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1.
Actual. osteol ; 15(1): 34-43, ene. abr. 2019. ilus.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049002

RESUMO

La brucelosis es una de las enfermedades zoonóticas más importantes a nivel mundial capaz de producir enfermedad crónica en los seres humanos. La localización osteoarticular es la presentación más común de la enfermedad activa en el hombre. Sin embargo, algunos de los mecanismos moleculares implicados en la enfermedad osteoarticular han comenzado a dilucidarse recientemente. Brucella abortus induce daño óseo a través de diversos mecanismos en los cuales están implicados TNF-α y RANKL. En estos procesos participan células inflamatorias que incluyen monocitos/macrófagos, neutrófilos, linfocitos T del tipo Th17 y linfocitos B. Además, B. abortus puede afectar directamente las células osteoarticulares. La bacteria inhibe la deposición de la matriz ósea por los osteoblastos y modifica el fenotipo de estas células para producir metaloproteinasas de matriz (MMPs) y la secreción de citoquinas que contribuyen a la degradación del hueso. Por otro lado, la infección por B. abortus induce un aumento en la osteoclastogénesis, lo que aumenta la resorción de la matriz ósea orgánica y mineral y contribuye al daño óseo. Dado que la patología inducida por Brucella afecta el tejido articular, se estudió el efecto de la infección sobre los sinoviocitos. Estos estudios revelaron que, además de inducir la activación de estas células para secretar quemoquinas, citoquinas proinflamatorias y MMPs, la infección inhibe la muerte por apoptosis de los sinoviocitos. Brucella es una bacteria intracelular que se replica en el retículo endoplásmico de los macrófagos. El análisis de los sinoviocitos infectados con B. abortus indicó que las bacterias también se multiplican en el retículo endoplasmático, lo que sugiere que la bacteria podría usar este tipo celular para la multiplicación intracelular durante la localización osteoarticular de la enfermedad. Los hallazgos presentados en esta revisión intentan responder a preguntas sobre los mediadores inflamatorios implicados en el daño osteoarticular causado por Brucella. (AU)


Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases that can produce chronic disease in humans worldwide. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common presentation of human active disease. The molecular mechanisms implicated in bone damage have started to be elucidated. B. abortus induces bone damage through diverse mechanisms in which TNF-α and RANKL are implicated. These processes are driven by inflammatory cells, including monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, Th17 lymphocytes and B cells. Also, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) can directly affect osteoarticular cells. The bacterium inhibits bone matrix deposition by osteoblast and modifies the phenotype of these cells to produce matrix methalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokine secretion that contribute to bone matrix degradation. B. abortus also affects osteoclast increasing mineral and organic bone matrix resorption and contributing to bone damage. Since the pathology induced by Brucella species involves joint tissue, experiments conducted in sinoviocytes revealed that besides inducing the activation of these cells to secrete chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines and MMPS, the infection also inhibits sinoviocyte apoptosis. Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that replicate in the endoplasmic reticulum of macrophages. The analysis of B. abortus infected sinoviocytes indicated that bacteria also replicate in their reticulum suggesting that the bacterium could use this cell type for intracellular replication during the osteoarticular localization of the disease. The findings presented in this review try to answer key questions about the inflammatory mediators involved in osteoarticular damage caused by Brucella. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Osteoartrite/patologia , Brucella abortus/patogenicidade , Brucelose/patologia , Osteoartrite/imunologia , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteócitos/microbiologia , Osteogênese/imunologia , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucelose/etiologia , Brucelose/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Citocinas/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos adversos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/síntese química , Ligante RANK/efeitos adversos , Células Th17/patologia , Sinoviócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900408, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001086

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate histologically and immunohistochemically the bone regeneration after application of simvastatin on tibial bone defects in rats. Methods: Sixty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as control (6 mm tibial bone defect), defect + graft (allograft treatment), and defect + graft + simvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Results: Histopathological examination revealed inflammation in control group (defect group), congestion in blood vessels, and an increase in osteoclast cells. In defect + graft group, osteoclastic activity was observed and osteocyte cells were continued to develop. In defect + graft + simvastatin group, osteocytes and matrix formation were increased in the new bone trabeculae. Osteopontin and osteonectin expression were positive in the osteclast cells in the control group. Osteoblasts and some osteocytes showed a positive reaction of osteopontin and osteopontin. In defect + graft + simvastatin group, osteonectin and osteopontin expression were positive in osteoblast and osteocyte cells, and a positive expression in osteon formation was also seen in new bone trabeculae. Conclusion: The simvastatin application was thought to increase bone turnover by increasing the osteoinductive effect with graft and significantly affect the formation of new bone.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Osteoblastos , Osteoclastos , Tíbia/cirurgia , Tíbia/patologia , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Autoenxertos
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(2): e201900210, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989058

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To analyze aspects of the biomodulating effect of light in biological tissues, bone cells from surgical explants of the femur of rats were irradiated with low intensity laser. Methods: Bone cells were cultured and irradiated with LASER light (GaAlAs). Growth, cell viability, mineralized matrix formation, total protein dosage, immunostimulatory properties, cytochemical analysis, gene expression of bone proteins were examined using live cell imaging and cell counting by colorimetric assay. The gene expression of: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type 1 collagen, osteocalcin and osteopontin through the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: At 8 days, the viability of the irradiated culture was 82.3% and 72.4% in non-irradiated cells. At 18 days, the cellular viability (with laser) was 77.42% and 47.62% without laser. At 8 days, the total protein concentration was 21.622 mg / mol in the irradiated group and 16, 604 mg / mol in the non-irradiated group and at 18 days the concentration was 37.25 mg / mol in the irradiated group and 24, 95 mg / mol in the non-irradiated group. Conclusion: The laser interfered in the histochemical reaction, cell viability, matrix mineralization, and maintained the cellular expression of proteins


