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1.
Estud. av ; 33(95): 133-149, 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008308

RESUMO

A lenha vem sendo substituída ao longo dos anos por novas formas de energia, como o gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP) e a eletricidade. Porém, esse combustível ainda representa uma fração significativa da matriz energética brasileira, muito embora as pesquisas referentes ao seu uso ainda sejam limitadas e regionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento da produção, consumo e características da lenha usada com a finalidade de cocção. De acordo com os resultados, em 2016, 26,5% da lenha produzida no Brasil foram empregados com fins residenciais, ou seja, em torno de 2x107 toneladas. A lenha é proveniente tanto da silvicultura, sendo o Paraná o maior produtor, quanto do extrativismo, sendo a Bahia a maior produtora. O estado que apresenta maior dependência desse combustível para a cocção é o Pará, enquanto o Rio de Janeiro, praticamente, não a usa para esse fim. O consumo per capita varia muito de uma região a outra do país. Com base nos dados de 2016, foi estimado um consumo de 1,7 kg/pessoa/dia. No entanto, estudos in loco mostraram variação de 0,7 a 8,5 kg/pessoa/dia. O levantamento aponta que uma parte considerável da lenha é proveniente de matas nativas que têm reflexos no desmatamento de uma dada região. A pouca disponibilidade de dados e a variação entre eles impede uma avaliação mais precisa do uso deste combustível no país e suas implicações para a saúde das florestas. A implantação de políticas públicas deveria ser prioridade do governo, pois o uso da lenha de forma inadequada afeta o manejo da vegetação nativa, além de ser uma questão socioambiental, econômica e de saúde pública.


Firewood has been replaced over the years by new forms of energy, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity. However, this fuel still accounts for a significant fraction of the Brazilian energy matrix. Research regarding its use remains limited and regional in the country. The objective of this study was survey the production, consumption and characteristics of firewood used for cooking. According to the results, in 2016 26.5% of the firewood produced in Brazil was used for residential purposes, around 2×107 metric tons. Firewood comes from both silviculture, Paraná being the largest producer, and extractivism, Bahia being the largest producer. Pará presented the greatest dependence of this fuel, while Rio de Janeiro practically does not use it for this purpose. Per capita consumption varies from one region to another. Based on data from 2016, it was estimated that consumption was 1.7 kg/person/day. In situ studies showed consumption ranges from 0.7 to 8.5 kg/person/day. The study shows an obvious reliance on native forests to obtain firewood, resulting in deforestation in some areas. The low availability of data and the variation among them prevents a better assessment of the use of this fuel in Brazil and the implications for forest health. The im-plementation of public policies should be a priority of the government, as the improper use of firewood negatively affects the management of native vegetation, as well as being a socio-environmental, economic and public health burden.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Madeira , Agricultura Florestal , Combustíveis , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Indústrias Extrativas e de Processamento
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 623-628, jun. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954163

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that air pollution affects cardio-respiratory function, but its role regarding reproductive processes is unknown. There are few experimental background studies on its effects on the morpho-function in the reproductive system. The use of wood combustion for residential heating (WCRH) in the cities of south-central Chile has increased significantly. As a result, it has become a source of significant emissions of particulate matter suspended (PM) in the air. The possible association between exposure to PM and reproductive problems has been suggested only on the basis of epidemiological studies, most of them carried out in environments where the main source of PM emission is the combustion of oil by motorized vehicles and industries, ignoring the effects produced by the smoke of WCRH. For example, in the city of Temuco-Padre Las Casas, Chile, 93 % of PM emissions correspond to WCRH smoke, thus being considered an urban area with a single PM emission source and the factors that contribute to this type of contamination are reasonably representative of most of the cities in south-central Chile. We therefore suggest this as an adequate setting to evaluate the real effect of the environmental contamination produced by the smoke of WCRH in the reproductive system. The limited number of studies reported on the effects of this type of emission on the female reproductive system, present a challenge for the morphological sciences and also for those who make decisions that affect public health.


Estudios previos han demostrado que la polución del aire afecta la función cardio-respiratoria, pero el rol que tiene ésta respecto a los procesos reproductivos es desconocida. Existen escasos antecedentes experimentales sobre sus efectos sobre la morfo-función en el sistema reproductivo. El uso de la combustión de madera para calefacción residencial (WCRH) en las ciudades del centro-sur de Chile ha aumentado significativamente. Como resultado, se ha convertido en una fuente de emisión importante de material particulado en suspensión (PM) en el aire ambiental. La posible asociación entre exposición a PM y problemas reproductivos ha sido sugerida solo en base a estudios epidemiológicos, la mayoría de ellos realizados en ambientes donde la principal fuente de emisión de PM es la combustión del petróleo por vehículos motorizados e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de WCRH. Por ejemplo, en la ciudad de Temuco-Padre Las Casas, Chile, el 93 % de las emisiones de PM corresponden al humo de WCRH, por lo tanto, es considerada como un área urbana con una fuente de emisión de PM única y los factores que contribuyen a este tipo de contaminación son razonablemente representativos a la mayoría de las ciudades en el centro-sur de Chile, lo que permite sugerirla como un ambiente adecuado para evaluar el efecto de la contaminación ambiental producida por el humo de la WCRH en el sistema reproductivo. Los escasos estudios reportados sobre los efectos de este tipo de emisión sobre el sistema reproductivo femenino constituyen un desafío no tan solo para las ciencias morfológicas, sino que además, para quienes toman decisiones que afectan la salud pública.


