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1.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 21(1): 9-12, Jan-Mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-915828

RESUMO

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a prevalência de dermatófitos em tegumento de bovinos e ovinos hígidos e a sua capacidade de transmissão e desenvolvimento da doença. Para isso, foram coletadas amostras de pelo e descamações de 90 bovinos e 90 ovinos hígidos. Essas amostras foram semeadas em meio DTM e ágar Sabouraud Dextrose enriquecido com extrato de levedura, tiamina, antibióticos (estreptomicina e cloranfenicol) e suplementado de cicloheximida, sendo essas incubadas a 35 oC por 10 dias. As culturas positivas foram avaliadas macro e microscopicamente e, os fungos foram identificados por métodos bioquímicos. Verificou-se que as espécies isoladas com maior frequência, nos bovinos, foram T. mentagrophytes e M. gypseum. Nos ovinos, foi constatada maior ocorrência do agente T. verrucosum, seguido por T. mentagrophytes e M. gypseum. Houve também isolamento de M. canis, porém, em um número reduzido de amostras. Assim, concluiu-se que o tegumento de bovinos e de ovinos hígidos apresentou incidência elevada de dermatófitos de diferentes espécies, em amostras coletadas durante o período chuvoso do ano. Por isso, em animais jovens ou naqueles submetidos a elevados níveis de estresse e, consequente queda da resposta imunológica, o risco de desenvolvimento da dermatofitose e da transmissão dos dermatófitos neste período são eminentes.(AU)


The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes in healthy cattle and sheep teguments, and their ability to transmit and develop diseases. Samples of fur and flaking from 90 healthy cattle and 90 healthy sheep were collected. These samples were plated on DTM medium and Sabouraud Dextrose agar supplemented with yeast extract, thiamine, antibiotics (streptomycin and chloramphenicol) enhanced with cycloheximide. They were then incubated at 35 °C for 10 days. Positive cultures were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated, and fungi were identified by biochemical methods. It was found that the most frequent species isolated in cattle were T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum. In sheep, a higher occurrence of the agent T. verrucosum could be observed, followed by T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum. There was also the isolation of M. canis, but in a small number of samples. Thus, it could be concluded that the tegument of healthy cattle and sheep showed high incidence of dermatophytes from different species in samples collected during the rainy season of the year. Therefore, in young animals, in those subjected to high levels of stress and consequent drop in immune response, there is eminent risk of developing dermatophytosis and transmission of dermatophytes in this period.(AU)


El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido verificar la prevalencia de dermatofitos en tegumento de bovinos y ovinos hígidos y su capacidad de transmisión y desarrollo de la enfermedad. Para ello, se recolectó muestras de pelo y descamaciones de 90 bovinos y 90 ovinos hígidos. Esas muestras fueron sembradas en medio DTM y agar Sabouraud Dextrosis enriquecida con extracto de levadura, tiamina, antibióticos (estreptomicina y cloranfenicol) y suplementado de cicloheximida, siendo esas incubadas a 35ºC durante 10 días. Los cultivos positivos fueron evaluados macro y microscópicamente y los hongos fueron identificados por métodos bioquímicos. Se verificó que las especies aisladas con mayor frecuencia, en los bovinos, fueron T. mentagrophytes y M. gypseum. En los ovinos, se constató mayor ocurrencia del agente T. verrucosum, seguido por T. mentagrophytes y M. gypseum. También hubo aislamiento de M. canis, sin embargo, en un número reducido de muestras. Así, se concluyó que el tegumento de bovinos y de ovinos hígidos presentó una elevada incidencia de dermatofitos de diferentes especies, en muestras recogidas durante el período lluvioso del año. Por lo tanto, en animales jóvenes o en aquellos sometidos a altos niveles de estrés y, consecuente caída de la respuesta inmunológica, el riesgo de desarrollo de la dermatofitosis y de la transmisión de los dermatofitos en este período son eminentes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Tegumento Comum
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(9): 1824-1828, set. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976504