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Osteoblastos/efeitos da radiação , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Células Cultivadas , Ratos Wistar , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação
5.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2019. 130 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1016561

RESUMO

Os objetivos deste trabalho foram 1) avaliar o impacto da terapia anticoagulante oral no sangramento associado à exodontias durante os períodos intraoperatório e pósoperatório; 2) investigar os efeitos do etexilato de dabigatrana, um inibidor direto da trombina, sobre as células ósseas. Para atender o objetivo 1, foram recrutados indivíduos em uso de anticoagulantes orais do tipo antagonista de vitamina K (AVK) e alvo-específico (DOAC, do inglês direct oral anticoagulant) e indivíduos sem terapia anticoagulante com indicação de exodontia. As exodontias foram realizadas sem a suspensão da terapia anticoagulante e parâmetros associados a desfechos hemorrágicos foram avaliados. A avaliação quantitativa do sangramento intraoperatório foi realizada por meio da mensuração do volume e análise dos fluidos aspirados durante o procedimento e normalizada por um escore. Obtivemos como resultados que as complicações hemorrágicas pós-operatórias bem como o escore de sangramento intraoperatório foi similar entre os grupos, sendo que nenhum evento hemorrágico foi observado no grupo DOAC. A história prévia de complicações hemorrágicas em procedimentos odontológicos (p=0,001) e uso de medidas hemostáticas locais (p=0,017) foram estatisticamente maiores no grupo AVK. Para atender o objetivo 2, experimentos foram conduzidos a partir de modelo in vitro, no qual o efeito da terapia anticoagulante foi avaliado diretamente sobre as células ósseas e em modelo animal ex-vivo. Neste modelo ex-vivo, células de animais previamente tratados com etexilato de dabigatrana foram diferenciadas em osteoclastos. Culturas primárias de células-tronco de camundongos e ratos foram diferenciadas em osteoclastos e osteoblastos e tratadas com o fármaco disponível comercialmente, etexilato de dabigatrana (Pradaxa® 1-6 µg/mL) bem como seu princípio ativo, dabigatrana (0,1, 0,3, 3 e 6 µg/mL). Células não expostas aos medicamentos foram utilizadas como controle. A diferenciação de osteoclastos foi inibida pelo tratamento em ambos os modelos, in vitro e ex-vivo. Paralelamente, observou-se a redução da expressão gênica e proteica do marcador Catepsina K e da atividade reabsortiva destas células. Nas culturas de osteoblastos, o tratamento inibiu a expressão gênica dos marcadores fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e osteocalcina, reduziu a atividade in situ de ALP e a deposição de matriz extracelular, indicando um efeito negativo na diferenciação dos osteoblastos. Concluiu-se que o uso de anticoagulantes orais não aumentou a ocorrência de desfechos hemorrágicos na população estudada, o que reforça a manutenção da terapia para a realização de exodontias. O tratamento sobre culturas celulares utilizando etexilato de dabigatrana impactou negativamente a diferenciação e atividade de osteoclastos e osteoblastos.(AU)


The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the impact of oral anticoagulant therapy on the pattern of intraoperative and postoperative bleeding in dental surgery; 2) to investigate the effects of dabigatran etexilate, a direct thrombin inhibitor, on bone cells. To fulfill objective 1, individuals undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) and individuals without anticoagulant therapy, who had indication of dental extraction were included. Dental surgery procedures were performed without interruption of anticoagulant therapy and parameters associated with hemorrhagic outcomes were evaluated. Intraoperative bleeding was evaluated by means of the measurement of the total amount of blood collected during the procedure corrected by absorbance reading and normalized by score. The results showed that the occurrence of bleeding events and the intraoperative blood loss were similar among groups and hemorrhagic episodes were not observed amongst the individuals taking DOACs. The previous history of complications in dental procedures (p=0.001) and the use of additional hemostatic measures (p=0.017) were significantly higher in the VKA group. To fulfill objective 2, experiments were conducted by means of an in vitro model in which the direct effect of anticoagulant therapy on bone cells was evaluated. An ex-vivo animal model in which cells of animals previously treated with dabigatran etexilate were differentiated was also carried out into osteoclasts. Primary cultures of mice and rats cells were differentiated into osteoclasts and osteoblasts and treated with dabigatran etexilate solution (Pradaxa® 1-6 µg/mL) and its active principle dabigatran (0.1, 0.3, 3 and 6 µg/mL). Untreated cells were used as controls and the effects of the treatment on cell viability and differentiation were evaluated. Both dabigatran etexilate and its active principle, dabigatran inhibited osteoclast differentiation and activity in vitro and in the ex-vivo model, as demonstrated by the reduction of resorption pits and cathepsin K gene and protein expression. In osteoblast cultures, dabigatran etexilate reduced the in situ alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, matrix mineralization and gene expression of ALP and osteocalcin. These findings indicated osteoblast inhibition. In conclusion, oral anticoagulant therapy did not result in increased bleeding outcomes in this sample, which strengthen the advocacy of the maintenance of the therapy during dental surgery. Dabigatran etexilate treatment impaired the activity and differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Osteoblastos , Cirurgia Bucal , Extração Dentária , Varfarina , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória , Dabigatrana , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900704, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038112

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: The effects of resveratrol administration on calvarial bone defects with alloplastic graft material was investigated for osteoinductive reaction and bone development in rats. Methods: Healthy male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 10 rats. Groups were as follows: control (defect) group, defect + graft group, and defect + graft + resveratrol group. A calvarial bone defect was created in all groups, alloplastic bone grafts were applied to the defect in the 2nd and 3rd group, resveratrol (5 mg/kg/day) was added to the drinking water of the animals following graft application for 28 days in the 3rd group. Results: Increase in osteoclasts and necrotic changes were observed histopathologically in the control group. In the 2nd group, reduction of inflammation, congestion of blood vessels, increased osteblastic activity, osteoinductive effect, progression of osteocyte development and increased collagen fibers in connective tissue were observed. In the 3rd group, osteoblasts seemed to secrete bone matrix and accelerate osteoinductive effect with increased osteopregenitor activity and positive osteopontin and osteonectin expressions. Conclusion: Resveratrol treatment was thought to be an alternative and supportive drug for implant application by inducing new bone formation in the calvaral defect region as a result of short-term treatment.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Crânio/cirurgia , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Substitutos Ósseos/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Crânio/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Osteonectina/administração & dosagem , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Substitutos Ósseos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Osteopontina/administração & dosagem
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 391-394, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954126