Assuntos
Produtos da Combustão , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Calefação , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Madeira , Chile , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Genitália Feminina/patologia
3.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 255-265, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886904

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study focuses on the effects of different thinning regimes on clonal Eucalyptus plantations growth. Four different trials, planted in 1999 and located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, were used. Aside from thinning, initial planting density, and post thinning fertilization application were also evaluated. Before canopy closure, and therefore before excessive competition between trees took place, it was found that stands planted under low densities (667 trees per hectare) presented a lower mortality proportion when compared to stand planted under higher densities (1111 trees per hectare). However, diameter growth prior to thinning operations was not statistically different between these two densities, presenting an overall mean of 4.9 cm/year. After canopy closure and the application of the thinning treatments, it was found that thinning regimes beginning early in the life of the stand and leaving a low number of residual trees presented the highest diameter and height growth. Unthinned treatments and thinning regimes late in the life of the stand (after 5.5 years), leaving a large number of residual trees presented the highest values of basal area production. The choice of the best thinning regime for Eucalyptus clonal material will vary according to the plantation objective.


Assuntos
Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura Florestal , Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Fatores de Tempo , Madeira/anatomia & histologia , Brasil , Eucalyptus/anatomia & histologia
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 425-438, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886888

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the quality of heartwood and sapwood from mature trees of three species of Eucalyptus, by means of the qualification of their proportion, determination of basic and apparent density using non-destructive attenuation of gamma radiation technique and calculation of the density uniformity index. Six trees of each species (Eucalyptus grandis - 18 years old, Eucalyptus tereticornis - 35 years old and Corymbia citriodora - 28 years old) were used in the experimental program. The heartwood and sapwood were delimited by macroscopic analysis and the calculation of areas and percentage of heartwood and sapwood were performed using digital image. The uniformity index was calculated following methodology which numerically quantifies the dispersion of punctual density values of the wood around the mean density along the radius. The percentage of the heartwood was higher than the sapwood in all species studied. The density results showed no statistical difference between heartwood and sapwood. Differently from the density results, in all species studied there was statistical differences between uniformity indexes for heartwood and sapwood regions, making justifiable the inclusion of the density uniformity index as a quality parameter for Eucalyptus wood.


Assuntos
Madeira/anatomia & histologia , Eucalyptus/anatomia & histologia , Raios gama , Controle de Qualidade , Gravidade Específica , Madeira/análise , Brasil
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 128-139, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974327

RESUMO

Abstract Pyroligneous extract is applied in diverse areas as an antioxidant, an antimicrobial, and an anti-inflammatory agent. The discovery of new cost-effective antimicrobial agents of natural origin remains a challenge for the scientific community. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and a technological forecasting of the existent evidence regarding the use of pyroligneous extract as a potential antimicrobial agent. Studies were identified through an investigation of various electronic databases: PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo, Google scholar, and ProQuest. Patents were searched through INPI, Google patents, Espacenet, Patents online, USPTO, and WIPO. The literature on antimicrobial activity of pyroligneous extract are limited given the short duration of studies and variability in study design, use of pyroligneous preparations, and reports on results. However, evidence suggests the potential of pyroligneous extract as a natural antimicrobial agent. The most studied activity was the role of PE as a food preservative. However, pyroligneous extracts are also effective against pathogenic bacteria in the oral microflora and treatment of candidal infections. Further research is needed using standardized preparations of pyroligneous extracts to determine their long-term effectiveness and ability as antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Madeira/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/química
6.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 5(2): 136-150, 2018. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-987186

RESUMO

The Northern Humid Guatemalan Lowlands contains a significant diversity of tree species, including some valuable-timber producers; these species are threatened by commercial overexploitation and habitat loss due to deforestation. The cultivation of these species in forest and agroforest plantations is a potentially viable option for balancing their conservation and commercial harvesting, something that has been promoted with Government Incentives in Guatemala during the past two decades. However, these species have not been widely planted, among other constraints, because knowledge on their ecological requirements and silviculture is scarce. A characterization of monoculture and mixed plantations with 14 native valuable-timber species was made in the Humid Lowlands of Northern Guatemala, analyzing for each species frequency of association and accompanying species, planted area, the main ecological features and growth rates. To gather information, we combined field observation and measurements with interviews and literature review. Based on our survey, main management challenges for cultivation of the species were identified and described. Valuable-timber native trees could potentially be sustainably cultivated in the study zone in different types of forest plantations and agroforestry schemes of coffee, cacao, cardamom and cattle; considering their suitability to fit in diversified systems, growth performance and farmer's preferences, Swietenia macrophylla, Cedrela odorata, Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Calophyllum brasiliense and Cordia alliodora were the species with the higher potential for inclusion in plantations. However, several unsolved problems continue restricting the cultivation of these species in plantations; therefore, is essential a careful design and management.