RESUMO

Objetivou-se padronizar uma reação do tipo multiplex PCR (mPCR) para detectar Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum e o complexo Trichophyton mentagrophytes em amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos. 250 amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos foram analisadas por meio de exame direto e cultura, o DNA das mesmas foi extraído para mPCR. Primers foram desenhados e como controle positivo da reação utilizou-se o DNA extraído de colônias de M. canis (URM 6273), M. gypseum (URM 6921) e T. mentagrophytes (URM 6211), provenientes da Coleção de Culturas (Micoteca URM), Departamento de Micologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE). Como controles negativos de reação, utilizou-se água destilada esterilizada e DNA extraído de Alternaria sp. para verificar a especificidade dos primers. Do total de amostras analisadas, 15 (6%) foram identificadas, em cultura, como dermatófitos, e destas, 10 foram M. canis, três M. gypseum e dois T. mentagrophytes (complexo). Destas 15 amostras positivas, 11 (73,3%) foram detectadas por meio da mPCR. Além destas, seis outras, negativas em cultura, foram identificadas como M. gypseum. Verificou-se uma boa concordância entre os resultados da cultura e mPCR (Kappa: 0,66). O protocolo padronizado neste estudo pode ser utilizado como um método de triagem, por apresentar uma sensibilidade maior que a da cultura, usado paralelamente aos exames de rotina, permitindo um diagnóstico em menor tempo.(AU)


The aim of this study was to standardize a multiplex PCR (mPCR) reaction to detect Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex in dog and cat fur and/or crusts. 250 fur and/or crusts samples from dogs and cats were analyzed by direct examination and culture, DNA from them was extracted for mPCR. Primers were designed and the DNA extracted from colonies of M. canis (URM 6273), M. gypseum (URM 6921) and T. mentagrophytes (URM 6211) from the Collection of Cultures - URM Micoteca - Department of Mycology, Biological Sciences Center of the Federal University of Pernambuco (CCB / UFPE). As negative controls, sterile distilled water and DNA extracted from Alternaria sp., were used to verify the specificity of the primers. Of the total samples analyzed, 15 (6%) were identified in culture as dermatophytes, and of these, 10 were M. canis, three M. gypseum and two T. mentagrophytes (complex). Of these 15 positive samples, 11 (73.3%) were detected by mPCR. Besides these, six others, negative in culture, were identified as M. gypseum. There was good agreement between culture results and mPCR (Kappa: 0.66). The protocol standardized in this study can be used as a screening method, because it has a sensitivity greater than that of the culture, used in parallel to the routine exams, allowing a diagnosis in a shorter time.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Cães , Arthrodermataceae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/estatística & dados numéricos , Queratinas , Microsporum/classificação
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6): 1747-1753, nov.-dez. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-970323

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to diagnose dermatophytosis in pets and investigate the presence of dermatophytes in their home environment. Samples from hair coat were collected from 70 pets: 47 dogs, 19 cats, three guinea pigs and one rabbit. After mycological culture, 188 samples were collected from the household environments in 26 homes: 78 from places were of predominantly used by the tutors, 66 from places used by the animals, 44 from flooring, and 24 samples from contactees. Samples were seeded on Mycosel agar, incubated at 25°C, and the colonies were identified by their macro-and-microscopic characteristics. Dermatophytes were found in 37.1% of the samples originating from the sick animals. Microsporum canis was the most prevalent species, isolated in 12 dogs and eight cats; Trichophyton quinckeanum in three guinea pigs, Microsporum gypseum in two dogs and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in one cat. Dermatophytes were found in 69.2% of the surveyed homes; 29.5% of the places/objects predominantly used by the tutors, 42.4% mainly used by the animals, 31.8% from floors, and 50% from contactees. The meeting of dermatophytes in animals and in the household environment confirms the possibility of transmission by direct or indirect contact and their importance in public health.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi diagnosticar dermatofitose em pets e pesquisar dermatófitos em seu ambiente domiciliar. Colheram-se amostras de 70 pets, 47 cães, 19 gatos, três cobaias e um coelho. Visitaram-se 26 residências dos animais positivos em cultura micológica para a doença, colhendo-se 188 amostras do ambiente: 78 de locais de uso predominante dos tutores, 66 de uso dos animais e 44 de pisos; também foram colhidas 24 amostras de animais contactantes. As amostras clínicas foram semeadas em ágar Mycosel, incubadas a 25°C, e as colônias identificadas por suas características macro e microscópicas. Dermatófitos foram isolados em 37,1% dos animais suspeitos. Microsporum canis foi o mais frequente, sendo isolado de 12 cães e oito gatos, Trichophyton quinckeanum de três cobaias, Microsporum gypseum de dois cães e Trichophyton mentagrophytes de um gato. Foram encontrados dermatófitos em 69,2% das casas pesquisadas, isolando-se esses fungos em 29,5% dos locais/objetos de uso predominante dos tutores, 42,4% de uso predominante dos animais, 31,8% de pisos e 50% dos animais contactantes. O encontro de dermatófitos nos animais e em superfícies inanimadas nas residências confirma a possibilidade de transmissão de dermatofitose por contato direto e indireto e sua importância em saúde pública.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Arthrodermataceae , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Zoonoses
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 90 p. graf, ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ACVSES | ID: biblio-972113