RESUMO

Resveratrol in cell culture media increases osteoblastic markers. Also results from previous studies provide evidence for resveratrol positive effects on bone healing and bone production. In this preclinical study we investigated bone healing in rats by resveratrol systemic application. 30 Wistar male rats were divided into two groups (study group and control group). At first, maxillary second molars of rats were extracted. The rats were kept in laboratory for next 28 days. Study group received resveratrol 20 mg/kg by abdominal injection every day. The control group received placebo in the same manner that study group. Rats were sacrificed after 28 days and bone samples were collected from center of maxillary second molar socket. Samples were evaluated histologically for new bone formation, inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis and foreign body reaction. The mean difference of new bone formation in control group (28.30 %) and study group (45 %) were statistically significant (P=0.014). There were no significant differences in inflammation, fibrosis, necrosis and foreign body reaction (P>0.05). Resveratrol has positive effects on bone healing but more evidence needed from more clinical and animal studies.


El resveratrol en los medios de cultivo celular aumenta los marcadores osteoblásticos. Los resultados de estudios anteriores proporcionan evidencia de efectos positivos del resveratrol sobre la curación ósea y la producción ósea. En este estudio preclínico, investigamos la curación ósea en ratas mediante la aplicación sistémica de resveratrol. Se dividieron 30 ratas macho Wistar en dos grupos (estudio y control). Inicialmente se extrajeron los segundos molares maxilares de las ratas y los animales se mantuvieron en el laboratorio durante los siguientes 28 días. El grupo de estudio recibió todos los días resveratrol 20 mg/kg por inyección abdominal . El grupo control recibió placebo de la misma manera que el grupo estudio. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas después de 28 días y se recogieron muestras de hueso del centro del segundo molar maxilar. Las muestras se evaluaron histológicamente para la formación de hueso nuevo, inflamación, necrosis, fibrosis y reacción de cuerpo extraño. La media de formación de hueso nuevo en el grupo control (28,30 %) y en el grupo estudio (45 %) fueron estadísticamente significativas (P=0,014). No hubo diferencias significativas en la inflamación, fibrosis, necrosis y reacción al cuerpo extraño (P>0,05). El resveratrol tiene efectos positivos sobre la curación de los huesos, pero aún es necesario realizar más pruebas de estudios clínicos, como también en animales.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Suplementos Nutricionais
8.
Actual. osteol ; 14(1): 31-35, Ene - Abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116836

RESUMO

Statins are a widely prescribed class of medications that inhibit similar pathways as the anti-resorptive bisphosphonate drugs. Statins target the mevalonate pathway by blocking HMG-CoA reductase. Several recent meta-analyses concluded statins are osteoprotective in the general population. Here we present current literature exploring the mechanisms underlying the putative osteoprotective effects of statins. We also review recent clinical studies, ranging from observational cohort studies to randomized clinical trials, testing the effect of statins on bone health in various populations. (AU)


Las estatinas son un grupo de drogas prescriptas en forma habitual, con la capacidad de bloquear vías de señalización similares a las inhibidas por los amino-bisfosfonatos. Las estatinas inhiben la vía del mevalonato, a través del bloqueo de diferentes enzimas. Varios metaanálisis recientes llevaron a la conclusión de que las estatinas tienen capacidad osteoprotectora en la población general. En esta revisión presentamos la literatura actual describiendo los mecanismos que subyacen en el potencial efecto osteoprotector de las estatinas, como así también estudios observacionales y clínicos aleatorizados sobre el efecto de estatinas en la salud ósea en diversas poblaciones. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camundongos , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Ácido Mevalônico/farmacologia
9.
Bauru; s.n; 2018. 98 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-885097

RESUMO

O osteossarcoma (OS) é o tumor maligno primário mais comum do tecido ósseo, caracterizado pela formação de osteócitos anormais. Apesar do avanço nas terapias convencionais (quimioterapia e retirada do tumor), essas não conseguem eliminar totalmente as células tumorais e impedir a progressão da doença. Recentemente, agentes derivados de fontes naturais ganharam considerável atenção por causa de sua segurança, eficácia e disponibilidade imediata. Nesse sentido, a apocinina, inibidor do complexo NADPH-oxidase, vem sendo estudada como agente antitumoral em alguns tipos de câncer como: pâncreas, próstata, pulmão e mama. Apocinina é um pró-fármaco e sua ação parece estar relacionada à sua conversão produzindo a diapocinina, a qual se mostrou mais efetiva do que a apocinina. Portanto, o objetivo desse estudo é avaliar, in vitro, o potencial antitumoral da apocinina e diapocinina em células de osteossarcoma humano. Para isso, foram utilizados osteoblastos humanos normais (HOb) e osteossarcoma humano imortalizadas (SaOS-2) tratados ou não com apocinina e diapocinina em diversas concentrações. Foram realizados os ensaios de viabilidade celular, alterações morfológicas, apoptose celular, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs), formação de colônias, migração, invasão e expressão do fator indutor de hipóxia-1alfa (HIF-1). Também foram conduzidos ensaios para verificar a atividade de metaloproteinase de matriz (MMP) 2 e 9. Os resultados em SaOS-2 mostraram que o tratamento com apocinina nas concentrações de 1,5 e 3 mM; e diapocinina nas concentrações de 0,75 e 1,5 mM reduziram a viabilidade; aumentaram o número de células em apoptose e diminuíram a produção de EROs; sem causar danos às células HOb. Além disso, essas mesmas concentrações inibiram a migração e invasão celular; diminuíram a expressão de HIF-1; e reduziram a atividade de MMP-2 em SaOS-2. Considerando os resultados obtidos, concluímos que a apocinina e diapocinina podem atuar como possíveis moduladores de células tumorais, sendo que a diapocinina mostrou ser mais efetiva nos parâmetros testados.(AU)


Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone tissue, characterized by the formation of abnormal osteocytes. Despite advances in conventional therapies (chemotherapy and surgery) they cannot completely eliminate tumor cells and prevent the progression of the disease. Recently, agents derived from natural sources have achieved considerable attention because of their safety, efficacy and immediate availability of therapies. In this way, apocynin, an inhibitor of the NADPH-oxidase complex, has been studied as an antitumor agent in some types of cancer, such as pancreas, prostate, lung and breast. Apocynin is a prodrug and its action indicate to be related to its conversion to diapocynin, which has been shown to be more efficient than apocynin itself. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate, in vitro, the antitumor potential of apocynin and diapocynin in human osteosarcoma cells. For this, normal human osteoblasts (HOb) and immortalized human osteosarcoma cells (SaOS-2) were treated or no-treated with apocynin and diapocynin in various concentrations. Cell viability assay, morphological alterations, cellular apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, colony formation, migration, invasion and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1) were performed. We also performed assays to verify the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9. The results in SaOS-2 showed that treatment with apocynin at concentrations of 1,5 e 3 mM; and diapocynin at concentrations of 0,75 e 1,5 mM reduced cell viability; increased the number of cells in apoptosis and decreased the production of ROS; without damaging HOb cells. Moreover, these same concentrations inhibited cell migration and invasion; decreased HIF-1 expression; and reduced MMP 2 activity in SaOS-2. Considering the results, we suggest that apocynin and diapocynin may act as possible modulators of tumor cells, and diapocynin has been shown to be more effective.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17567, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974397

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of geraniin on osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand(OPG/RANKL) in regulating the proliferation of osteoblasts and suppression of osteoclast-like cells (OLC) in OLC-osteoblast co-cultured system in vitro were investigated. Osteoblasts were cultured and identified with alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gomori stain, and mineralized nodule stain. OLCs were isolated from long bones of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and identified with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRAP) stain. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was used to examine the proliferation of osteoblasts, and immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization to analyze the expression OPG/RANKL in osteoblasts co-cultured with osteoclasts under the action of geraniin, respectively. Geraniin could regulate the proliferation of osteoblasts MC3T3-E1, decrease the number of OLC in OLC-osteoblast co-cultured system, and inhibit the bone resorption areas and resorption pits of OLC in vitro experiments. Geraniin could promote the mRNA and protein expression levels of OPG and suppress those of RANKL in osteoblasts. These results indicate that geraniin has a promoting effect on the proliferation of osteoblasts and an inhibitory effect on the osteoclastic bone-resorption through regulating OPG/RANKL signaling pathway in OLC-OB co-cultured system.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Ligante RANK/classificação , Osteoprotegerina/efeitos adversos , Osteoblastos , Phyllanthus/classificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2833-2841, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886830

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Evaluate the effect of the extract of Ginkgo biloba in the bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density, in the mechanical properties of the tibia in rats with glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis. After osteoporosis induction, the rats were divided into five groups: Osteoporosis; EGb1 (28 mg/Kg); EGb2 (56 mg/Kg); alendronate (0.2 mg/animal) and control. The animals were treated during 20 and 30 days. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis's (Student's t-test), while the other were analyzed by ANOVA test followed by Tukey/Dunnett'T3 (p<0.05). In the osteoporosis group the bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density, the bone stiffness, the maximum load and the resilience were reduced. The bone alkaline phosphatase values increased in the EGb1 and EGb2 groups (30 days). In addition, in the EGb2 and alendronate groups (20 and 30 days) the bone mineral density increased. The extract of Ginkgo biloba restored bone alkaline phosphatase and bone mineral density using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Tíbia , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides
12.
Actual. osteol ; 13(3): 207-213, Sept - DIc. 2017. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117111

RESUMO

Osteocytes are the most abundant bone cell and are formed when osteoblasts become embedded in the bone matrix. Through changes in gene expression and paracrine effects, osteocytes regulate the number of osteoblasts, bone forming cells, and osteoclasts, bone resorbing cells, which are needed to maintain bone mass. MLO-Y4 is the better characterized osteocytic cell line; however, lacks expression of sclerostin, the product of the SOST gene, which is fundamental for osteocyte function and blocks bone formation. With the objective to isolate MLO-Y4 clones with different gene expression profiles, we performed cultures at very low density of MLO-Y4 cells stably transfected with nuclear green fluorescent protein (MLOnGFP). Cell morphology was visualized under a fluorescence microscope. Once the cells reached 80% confluency, RNA was extracted and quantitative real time PCR was performed. Clones exhibit different sizes and morphology, with some cells showing a spindle-like shape and others with abundant projections and a star-like shape. Gene expression also differed among clones. However, none of the clones examined expressed SOST. We conclude that the MLO-nGFP clones constitute a useful tool to study osteocyte differentiation and the role of osteocytes in the control of bone formation and resorption in vitro. (AU)