Las Tierras Bajas y Húmedas del Norte de Guatemala contienen diversidad relevante de especies arbóreas, incluyendo algunas de madera valiosa; estas especies están amenazadas por sobre explotación comercial de su madera y deforestación. El cultivo de estas especies en plantaciones forestales y agroforestales es una opción potencialmente viable para equilibrar su conservación y aprovechamiento, lo cual ha sido promovido en Guatemala durante las dos décadas pasadas. Sin embargo, estas especies no se cultivan extensivamente, entre otras limitantes, debido al escaso conocimiento sobre su ecología y silvicultura. Se caracterizaron plantaciones puras y mixtas con 14 especies nativas maderables valiosas en Tierras Bajas y Húmedas del Norte de Guatemala, analizando para cada especie, presencia de especies, superficies plantadas, rasgos ecológicos y crecimiento. Para obtener información se combinó observaciones de campo, mediciones, entrevistas, consultas de archivo y revisión bibliográfica. Se identifican y describen los principales desafíos de manejo para cultivar las especies. Las especies nativas de madera valiosa podrían potencialmente ser cultivadas de manera sostenible, en diferentes tipos de plantación forestal y agroforestal con café, cacao, cardamomo y ganadería; considerando idoneidad para encajar en sistemas diversificados, tasas de crecimiento y preferencias de productores, Swietenia macrophylla, Cedrela odorata, Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Calophyllum brasiliense y Cordia alliodora fueron las especies que mostraron mayor potencialidad para ser incluidas en plantaciones en la zona. Sin embargo, aún persisten diferentes aspectos no resueltos que limitan el cultivo de estas especies en plantación, requiriéndose un cuidadoso diseño y manejo.


Assuntos
Cultivos Agrícolas , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Exploração de Recursos Naturais/efeitos adversos , Madeira/economia
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2647-2655, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886848

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The impacts of white-rot fungi on altering wood chemistry have been studied mostly in vitro. However, in vivo approaches may enable better assessment of the nature of interactions between saprotrophic fungi and host tree in nature. Hence, decayed and sound wood samples were collected from a naturally infected tree (Carpinus betulus L.). Fruiting bodies of the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor grown on the same tree were identified using rDNA ITS sequencing. Chemical compositions (cellulose and lignin) of both sound and infected wood were studied. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to collect spectra of decayed and un-decayed wood samples. The results of chemical compositions indicated that T. versicolor reduced cellulose and lignin in similar quantities. Fungal activities in decayed wood causes serious decline in pH content. The amount of alcohol-benzene soluble extractives was severely decreased, while a remarkable increase was found in 1% sodium hydroxide soluble and hot water extractive contents in the decayed wood samples, respectively. FT-IR analyses demonstrated that T. versicolor causes simultaneous white rot in the hornbeam tree in vivo which is in line with in vitro experiments.


Assuntos
Árvores/microbiologia , Madeira/microbiologia , Trametes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/química , Madeira/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3031-3038, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886826

RESUMO

ABSTRACT High toxicity of the preservatives most frequently used in wood treatment and the resulting risks of handling pose a threat to small producers and to the environment. In an attempt to mitigate these problems, the present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the preservative effect of tannic extract on biodeterioration of Acacia mearnsii wood. For this purpose, untreated and preserved specimens, some with tannin extract and some with a preservative mixture based on CCB (Chromated Copper Borate), were submitted to accelerated rotting trials with the fungus that causes white rot (Pycnoporus sanguineus) for 16 weeks. The evaluations were made with a basis on weight loss and chemical components analysis, and they showed that the natural resistance of Acacia wood is moderate when exposed to the white rot fungus. The tannin concentrations showed similar effects to those of the CBB mixture in all evaluations, i.e., they significantly increased the biological resistance of the material, which started to be classified as very resistant to the fungus. Overall, the results suggest that tannin can be considered as a potential natural preservative product.


Assuntos
Taninos/farmacologia , Madeira/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Acacia/microbiologia , Pycnoporus/efeitos dos fármacos , Pycnoporus/fisiologia
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(1): 14-25, ene. 2017. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-907561

RESUMO

The tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav., Solanaceae) anthracnose, caused by the fungi Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is the most important disease of this crop in Colombia for its wide distribution and the losses it causes. In the present work, the in vitro antifungal activity of the soluble fractions in n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate, and their major constituents from the sawdust of timber specie Platymiscium gracile Benth. (Fabaceae) against both fungi was evaluated. The n-hexane-soluble fraction exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect. The metabolites homopterocarpin (a pterocarpan, 0.39 percent dry weight), calycosin (an isoflavone, 2.01 percent) and scoparone (a coumarin, 1.48 percent) were isolated for the first time from wood sawdust of P. gracile. The structure of these compounds was determined by 1H and 13C NMR analyses. The three compounds tested showed significant antifungal activity.