RESUMO

A onicomicose é uma infecção micótica das unhas, com interesse emSaúde Pública pela alta morbidade e ocorrência de surtos, em especial, ematletas e militares. Algumas condições mórbidas estão associadas a essaforma de micose o que pode acentuar seu caráter recidivante e crônico. Aidentificação correta dos agentes etiológicos das onicomicoses, sejamleveduras ou fungos filamentosos, pode ser subsídio para tratamentoadequado da infecção, além de fornecer indicação sobre possíveis fontes deinfecção. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar e determinar asuscetibilidade a antifúngicos de fungos filamentosos agentes deonicomicoses em população militar da aeronáutica. Amostras ungueais delesões de 50 pacientes, com suspeita de onicomicose em pés ou mãos,foram coletadas para exame micológico direto, cultura, isolamento,identificação fenotípica e molecular dos agentes etiológicos. O perfil desuscetibilidade dos agentes etiológicos, frente a 3 fármacos antifúngicosusados no tratamento das onicomicoses, foi determinado pelo método dereferência americano (CLSI ). Fungos filamentosos foram implicados em 50(62,5%) casos, prevalecendo dermatófitos (43; 86%), como T. rubrum (22;44%), T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (19; 38%) e M. gypseum (3; 6%) enão dermatófitos (6; 12%), incluindo feo-hifomicetos como Chaetomiumglobosum (4; 8%) e hialo-hifomicetos como Fusarium solani e Scytalidiumspp. (1; 2% cada um). Em relação à suscetibilidade a antifúngicos, foiverificado que menores concentrações de terbinafina foram suficientes parainibir o crescimento fúngico do total de isolados, se comparadas às deitraconazol e fluconazol (MIC 50%/MIC 90%, respectivamente, de 0,015/0,06mg/L, 0,06/0,12 mg/L e 32/32 mg/L)...


Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails, with interest in Public Healthdue to the high morbidity and occurrence of outbreaks, especially in athletesand soldiers. Some morbid conditions are associated with this form ofmycosis, which may accentuate its recurrent and chronic character. Thecorrect identification of the etiological agents of onychomycosis, whetheryeasts or filamentous fungi, can be a subsidy for adequate treatment of theinfection, as well as providing indication about possible sources of infection.This study aimed to characterize and determine de antifungal drugsusceptibility of filamentous fungi agents of onychomycosis in theaeronautical military population. Ungual samples of lesions of 80 patientswith suspicion of onychomycosis in feet or hands were collected for directmycological examination, culture, isolation, phenotypic and molecularidentification of the etiological agents. The susceptibility profile of theetiological agents to 3 antifungal drugs used in the treatment ofonychomycosis, was determined using the American reference method(CLSI). Filamentous fungi were implicated in 50 (62.5%) cases, withdermatophytes prevailing (43; 86%), such as T. rubrum (22; 44%), T.mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (19; 38%), and M. gypseum (3; 6%) ornon-dermatophytes (6; 12%), including feo-hyphomicetes such asChaetomium globosum (4; 8%), and hialo-hyphomycetes like Fusariumsolani and Scytalidium spp. (1; 2% each). Regarding susceptibility toantifungals, it was found that lower concentrations of terbinafine weresufficient to inhibit fungal growth in the total of isolates, compared toitraconazole and fluconazole (MIC 50%/90%, respectively: 0.015/0.06 mg/L,0.06/0.12 mg/L and 32/32 mg/L)...