Los osteocitos son las células más abundantes del hueso y se forman cuando los osteoblastos se encuentran rodeados de matriz ósea. A través de cambios en la expresión génica y efectos paracrinos, los osteocitos controlan el número de osteoblastos que forman el hueso, y osteoclastos que resorben el hueso, células necesarias para mantener la masa ósea. Las células MLO-Y4 son la línea celular osteocítica más investigada; sin embargo, no expresan esclerostina, el pro esclerostina, el producto del gen SOST que bloquea la formación ósea y es indispensable para la función de los osteocitos. Con el objetivo de aislar clones de las células MLO-Y4 con diferentes perfiles de expresión génica, realizamos cultivos a muy baja densidad de las células transfectadas en forma estable con proteína verde fluorescente nuclear (MLO-nGFP). La morfología celular fue evaluada utilizando un microscopio de fluorescencia. Una vez que las células alcanzaron el 80% de confluencia, el ARN fue extraído y analizado por PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real. Las células de los diferentes clones tienen diferentes tamaños y morfología, algunas células son fusiformes y otras con proyecciones citoplasmáticas abundantes y en forma de estrella. La expresión de los genes también varió en los distintos clones. Sin embargo, ninguno de ellos expresó SOST. En conclusión, los clones de las células MLO-nGFP constituyen una herramienta útil para estudiar la diferenciación de los osteocitos y el rol de estas células en el control de la formación y resorción ósea in vitro. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteócitos/citologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Clonais/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Reabsorção Óssea/genética , Técnicas In Vitro , RNA/análise , Expressão Gênica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Colágeno/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem
13.
Actual. osteol ; 13(3): 225-232, Sept - DIc. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117386

RESUMO

El esqueleto es uno de los sistemas más grandes de un vertebrado y, como tal, es razonable especular que no puede funcionar aislado del resto del organismo. De hecho, sabemos que existen sistemas complejos de regulación cruzada entre el esqueleto y muchos otros órganos. Hoy poseemos herramientas que nos permiten realizar supresión genética en células o tejidos específicos. Esto nos ha permitido comprender cómo los órganos se comunican entre sí y ha revitalizado el concepto de fisiología del organismo como un todo. Efectivamente, los últimos años han sido testigos del descubrimiento de funciones inesperadas que ejerce el esqueleto y que afectan al organismo en su totalidad. Una de tales funciones reconocidas recientemente es el control del metabolismo energético, a través de la secreción de osteocalcina. La osteocalcina es una hormona producida por los osteoblastos que regula la secreción de insulina, la sensibilidad a esta hormona y el metabolismo energético. Los hallazgos iniciales suscitaron varias preguntas fundamentales sobre la naturaleza de la acción de la insulina sobre el hueso. Pero esto solo fue la punta del iceberg. Efectivamente, más adelante se descubrió, mediante el análisis de ratones que carecen del receptor de insulina (Ins R) solamente en osteoblastos, que la acción de la insulina sobre estas células favorecía la homeostasis de la glucosa en todo el cuerpo. Es importante destacar que esta función de la insulina en los osteoblastos opera mediante la regulación negativa de la carboxilación y la biodisponibilidad de la osteocalcina. Más aún, se observó que las vías de señalización de la insulina en los osteoblastos regulan positivamente no solo la formación sino también la resorción del hueso. Curiosamente, parece que las vías de señalización de la insulina en osteoblastos pueden inducir la activación de la osteocalcina mediante la estimulación de la actividad de los osteoclastos. De hecho, el bajo pH generado durante la resorción ósea es suficiente para desencadenar la descarboxilación (y subsiguiente activación) de la osteocalcina. En breve discutiremos dos nuevas proposiciones: 1) los osteoblastos son un blanco utilizado por la insulina para controlar la homeostasis de la glucosa en todo el organismo y 2) la resorción ósea desempeña un papel fundamental en la regulación de la activación de la osteocalcina. (AU)


The skeleton is one of the biggest systems in a vertebrate animal and, as such, it is reasonable to speculate that it cannot function isolated from the rest of the organism. In fact, we know that complex systems exist for the cross-regulation between the skeleton and several other organs. Today, we have the tools that allow us to perform genetic suppression in specific cells or tissues. This has allow us understand the mechanisms by which the organs communicate with each other and has revitalized the concept of organismal physiology as a whole. Studies conducted in recent years have uncovered unexpected functions performed by the skeleton. One of these is the control of global energy metabolism, through the secretion of osteocalcin, a protein produced by osteoblasts that acts as a hormone regulating insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure. The evidence comes from the analysis of mice lacking insulin receptor (InsR) exclusively in osteoblasts. These mice have a global metabolic phenotype demonstrating that the action of insulin in osteoblasts promotes the homeostasis of glucose throughout the body. This action of insulin in osteoblasts is mediated by the negative regulation of the carboxylation (and bioavailability) of osteocalcin. The decarboxylation (and activation) of osteocalcin, in turn, occurs in the osteoclastic resorption pit. Briefly: the osteoblast is a target used by insulin to control the homeostasis of glucose throughout the body and bone resorption is the mechanism that regulates the activation of osteocalcin. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Osteocalcina/biossíntese , Metabolismo Energético , Insulina/biossíntese , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Esqueleto/fisiologia , Esqueleto/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Descarboxilação , Secreção de Insulina , Glucose/biossíntese , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(6): 1573-1580, nov.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-910772

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the in vitro effect of prolactin in osteogenic potential of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in female rats. ADSCs were cultured in osteogenic medium with and without the addition of prolactin and distributed into three groups: 1) ADSCs (control), 2) ADSCs with addition of 100ng/mL of prolactin and 3) ADSCs with addition of 300ng/mL of prolactin. At 21 days of differentiation, the tests of MTT conversion into formazan crystals, percentage of mineralized nodules and cells per field and quantification of genic transcript for alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, BMP-2 and collagen I by real-time RT-PCR were made. The addition of prolactin reduced the conversion of MTT in group 3 and increased the percentage of cells per field in the groups 2 and 3, however without significantly increasing the percentage of mineralized nodules and the expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, BMP-2 and collagen I. In conclusion, the addition of prolactin in concentrations of 100ng/mL and 300ng/mL does not change the osteogenic differentiation to the ADSCs of female rats despite increase in the cellularity of the culture.(AU)