La antracnosis del tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceum Cav., Solanaceae), ocasionada por los hongos Colletotrichum acutatum y Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, es la enfermedad más importante de este cultivo en Colombia por su amplia distribución y las pérdidas que ocasiona. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad antifúngica in vitro de las fracciones solubles en n-hexano, diclorometano y acetato de etilo, y sus componentes mayoritarios, del aserrín de la especie maderable Platymiscium gracile Benth. (Fabaceae), contra ambos hongos. La fracción en n-hexano exhibió el mayor efecto inhibitorio. Los metabolitos homopterocarpina (un pterocarpano; 0.39 por ciento del peso seco de aserrín), calicosin (una isoflavona; 2.01 por ciento) y escoparona (una cumarina; 1.48 por ciento) se aislaron por primera vez desde el aserrín de madera de P. gracile empleando técnicas cromatográficas. La estructura de los compuestos se determinó por análisis de RMN de 1H y 13C. Los tres metabolitos mostraron una actividad antifúngica significativa contra ambos hongos.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Colletotrichum , Fabaceae/química , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Madeira
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(6): 70-78, Nov. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-840316

RESUMO

Background: Many buildings in Egypt e.g. museums, mosques and churches, do not possess controlled environments for minimizing the risks of damage of wooden artifacts due to the growth of fungi. Fungal damage usually appears as change in wood color, appearance of stains, and sometimes deformation of wooden surfaces. In this study we focused on the effect that some fungi exert on the properties of wooden artifacts and evaluated the effectiveness of different concentrations of chitosan on their protection against damage by mold fungi. Results: Samples were collected from different monuments and environments, and fungi growing on them were isolated and identified. The isolated Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus and /Aspergillus niger strains were used for the infestation of new pitch pine samples. The results revealed that the lightness of samples infected with any of the tested fungi decreased with increasing incubation times. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of incubated samples treated individually with the different concentrations of chitosan was lower than the crystallinity of infected samples. The crystallinity index measured by the first and the second method decreased after the first and second months but increased after the third and fourth months. This may due to the reducing of amorphous part by enzymes or acids produced by fungi in wooden samples. Conclusions: The growth of fungi on the treated wood samples decreased with increasing the concentration of chitosan. Hence, it was demonstrated that chitosan prevented fungal growth, and its use could be recommended for the protection of archeological wooden artifacts.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Madeira/microbiologia , Arqueologia , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Quitosana/farmacologia , Cristalização , Penicillium chrysogenum/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium chrysogenum/isolamento & purificação , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 268-276, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-774496

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aims to compare the allometry and wood density of Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiaceae) in two different terra-firme sites in Amazonian forest. A total of 65 trees ≥ 10 cm DBH was sampled in both sites, with 39 trees in Nova Olinda do Norte (NOlinda, near the Amazon River) and 29 trees in Apuí (near the southern edge of the Amazon forest). Except for the relationship between DBH (diameter at breast height) and Ht (total height), allometric relationships for G.glabra differed significantly between sites. Apuí had lower intercept and greater slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Hs – stem height), and, conversely, greater intercept and lower slope for log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Ch – crown height). The slope differed significantly between the sites for DBH versus Cd (crown diameter), with greater slope found for NOlinda. Mean basic wood density in Apuí was 8.8% lower than in NOlinda. Our findings highlight the variation in adaptive strategy of G. glabra due to environmental differences between sites. This is probably because of different canopy-understory light gradients, which result in differentiation of resource allocation between vertical and horizontal growth, which, in turn, affects mechanical support related to wood density. We also hypothesize that differences in soil fertility and disturbance regimes between sites may act concomitantly with light.


Resumo O presente estudo tem como objetivo comparar a alometria e a densidade da madeira de Goupia glabra em dois diferentes sítios de floresta de terra firme na Amazonia. Um total de 65 árvores com DAP ≥ 10 cm foi amostrado em ambos os sítios, sendo 39 árvores em Nova Olinda do Norte (NOlinda, próximo ao rio Amazonas) e 29 em Apuí (próximo à borda sul da Amazônia). Exceto para a relação entre o DBH (diâmetro a altura do peito) e a Ht (altura total), as relações alométricas para G. glabra diferiu significativamente entre os sítios. Apuí apresentou menor intercepto e maior inclinação para a relação log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Hs – altura do fuste) e, ao contrário, maior intercepto e menor inclinação para log10 (DBH) versus log10 (Ch – altura da copa). A inclinação diferiu significativamente entre os sítios para DBH versus Cd (diâmetro da copa), com maior inclinação encontrada para NOlinda. A densidade básica média da madeira in Apuí foi 8.8% menor do que em NOlinda. Os resultados deste estudo destacam a variação na estratégia adaptativa de G. glabra devido às diferenças ambientais entre os sítios. Isto é provavelmente consequência dos diferentes gradientes de luz o que resulta na diferenciação na alocação de recursos entre o crescimento vertical e horizontal o que, por sua vez, afeta o suporte mecânico relacionado à densidade da madeira. Nós também levantamos a hipótese de que as diferenças em termos de fertilidade e regimes de distúrbios entre os sítios podem agir concomitantemente com o regime de luz.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/anatomia & histologia , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Florestas , Luz , Solo/química , Madeira/anatomia & histologia , Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Med Mycol ; 54(1): 97-102, 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IALPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1022473

