where it is also found associated with crystals which may be calcium oxalate. The presence of an insulin-like protein in chloroplasts may indicate its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. This finding has strengthened our previous results and suggests that insulin-signaling pathways have been conserved through evolution.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Camundongos , Bauhinia/química , Cloroplastos/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Bauhinia/citologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/uso terapêutico , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Folhas de Planta/citologia
6.
Biocell ; 27(2): 181-187, Aug. 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-384245

RESUMO

The present study analyzed several characters of the red seaweed Gymnogongrus torulosus, such as cellular structure of the thallus, cuticle, pit plug and cell wall ultrastructure, and morphology of some organelles like plastids, Golgi bodies and mitochondria. Also, anomalous chloroplasts with thylakoid disorganization were found in medullary cells. The significance of this thylakoid disposition is still unclear. This is one of the first studies focused on the fine structure of a red alga recorded in Argentina.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha/ultraestrutura , Rodófitas/ultraestrutura , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Alga Marinha/fisiologia , Rodófitas/fisiologia , Complexo de Golgi/fisiologia , Complexo de Golgi/ultraestrutura , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Organelas/fisiologia , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Plastídeos/fisiologia , Plastídeos/ultraestrutura , Tilacoides/fisiologia , Tilacoides/ultraestrutura
7.
Interciencia ; 28(3): 141-147, mar. 2003. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-344154

RESUMO

Se revisaron, sintetizaron y compararon aspectos de la evolución de los genomas en las angioespermas. Las plantas con flores tres genomas: el del cloroplasto, el de la mitocondria y el nuclear. El genoma del cloroplasto tiene una estructura muy conservada (120-217kb) que incluye 110-113 genes. El genoma de la mitocondria es mayor (300-600kb) y contiene cerca de 60 genes, es un genoma muy dinámico ya que gana y pierde fácilmente secuencias nucleares y del cloroplasto. Los genomas nucleares de las angioespermas se encuentran entre los más grandes conocidos. El genoma nuclear de Arabidopsis thailiana tiene 125Mb que comprenden 25498 genes. Del arroz (oryza sativa) se han secuenciado dos variedades y su genoma es casi 4 veces más grande que el de A. thaliana y comprenden de 32000 a 55615 genes. Para el maíz (Zea mays), aunque no secuenciado, se tiene mucha información y se estima que 60 a 80 por ciento de su genoma nuclear está constituido por elementos móviles. Las substituciones sinónimas de los genes de cloroplasto son de 2 a 3 veces más rápidas que en las mitocondrias, y los genes nucleares cambian de 10 a 15 veces más rápido que los mitocondriales. Sin embargo, las tasas de substitución de los sitios no sinónimos son similares entre mitocondria y cloroplasto, y son un poco más altas en el núcleo. Los estudios detallados de estos tres genomas permiten avanzar en el entendimiento de las complejidades genéticas y evolutivas de este grupo de plantas


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Arabidopsis , Cloroplastos , Evolução Molecular , Genoma , Mitocôndrias , Oryza
8.
Genet. mol. biol ; 24(1/4): 183-190, 2001. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-313889

RESUMO

A phylogenetic analysis of plant FtsH-like proteins was performed using protein sequences from the GENEBANK database and five groups of plant FtsH-like proteins were identified by neighbor-joining analysis. Prediction of the subcellular location of the proteins suggested that two (FtsH-m1 & FtsH-m2) were mitochondrial and three (FtsH-p1, FtsH-p2, FtsH-p3) were plastid targeting. The phylogenetic profile of plant FtsH-like proteins was used to search sugarcane expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters in the SUCEST database. Initially, 153 clusters presenting homology with FtsH-like proteins were recovered, of which 23 were confirmed by a BLAST search in the GENEBANK database and by comparison of their hidropathy index with that of previously described FtsH-like proteins. Sugarcane presented EST clusters in all phylogenetic groups. In silico expression analysis showed that the groups are differentially expressed in sugarcane tissues, with FtsH-p2 and FtsH-m1 presenting increased levels of expression.


Assuntos
Humanos , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Mitocôndrias , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cloroplastos , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Plantas
9.
Biocell ; 24(3): 239-246, Dec. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-335893

RESUMO

Anther culture of O. hookeri on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with 2 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2 mg-1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid produced callus formation. When subcultured onto medium lacking auxin, the callus regenerated through the organogenic pathway. Non-organogenic and organogenic callus was observed using histological methods after 2, 3 and 24 weeks in culture. Three types of calli were recognized: non-organogenic friable calli, organogenic friable calli with roots and organogenic hard calli with shoots. The microscopical sections showed striking differences in tissue organization among friable and compact calli. Vascular bundles were prominent in compact calli, but were not found in friable calli. Calli sections showed at light microscopy cells at two developmental stages; differentiated highly vacuolated cells and meristematic small isodiametric cells with densely stained cytoplasm. At electron microscopy level abnormal chloroplasts were present in non-organogenic calli, while chloroplasts were well developed in organogenic hard calli. Peroxisomes with paracrystalline protein bodies were abundant in both types of calli.


Assuntos
Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais , Sementes , /farmacologia , Ácidos Naftalenoacéticos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas/ultraestrutura , Cloroplastos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/fisiologia , Sementes
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 29(1): 111-7, Jan. 1996. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-161661

RESUMO

Gonyaulax polyedra is a unicellular marine photosynthetic dinoflagellate known to display numerous circadian rhythms, including bioluminescence, motility, cell division and several chloroplast-related rhythms. Due to this, Gonyaulax has become a widely used model organism for studying the cellular biological clock. In this work we describe another rhythm for Gonyaulax cells also associated with the cell's chloroplasts, a rhythm in localization of the enzyme nitrate reductase (NR). A polyclonal antibody was raised against NR purified from G. polyedra cells and used as a probe in immunogold labelling experiments on cell thin sections, comparing day- and night-phase cells. The enzyme localizes to chloroplasts in day-phase cells, while the enzyme is active, and is largely absent in night-phase cells. Counts of gold particle distribution in day- versus night-phase cells show an approximate three-fold increase in enzyme labelling in day-phase plastids. These results closely approximate the four-fold differences shown for NR activity between day and night Gonyaulax cells by biochemical studies. We conclude from the diurnal difference in labelling that NR is localized in Gonyaulax chloroplasts during the day phase and is absent (broken down) in night-phase cells. Thus NR in Gonyaulax is compartmentalized in the chloroplasts and is therefore subject to similar circadian control mechanisms exhibited for other plastid rhythms.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/enzimologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Nitrato Redutases/metabolismo , Relógios Biológicos , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica
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