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito in vitro da prolactina sobre o potencial osteogênico de células-tronco mesenquimais do tecido adiposo (CTM-TA) em ratas. CTM-TA foram cultivadas em meio osteogênico com e sem adição de prolactina e distribuídas em três grupos: 1) CTM-TA (controle), 2) CM-TA com adição de 100ng/mL de prolactina e 3) CTM-TA com adição de 300ng/mL de prolactina. Aos 21 dias de diferenciação, foram realizados os testes de conversão do MTT em cristais de formazan, porcentagem de nódulos mineralizados e células por campo e quantificação dos transcritos gênicos para fosfatase alcalina, osteopontina, osteocalcina, sialoproteína óssea, BMP-2 e colágeno I. A adição de prolactina reduziu a conversão do MTT no grupo 3 e aumentou a porcentagem de células por campo nos grupos 2 e 3, sem alterar significativamente a porcentagem de nódulos mineralizados e a expressão de fosfatase alcalina, osteopontina, osteocalcina, sialoproteína óssea, BMP-2 e colágeno I. Conclui-se que a adição de prolactina nas concentrações de 100ng/mL e 300ng/mL não altera a diferenciação osteogênica das CTM-TA de ratas, apesar do aumento de celularidade da cultura.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Tecido Adiposo , Osteogênese , Prolactina/análise , Células-Tronco , Osteoblastos
15.
Rev. clín. periodoncia implantol. rehabil. oral (Impr.) ; 10(2): 111-114, ago. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-900289

RESUMO

RESUMEN: Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia de la variación en la presión de oxígeno ambiental sobre la regeneración ósea guiada en cobayos. Material y método: Treinta y dos cobayos machos de 750±50g de peso fueron asignados en 2 grupos de 16 integrantes cada uno (grupo A: trabajado a 150msnm en la ciudad de Lima y a presión de oxígeno de 157mmHg; grupo B: trabajado a 3.230msnm en la ciudad de Jauja y a presión de oxígeno de 107mmHg). En ambos grupos se indujeron defectos óseos mandibulares de 5×6mm a través de un acceso quirúrgico extraoral; a 8 cobayos de cada grupo se les recubrió el defecto con una membrana de colágeno reabsorbible de origen porcino, mas al resto de animales no. Se evaluó el conteo celular de osteoblastos y osteocitos a los 15 y 30 días postoperatoriamente. Resultados: A los 15 y a los 30 días, en los grupos trabajados en altura y en los que se aplicó la membrana, la cantidad de osteoblastos fue 71±12,1 cél/camp y 83±7,2 cél/camp respectivamente, y la de osteocitos fue 34,5±6,6 cél/camp y 25±7,6 respectivamente; siendo estos grupos, en todas las comparaciones, los que tuvieron mayor cantidad de células óseas, aunque sin ser diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05). Conclusión: Se encontró tendencia a formar mayor cantidad de células óseas en las muestras tratadas con regeneración ósea y expuestas a la altitud comparados con el nivel del mar.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the influence of the variation in ambient oxygen pressure on guided bone regeneration in guinea pigs. Material and method: A total of 32 male guinea pigs weighing 750±50g were assigned into two groups of 16 (group A: studied at 150 metres above sea level in the city of Lima and oxygen pressure of 157mmHg; group B: was at 3230 meters above sea level in the city of Jauja and an oxygen pressure of 107mmHg). Bone defects of 5×6mm were induced in the jaw in both groups through extra-oral surgical access. The defect in 8 guinea pigs of each group were covered with a porcine resorbable collagen membrane, but not in the other animals. The osteoblast and osteocyte cell counts were evaluated at 15 and 30 days post-operatively. Results: At 15 and 30 days, in the groups studied at height and with the membrane applied, the osteoblast count was 71±12.1 cells/field, and 83±7.2 cells/field, respectively, and an osteocyte count of 34.5±6.6 cells/field, and 25±7.6 cells/field, respectively. These groups had a higher number of bone cells in all the comparisons, but there were no statistically significant differences (P>.05). Conclusion: There was a tendency to form a greater amount of bone cells was found in the samples treated with bone regeneration and exposed to altitude compared to those at sea level.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cobaias , Oxigênio , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Hipóxia Celular , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/fisiologia , Altitude , Osteoblastos , Pressão Atmosférica , Fatores de Tempo , Regeneração Tecidual Guiada
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(3): 307-316, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888646

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the influence of a three-dimensional cell culture model and bioactive glass (BG) particles on the expression of osteoblastic phenotypes in rat calvaria osteogenic cells culture. Cells were seeded on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) collagen with BG particles for up to 14 days. Cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was performed. Cell morphology and immunolabeling of noncollagenous bone matrix proteins were assessed by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. The expressions of osteogenic markers were analyzed using RT-PCR. Mineralized bone-like nodule formation was visualized by microscopy and calcium content was assessed quantitatively by alizarin red assay. Experimental cultures produced a growing cell viability rate up to 14 days. Although ALP activity at 7 days was higher on BG cultures, cells on 3D and 3D+BG had an activity decrease of ALP at 14 days. Three-dimensional conditions favored the immunolabeling for OPN and BSP and the expression of ALP and COL I mRNAs. BG particles influenced positively the OC and OPN mRNAs expression and calcified nodule formation in vitro. The results indicated that the 3D cultures and BG particles contribute to the expression of osteoblastic phenotype and to differentiated and mineralized matrix formation.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência do modelo de cultura celular tridimensional e das partículas de vidro bioativo (BG) sobre a expressão fenotípica de culturas de células osteogênicas da calvária de ratos. As células foram mantidas em culturas sobre superfícies colágenas bi-dimensionais (2D) e em géis de colágeno tridimensional (3D) com e sem partículas de BG até 14 dias. Foram avaliadas: viabilidade celular, atividade de fosfatase alcalina (ALP), morfologia celular e imunomarcação de proteínas da matriz não-colágena do osso através de epifluorescência e microscopia confocal. As expressões de marcadores osteogênicos foram analisadas utilizando RT-PCR. A formação de nódulos mineralizados foi visualizada através de microscopia e o conteúdo de cálcio foi avaliado quantitativamente pelo Alizarina Red. As culturas experimentais produziram uma taxa crescente de viabilidade até 14 dias. Embora a atividade ALP em 7 dias tenha sido maior em culturas com BG, as células em 3D e 3D+BG apresentaram uma diminuição da atividade ALP aos 14 dias. As condições tridimensionais favoreceram a imunomarcação para OPN e BSP e a expressão de mRNAs para ALP e COL I. As partículas de BG influenciaram positivamente a expressão do mRNAs para OPN e OC e a formação de nódulos calcificados in vitro. Os resultados indicaram que as culturas em 3D e partículas BG contribuíram para a expressão do fenótipo osteoblástico e para a diferenciação e formação de matriz mineralizada.