RESUMO

Cryptococcal infection is transmitted by the inhalation of Cryptococcus spp. propagules. Information about the Cryptococcus species inhabiting plants might be clinically relevant due to the epidemiological role of these habitats as possible sources of human infection. The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about the environmental occurrence of cryptococcosis agents. Hollow tree vegetal debris of nine plant species was sampled quarterly over a 12-month period. Melanized colonies were screened for Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii by biochemical tests, followed by URA5-RFLP molecular analysis, M13 fingerprinting assays, and mating-typing with the specific a and α primers. The susceptibility to fluconazole of all of the confirmed species colonies was determined using the AFST-EUCAST broth dilution method. We found that the typical Brazilian flora tree Hymenaea courbaril yielded a high cryptococcal burden (median, 10(2) CFU/g) during the summer, autumn and winter seasons. C. neoformans VNI molecular type MAT alpha was identified in all of the samples. The fingerprinting analyses showed great molecular variability with no correlation with the susceptibility profile to fluconazole (MIC range 4 to ≥64 mg/l). To our knowledge, this study is the first describing the association between C. neoformans and Hymenaea courbaril. These observations extend the known geographic distribution of and substantiate a new urban environmental niche for C. neoformans and also emphasize the genetic diversity of the environmental C. neoformans VNI molecular type isolates.


Assuntos
Estações do Ano , Variação Genética , Madeira/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Brasil , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Cryptococcus neoformans , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , Cryptococcus neoformans/classificação , Cryptococcus neoformans/fisiologia , Genes Fúngicos Tipo Acasalamento , Hymenaea/microbiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Genótipo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 940-947, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-768214

RESUMO

Abstract Lignocellulose is the most abundant environmental component and a renewable organic resource in soil. There are some filamentous fungi which developed the ability to break down and use cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as an energy source. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of three nitrogen resources (ammonium sulfate, saltpetre, soybean) in the holocellulolitic activity of Lentinula edodes EF 50 using as substrate sawdust E. benthamii. An experimental design mixture was applied with repetition in the central point consisting of seven treatments (T) of equal concentrations of nitrogen in ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate and soybean. The enzymatic activity of avicelase, carboxymetilcellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanases and manganese peroxidase was determined. The humidity, pH, water activity (aw) and qualitative analysis of mycelial growth in 8 times of cultivation were evaluated. The results showed negative effect on enzyme production in treatments with maximum concentration of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The treatments with cooked soybean flour expressed higher enzymatic activities in times of 3, 6 and 9 days of culture, except in the activity of manganese peroxidase. The highest production was observed in the treatment with ammonium sulfate, and soybean (83.86 UI.L–1) at 20 days of cultivation.


Resumo Lignocelulose é o componente mais abundante do meio ambiente e recurso orgânico renovável no solo. Alguns fungos filamentosos têm desenvolvido a habilidade de degradar e utilizar celulose, hemicelulose e lignina como fonte de energia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito de três fontes de nitrogênio (sulfato de amônio, nitrato de potássio e farelo de soja) na atividade enzimática de Lentinula edodes EF 50 utilizando como substrato serragem de E. benthamii. Foi aplicado um planejamento experimental de mistura com três repetições no ponto central constituído de sete tratamentos (T) de iguais concentrações em nitrogênio de sulfato de amônia, nitrato de potássio e farinha de soja cozida. Foram determinadas a atividade enzimática da avicelase, carboximetilcelulase, β-glicosidase, xilanases e manganês peroxidase. Foram avaliados o teor de umidade, pH, atividade de água (aw) e análise qualitativa do crescimento micelial em 8 tempos de cultivo. Os resultados mostraram efeito negativo na produção das enzimas nos tratamentos com máxima concentração de sulfato de amônia e nitrato de potássio. Os tratamentos com farinha de soja cozida expressaram maiores atividades enzimáticas, nos tempos de 3, 6 e 9 dias de cultivo exceto na atividade do manganês peroxidase. A maior produção foi observada no tratamento com sulfato de amônia e farinha de soja cozida (83.86 UI.L–1) em 20 dias de cultivo.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lignina/farmacologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Cogumelos Shiitake/enzimologia , Cogumelos Shiitake/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sulfato de Amônio/metabolismo , Eucalyptus/química , Nitratos/metabolismo , Compostos de Potássio/metabolismo , Soja/química , Madeira/análise
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3,supl.1): 84-87, May-June 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755747

RESUMO

Abstract

Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous mycosis. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, and the infection is usually acquired by traumatic inoculation. We describe a case of sporotrichosis in an uncommon location with an unusual mode of transmission. A 49-year-old female patient who lived in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro presented with involvement of the left ear. No history of contact with soil, plants or animals was elicited. The suspected source of infection was a pair of handmade wooden earrings. The delay in the diagnosis and treatment resulted in higher morbidity, unsightly scarring and loss of ear lobe.

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Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pavilhão Auricular/patologia , Esporotricose/patologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Pavilhão Auricular/microbiologia , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Joias/microbiologia , Esporotricose/transmissão , Madeira/microbiologia
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1673-1681, oct.-dic. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-753710

RESUMO

Woody species composition in invaded communities from mountains of central Argentina: their relations with local environmental factors. Invasions by exotic woody species are threatening ecosystem functions worldwide. The spread and subsequent replacement of native forest by exotic dominated stands is particularly evident nearby urban centers were exotic propagule pressure is highest. Yet, there is a lack of information on the environmental factors that underlie these replacements. In this study we addressed the following questions: (1) is there a local spatial segregation between the dominant native and exotic woody species? and (2) if this local segregation does exist, is it driven by environmental features?. For this, in 2010 we established 31 plots distributed along 16 sampling sites where we surveyed the composition and abundance of all woody species with a basal diameter ≥ 5cm. To characterize the environment of each plot, we measured the topographic position (slope, exposure) and different properties such as soil physics (bulk density, soil impedance), structure (soil deep, texture) and chemical characteristics (pH, nutrient and water content). Through a cluster analysis we were able to identify five different woody communities in coexistence: (1) Woodlands dominated by the exotic Ligustrum lucidum; (2) Mixed woodlands dominated by the native Lithraea molleoides and the exotic Celtis australis; (3) Scrublands dominated by the native Condalia buxifolia; (4) Scrublands dominated by the exotic Cotoneaster glaucophyllus, and (5) Scrubby grasslands with the exotic Pyracantha angustifolia. These communities were all associated with different local topographic and edaphic features. The environmental segregation among the identified communities suggests that woody invaders have the potential to colonize almost all the environments of the study site (though varying in the identity of the dominant exotic species). The observed patterns, even being restricted to a single well invaded area of mountain Chaco, may posit the spread of woody invaders towards native communities in the region.


En todo el mundo, las invasiones de especies leñosas exóticas están amenazando las funciones ecosistémicas. La dispersión y el subsecuente reemplazo de bosques de especies nativas por comunidades dominadas por exóticas es evidente, particularmente, en proximidad a centros urbanos donde la presión de propágulos de especies exóticas es alta. Sin embargo, existe una falta de información sobre los factores ambientales que subyacen este reemplazo. En este estudio nos propusimos responder las siguientes preguntas: (1) ¿se observa una segregación espacial a escala local entre especies leñosas exóticas y/o nativas dominantes?, y (2) si existe esa segregación, ¿está asociada a variables ambientales? En el 2010 se establecieron 31 parcelas distribuidas en 16 laderas en los bosques Chaqueños de las Sierras de Córdoba, en Argentina central. En cada uno de los sitios de muestreo se relevó la composición y abundancia de todas las especies leñosas con un diámetro a la altura de la base superior a 5cm. Para caracterizar el ambiente en cada una de las parcelas medimos la posición topográfica (pendiente y orientación) y algunas propiedades asociadas con la física (densidad aparente y compactación), estructura (profundidad y textura) y con la química (pH y el contenido de nutrientes y agua) del suelo. A través, de un análisis jerárquico de agrupamiento, se identificaron cinco comunidades de leñosas coexistiendo: (1) Bosques dominados por Ligustrum lucidum, (2) Bosques mixtos dominados por Lithraea molleoides y Celtis australis, (3) Matorrales de Condalia buxifolia, (4) Matorrales de Cotoneaster glaucophyllus, y (5) Pajonales con emergentes de Pyracantha angustifolia. Estas comunidades se asociaron diferencialmente a las variables topográficas y edáficas locales. La segregación ambiental observada sugiere que las especies invasoras tienen una capacidad potencial para colonizar casi todos los ambientes en el área de estudio (variando la identidad de la invasora). En conjunto, los patrones descritos, aunque circunscriptos a un área de Chaco Serrano con un avanzado grado de invasión, plantearían un escenario de posible expansión de las leñosas exóticas sobre las comunidades nativas.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Espécies Introduzidas , Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Argentina
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 783-793, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-715471

RESUMO

Despite the progress made during the past 20 years, searching dendrochronological potential in tropical and subtropical tree species, tropical dendrochronology, is still in a development stage. The aim of this research was to determine the potential of C. odorata for dendrochronological studies in the Selva Central of Perú. The tree-ring anatomical characteristics were carefully examined and we were able to develop a 215 year (1 795-2 009) tree-ring chronology and correlate it with precipitation records. The tree-ring chronology was developed based on 47 series of 27 trees. Tree rings are clearly delimited by large pore diameters in earlywood and small ones in latewood associated with marginal and paratracheal parenchyma. The tree-ring chronology was related to precipitation records from Satipo and significant correlations were found with the previous rainy season and late dry season of the current growth period. Moreover, we found close relationship between tree growth and total precipitations of the hydrological period (December to September) for the interval 1 990-2 009. These results demonstrate the influence of rainfall at different stages of C. odorata radial growth. The good discrimination of annual rings, strong relationship with precipitation, the wide range and longevity of trees (200 years) make C. odorata a very promising species for dendrochronological studies in tropical and subtropical forest of America.