Assuntos
Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Vidro , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteogênese , Crânio/citologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sialoproteína de Ligação à Integrina/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Osteoblastos/enzimologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Crânio/enzimologia , Crânio/metabolismo , Tecidos Suporte
17.
Actual. osteol ; 13(1): 28-36, Ene - Abr. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118788

RESUMO

El pico de masa ósea (PMO) se alcanza entre los 20 y 35 años, pero la aposición ósea continúa hasta alcanzar el pico de fortaleza ósea (PFO). Se crea así una ventana entre ambos picos que podría ser evaluada mediante marcadores bioquímicos de recambio óseo, ya que durante dicho período la densidad mineral permanece constante. El objetivo fue determinar el final de la aposición ósea mediante marcadores bioquímicos óseos. Se evaluaron por décadas entre 20 y 49 años de edad 139 sujetos sanos de ambos sexos (69 hombres y 70 mujeres), determinando fosfatasa alcalina ósea (FAO), osteocalcina (OC), propéptido amino terminal del colágeno tipo 1 (P1NP) y telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo 1 (CTX). Los marcadores correlacionan negativamente con la edad (OC: r= -0,3; p<0,01; P1NP: r= -0,4; p< 0,01 y CTX: r= -0,4; p<0,01), exceptuando FAO. En hombres de 20-29 años, P1NP y el CTX fueron significativamente mayores vs. 30-39 años (p<0,05 y p<0,001, respectivamente), y entre 30-39 años vs. de 40-49 años en P1NP y CTX (p<0,05; p<0,001, respectivamente). En mujeres de 20-29 años, P1NP y CTX fueron significativamente mayores vs. 30-39 años (p<0,0001 y p<0,01, respectivamente). Conclusión: los marcadores de remodelado óseo más sensibles y específicos permitirían determinar bioquímicamente el fin de la aposición ósea que se produce entre el PMO y el PFO. Si bien es necesario ampliar el número de sujetos evaluados, los datos que surgen de la presente investigación sentarían las bases para futuros estudios epidemiológicos referidos al fin de la aposición ósea. (AU)


Peak bone mass is achieved between 20-35 years; however bone apposition continues to reach an optimal skeleton strength. The window between peak bone mass and peak bone apposition may be evaluated by biochemical bone turnover markers. The objective of this study was to determine the end of bone apposition through biochemical bone markers in both sexes. A total of 139 subjects (69 men and 70 women) were divided by decades between 20 and 49 years of age. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAL), osteocalcin (OC), type I collagen propeptide (P1NP) and type I collagen C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) were evaluated. Except BAL, the other bone markers negatively correlated with the age [OC (r= -0.3; p<0.01); P1NP (r= -0.4; p<0.01) and CTX (r= -0.4; p<0.01)]. Regarding men aged 20 to 29 years, P1NP and CTX were significantly higher vs. 30-39 years (p<0.05 y p<0.001, respectively) and. vs. 40-49 years (p<0.05; p<0.001, respectively). In women, the results were similar. Regarding 20-29 years, P1NP and CTX were higher vs. 30-39 years (p<0.001 y p<0.01, respectively). Bone remodeling rate decreases after the third decade, suggesting the end of the apposition period of peak bone mass. Conclusion: The most specific and sensitive bone markers would biochemically determine the end of bone apposition that extends between the peak of bone mass and the peak of bone strength. Although it is necessary to increase the number of subjects evaluated, the data that emerge from the present study would establish the bases for future epidemiological studies referring to the end of bone apposition. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osteocalcina/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Fatores Etários , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Creatinina/sangue , Colágeno Tipo I/biossíntese , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Densitometria , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle
18.
Actual. osteol ; 13(1): 46-57, Ene - Abr. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118908

RESUMO

Based on the hypothesis that fluoride acts as a bone anabolic agent, the aim of this study was to measure in rats the osseointegration of implants (grade II titanium wire, 1 mm diameter, 4 mm long) submitted to anodic oxidation in 2 M phosphoric acid solution (control implants) or b) in 2 M phosphoric acid solution plus 0.2 M NaF (F-modified implants). Chemical composition of the implants surface was assessed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The surface of F-modified implants contained a 2.57% fluorine in weight. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (300-350 g body weight) received two implants (in the femur and in the tibia, close to the knee) in each hind limb. Control and F-modified implants were inserted in the left and right hind limbs, respectively. Three weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed. The undecalcified bones were embedded in methylmetacrylate. Sections were obtained to measure two histomorphometric magnitudes: bone-toimplant contact (BIC) and bone volume in a defined volume of tissue around the implant (BV/TV). BIC was significantly increased on F-modified implants with respect to their controls (57.2%±3.3%, vs. 47.9±3.4, p<0.05). BV/TV did not differ significantly between F-modified and control implants (24.5±2.2% vs. 22.9±1.4, p=0.30). Profiles of the average gray pixel levels of pseudo3D images showed a greater roughness of F-modified implants respect to their controls (p<0.05). The relative contributions of surface roughness and its fluorine content to the osseointegration process requires further research. (AU)