En este trabajo determinamos el potencial de Cedrela odorata para estudios dendrocronológicos en la Selva Central del Perú. Para ello, analizamos las características anatómicas que definen los anillos de crecimiento, desarrollamos una cronología de ancho de anillos y relacionamos el crecimiento de los árboles con los registros de precipitación. La cronología de ancho de anillos está compuesta por 47 series de 27 árboles y cubre el período 1795-2009. Los anillos están claramente delimitados por porosidad semicircular, asociados a bandas de parénquima marginal y paratraqueal. El crecimiento de los árboles estuvo relacionado con las precipitaciones de la estación lluviosa previa y con las de finales de la estación seca del corriente período de crecimiento. Así mismo, observamos una estrecha relación entre el crecimiento y las precipitaciones totales, considerando el ciclo hidrológico de diciembre a setiembre, para el periodo 1990-2009. Estos resultados indican la influencia de las precipitaciones en el crecimiento radial de C. odorata. La buena discriminación de los anillos anuales, la fuerte relación con la precipitación, el amplio rango de distribución y la longevidad de los árboles, hacen de C. odorata una especie promisoria para estudios dendrocli-matológicos y dendroecológicos en los bosques tropicales y subtropicales de América.


Assuntos
Cedrela/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chuva , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peru , Estações do Ano , Clima Tropical , Madeira/anatomia & histologia
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(6): 607-613, nov.-dez. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-697393

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Identificar sintomas respiratórios e DPOC (relação entre volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo e capacidade vital forçada < 0,70 e abaixo do limite inferior da normalidade) em mulheres não fumantes, com história de exposição à fumaça da combustão de lenha de ao menos 80 horas-ano. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 160 mulheres não tabagistas. coletaram-se dados demográficos, sintomas e informações sobre outras exposições ambientais. todas as mulheres realizaram espirometria e aquelas com DPOC também medidas de volumes pulmonares RESULTADOS: o grupo com DPOC apresentava maior duração de exposição, em anos, à fumaça de lenha (p = 0,043), maior tempo de domicílio rural (p = 0,042), duração similar de tabagismo passivo (p = 0,297) e de trabalho na lavoura (p = 0,985). tosse (69,8%), expectoração (55,8%) e chiado (67,4%) predominaram no grupo com DPOC (p < 0,001) quando comparado ao grupo sem DPOC (40,2%, 27,4%, 33,3%, respectivamente). As pacientes com DPOC apresentavam distúrbio obstrutivo leve a moderado e volumes pulmonares normais, exceto a relação entre o volume residual e a capacidade pulmonar total (VR/CPT) > 0,40 em 45%, que apresentou correlação negativa com o VEF1 e VEF1/CVF. CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres comexposição prolongada à fumaça de lenha apresentaram DPOC predominantemente leve a moderado. Aquelas sem DPOC tiveram alta prevalência de sintomas respiratórios crônicos, justificando monitoramento clínico e espirométrico.


OBJECTIVE: To identify respiratory symptoms and COPD (forced vital capacity and forced expi-Pulmonary disease chronic ratory volume in one second ratio < 0.70 and below the lower limit of normal) in non-smoking obstructive women with history of exposure to wood smoke of at least 80 hours-years. METHODS: One hundred sixty nonsmoking women were included. Demographic data and information about symptoms and other environmental exposures were collected. All women underwent spirometry and those with COPD also had their lung volumes measured. RESULTS: The COPD group had greater exposure in years to wood smoke (p = 0.043), greater length of rural residence (p = 0.042) and the same length of passive smoking (p = 0.297) and farm work (p = 0.985). Cough (69.8%), sputum (55.8%) and wheezing (67.4%) predominated in the COPD group (p < 0.001) compared to those without copd (40.2%, 27.4%, 33, 3%, respectively). the copd patients had mild to moderate obstructive disturbance and normal lung volumes, except that the residual volume and total lung capacity ratio (rv/tlc) > 0.40 in 45%, which correlated negatively with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/vital forced capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC). CONCLUSION: Women with prolonged exposure to wood smoke had predominantly mild to moderate COPD. Those without COPD had a high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, justifying clinical and spirometric monitoring.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomassa , Culinária , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Madeira , Brasil , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Espirometria , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1025-1037, sep. 2013. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-688457

RESUMO

The knowledge about the existence of annual tree rings in tropical trees, which was already found at the beginning of the last century, was ignored by many scientists for a long time. Wood samples of 80 tree species from seven different sites belonging to Satipo and Chanchamayo provinces in Central Forest, Perú. Wood slices were taken at 1.30m height, following the Peruvian Technical Norms (NTP) 251-008, COPANT norms 30:1-019 and IAWA (1989). Results showed that 24 of the 80 tree species analyzed showed a potential for dendrocronological studies, 25 had problems for growth-rings analysis, and 31 did not have potential. The problems most frequently found were: barely visible or irregular ring growth, parenchyma bands and multiseriate rays difficult to be identified in rings growth. The “T” Student test showed that the significant variation in vessel and fiber diameters between growth zones (Early-wood and late-wood) of species with potential for dendrocronology, do have a periodic cells production, so is possible to suggest the annual formation of each growth-ring. However, those species without potential to dendrocronology may be influenced by of a lot of factors, such as biotic and abiotic conditions of environment, as well as the genetic aspect of each species.


El conocimiento acerca de la existencia de anillos anuales en árboles tropicales, se conoce desde principios del siglo pasado, pero fue ignorado por muchos científicos durante largo tiempo. La investigación fue realizada en el Laboratorio de Tecnología de la Madera e Industrias Forestales de la Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, con la finalidad de caracterizar anatómicamente los anillos de crecimiento de 80 especies arbóreas potenciales para estudios dendrocronológicos; provenientes de las provincias de Satipo y Chanchamayo en la Selva Central del Perú. Para el estudio se consideraron las normas COPANT 30:1-019, Normas Técnicas Peruanas (NTP) 251-008 y la Lista Estándar de la IAWA 1989. Entre los resultados más sobresalientes tenemos: el 30% de las ochenta especies estudiadas tienen buen potencial para estudios dendrocronológicos. La mayoría de estas especies, están delimitadas por una banda de fibras acortadas radialmente. Entre los problemas encontrados, se puede destacar la presencia de anillos con dificultad para ser visualizados, la presencia de anillos irregulares y la presencia de parénquima en bandas. Las características microscópicas, muestran que la variación significativa en dimensiones de fibras y vasos entre zonas de crecimiento (madera temprana y madera tardía), de las especies potenciales para dendrocronología, tienen una producción de células en forma periódica, lo que podría sugerir la formación anual de cada anillo.


Assuntos
Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Madeira/anatomia & histologia , Peru , Clima Tropical , Árvores/classificação , Madeira/classificação
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1113-1156, sep. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688465

RESUMO

A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.


Un total de 45 especies de árboles de Costa Rica se catalogaron como amenazadas o en peligro de extinción, de las cuales, CITES (Convention on International Trade Endangered Species) incluye solamente ocho en sus Apéndices. Sin embargo, la identificación de las especies basadas en su anatomía es muy limitada. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo describir y comparar la anatomía y la fluorescencia de las especies amenazadas o en peligro de extinción de Costa Rica. Muestras de madera de las especies en peligro de extinción o amenazadas de la xiloteca del Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica y del Laboratorio de Productos Forestales de los Estados Unidos en Wisconsin se examinaron, se describió su anatomía, se evaluó su actividad fluorescente y se midió su densidad. La superficie de la madera fue fluorescente en ocho especies, el extracto en agua fue fluorescente en seis especies y el extracto en etanol fue positivo en 24 especies. Muchas de las especies presentaban porosidad difusa, excepto algunas Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus C. salvadorensis y C. tonduzii que presentaban porosidad semi-anular. Vasos con distribución déndrica se encontró en Sideroxylon capari y poros solitarios en Guaiacum sanctum y Vantanea barbourii. Los vasos más cortos se encontraron en Guaiacum sanctum y los vasos más largos en Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis y Vantanea barbourii. Finalmente, la información de la anatomía y de su fluorescencia se utilizó para construir una clave de identificación, donde la actividad de fluorescencia juega un papel importante en la identificación.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Árvores/classificação , Madeira/anatomia & histologia , Costa Rica , Fluorescência , Árvores/anatomia & histologia
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(2): 147-154, mar.-abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-673305

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: La exposición a humo de leña es factor de riesgo para EPOC. A diferencia de la EPOC por cigarrillo (EPOC-C), para un mismo nivel de obstrucción, en la EPOC por leña (EPOC-L), la DLCO está menos disminuida, sugiriendo menos enfisema. Por tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los hallazgos en la TCAR en mujeres con EPOC-L y con EPOC- C. MÉTODOS: Veintidós mujeres con EPOC severa (VEF1/CVF < 70% y VEF1 < 50%) fueron divididas en dos grupos: las expuestas a leña (EPOC-L; n = 12) y las expuestas a cigarrillo (EPOC-C; n = 10). Se compararon los dos grupos con respecto al puntaje de enfisema y el compromiso de la vía aérea en la TCAR, las anormalidades funcionales en la espirometría, la DLCO, los volúmenes pulmonares y la resistencia específica de la vía aérea (sRaw). RESULTADOS: Los dos grupos tuvieron VEF1, sRaw e hiperinflación pulmonar similares. En el grupo EPOC-C, hubo mayor disminución de la DLCO y de la DLCO/VA y mayor puntaje de enfisema. En el grupo EPOC-L, no encontramos enfisema significativo en la TCAR. Los hallazgos principales fueron engrosamiento peribronquial, dilataciones bronquiales y atelectasias subsegmentarias. CONCLUSIONES: En pacientes con EPOC-L severa no hay enfisema en la TCAR. El hallazgo más importante es el compromiso severo de la vía aérea. La disminución de la DLCO y del VA con DLCO/VA normal es probablemente determinada por la obstrucción bronquial severa y la mezcla incompleta del gas inspirado en la maniobra de la respiración única de la prueba de difusión.


OBJECTIVE: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. METHODS: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans howed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Broncopatias , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar/fisiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Broncopatias/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Espirometria , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Madeira
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