Con la hipótesis de que el ión fluoruro actúa como anabólico sobre las células óseas, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el grado de osteo-integración (en la rata) de implantes (alambre de titanio II, 1 mm de diámetro, 4 mm de largo) anodizados en solución de ácido fosfórico 2 M + NaF 0,2 M (implantes-F) comparados con implantes controles, anodizados en solución de ácido fosfórico 2 M. La composición química de la superficie de los implantes fue evaluada mediante el espectro de dispersión de rayos X producidos durante la observación en el microscopio electrónico de barrido. La superficie de los implantes-F contiene 2.57% de flúor. Ratas macho Sprague-Dawley recibieron dos implantes (en el fémur y en tibia, próximos a la rodilla). Los implantes-F y controles se insertaron en las patas izquierda y derecha respectivamente. En los cortes de hueso sin decalcificación previa se midió el contacto hueso-implante (BIC) y volumen óseo en un volumen definido de tejido (BV/TV). BIC fue significativamente mayor con los Implantes-F respecto de los controles (57,2±3,3% vs. 47,9±3,4, p<0,05). BV/TV no exhibió diferencias significativas entre implantes-F y controles (24,5±2,2% vs. 22,9±1,4, p=0,30). Los perfiles de los niveles de grises de los imágenes pseudo3D de las superficies de los implantes pusieron en evidencia la mayor rugosidad de los implantes-F respecto de los controles (p<0,05). Las contribuciones relativas de la rugosidad y del flúor en el proceso de osteo-integración requieren investigación adicional. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Próteses e Implantes/ultraestrutura , Osseointegração/fisiologia , Prótese Ancorada no Osso/ultraestrutura , Osteoblastos/química , Tíbia/citologia , Titânio/química , Osso e Ossos/citologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Ceftriaxona/administração & dosagem , Implantes Dentários , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fêmur/citologia , Fluoretos/química , Flúor/análise , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Acepromazina/administração & dosagem
19.
Actual. osteol ; 13(1): 58-66, Ene - Abr. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118913

RESUMO

Connexins (Cxs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that form gap junctions and hemi-channels, which mediate cell-cell communication between neighboring cells and the respective extracellular milieu in different tissues. Most tissues and cell types throughout the body express one or more Cx proteins, highlighting its importance in regulating cell growth, differentiation, adhesion, migration, cell death and others. Moreover, Cx can propagate intracellular signals through its C-terminus domain, and thus function beyond a mere channel. Cx43 is the most highly expressed and most well studied Cx in bone and musculoskeletal tissues, although Cx40, Cx45, Cx46 and more recently, the Cx37 have been described in bone tissue, along with Cx26, Cx32 and Cx39 in other musculoskeletal tissues. Here, we discuss the basic structure of gap junctions and the role of the Cxs in musculoskeletal tissue, with special focus on Cx37. (AU)


Las conexinas (Cxs) son una familia de proteínas transmembrana que forman uniones en hendidura y hemicanales encargados de mediar la comunicación entre células vecinas y el respectivo medio extracelular en diferentes tejidos. La mayoría de los tejidos y células expresan una o más proteínas conexina, jugando un papel importante en la regulación de la proliferación celular, diferenciación, adhesión, migración y muerte celular, entre otras funciones. Además de actuar como un canal, las conexinas pueden propagar señales intracelulares a través del dominio C-terminal. La Cx43 es la conexina mas expresada y mejor estudiada en el tejido óseo y el músculo, aunque las Cx40, Cx45, Cx46, y mas recientemente Cx37, son también detectadas en el hueso. A su vez la expresión de la Cx26, Cx32 y Cx39 ha sido observada en otros tejidos músculoesqueléticos. En este manuscrito describimos la estructura básica de las uniones tipo gap y el papel que las Cxs, y en especial la Cx37, tienen en tejidos músculo-esqueléticos. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Conexinas/fisiologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Tendões/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Conexina 43/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Ligamentos/metabolismo , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos
20.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 42-52, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841161

RESUMO

Abstract Sodium alendronate is a bisphosphonate drug that exerts antiresorptive action and is used to treat osteoporosis. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone repair process at the bone/implant interface of osteoporotic rats treated with sodium alendronate through the analysis of microtomography, real time polymerase chain reactions and immunohistochemistry (RUNX2 protein, bone sialoprotein (BSP), alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin). Material and Methods A total of 42 rats were used and divided in to the following experimental groups: CTL: control group (rats submitted to fictitious surgery and fed with a balanced diet), OST: osteoporosis group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy and fed with a low calcium diet) and ALE: alendronate group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy, fed with a low calcium diet and treated with sodium alendronate). A surface treated implant was installed in both tibial metaphyses of each rat. Euthanasia of the animals was conducted at 14 (immunhostochemistry) and 42 days (immunohistochemistry, micro CT and PCR). Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. Results Bone volume (BV) and total pore volume were higher for ALE group (P<0.05). Molecular data for RUNX2 and BSP proteins were significantly expressed in the ALE group (P<0.05), in comparison with the other groups. ALP expression was higher in the CTL group (P<0.05). The immunostaining for RUNX2 and osteopontin was positive in the osteoblastic lineage cells of neoformed bone for the CTL and ALE groups in both periods (14 and 42 days). Alkaline phosphatase presented a lower staining area in the OST group compared to the CTL in both periods and the ALE at 42 days. Conclusion There was a decrease of osteocalcin precipitation at 42 days for the ALE and OST groups. Therefore, treatment with short-term sodium alendronate improved bone repair around the implants installed in the tibia of osteoporotic rats.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Implantes Dentários , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Alendronato/farmacologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ovariectomia , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteocalcina/análise , Osteocalcina/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ratos Wistar , Implantes Experimentais , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Fosfatase Alcalina/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/análise , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteopontina/análise , Osteopontina/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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