Assuntos
Humanos , Arthrodermataceae , Fungos , Onicomicose
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17149, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951928

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Griseofulvin (GF) and terbinafine (TF) are commonly used drugs to treat dermatophytosis, a fungal infection of the skin. Today there is an increase in drug resistance to these antifungals which highlight the need for alternative synergistic therapies. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of GF and TF were determined against fungi clinical isolates from local hospitals with values ranging 0.03-2.0 µg mL-1 and 0.24-4.0 µg mL-1, respectively. A checkboard test was used to determine the combination of GF:TF which could induce an additive effect against the fungi isolates Multidrug-resistant isolates showed susceptibility after treatment with 16:2 µg mL-1 GF:TF. An MTT assay further verified that GF and TF combinations have greater additive effect against pathological and multidrug-resistant isolates than antifungals alone. Herein we disclose GF:TF combinations that could constitute as a possible new anti-dermatophyte therapy.


Assuntos
Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Griseofulvina/análise , Tinha/patologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Dermatomicoses/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Antifúngicos/análise
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 697-702, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-788971

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton. They have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue to produce a cutaneous infection known as dermatophytoses. This investigation was performed to study the effect of gaseous ozone and ozonized oil on three specific properties of six different dermatophytes. These properties included sporulation, mycelia leakage of sugar and nutrients and the activity of their hydrolytic enzymes. Generally, ozonized oil was found to be more efficacious than gaseous ozone. Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis were the most susceptible, while Trichophyton interdigitale and T. mentagrophytes were relatively resistant. The study revealed a steady decline in spore production of M. gypseum and M. canis on application of ozonated oil. An increase in leakage of electrolytes and sugar was noticed after treatment with ozonized oil in the case of M. gypseum, M. canis, T. interdigitale, T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. The results also revealed loss in urease, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and keratinase enzyme producing capacity of the investigated fungi.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ozônio/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Permeabilidade , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Micélio , Arthrodermataceae/fisiologia , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(2): 135-140, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-781356

RESUMO

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD: Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT: Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION: Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Protoporfirinas , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Tempo , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Variância , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 225-230, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-775131

RESUMO

Abstract The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1–3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37 °C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p > 0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal.


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Cabelo/microbiologia , Tinha/veterinária , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Microscopia , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Pigmentos Biológicos , Turquia , Tinha/microbiologia
9.
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(4): 230-241, 2016. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-831587

RESUMO

As dermatofitoses têm ocorrência mundial, sendo mais prevalentes em países de clima tropical e subtropical. Dados epidemiológicos indicam que essas micoses estão entre as infecções fúngicas de maior ocorrência. O quadro clínico mais comum de dermatofitose inclui despigmentação, placas anulares, prurido e perda de cabelo, com lesões tipicamente conhecidas como tineas, ocasionadas por fungos filamentosos dermatofíticos de três gêneros anamórficos: Microsporum, Trichophyton e Epidermophyton. O tratamento das dermatofitoses, em geral, está relacionado ao uso de antifúngicos tópicos e/ou sistêmicos, apresentando como problemática o surgimento de espécies multirresistentes. Esta revisão aborda as dermatofitoses e seus agentes etiológicos de forma aprofundada em aspectos epidemiológicos, apresentando a importância clínica do tema, com ênfase na causa, prevenção, tratamento e prognóstico dessa micose cutânea (AU)


Dermatophytoses have worldwide occurrence with higher prevalence in tropical and subtropical countries. Epidemiological data show that these mycoses are among the most frequent fungal infections. The most common symptoms of dermatophytoses include depigmentation, annular plaques, itching and hair loss, with lesions such as tinea, caused by dermatophytic filamentous fungi of three anamorphic genera: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton. Topical and/or systemic antifungalmedications are used in the treatment of dermatophytoses in general, resulting in problems such as the emergence of multidrug-resistant species. This review discusses dermatophytoses and their etiological agents with a focus on epidemiological aspects, presenting the clinical importance of the issue, with emphasis on cause, prevention, treatment and prognosis of this skin mycosis (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Tinha , Coinfecção , Tinha/classificação , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/etiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha/prevenção & controle
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 799-805, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755823

RESUMO

Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31–40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis.

.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha dos Pés/epidemiologia , Tinha Versicolor/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Cabelo/microbiologia , Queratinas/metabolismo , Unhas/microbiologia , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha dos Pés/microbiologia , Tinha Versicolor/microbiologia
11.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 22(2): 85-88, abr.-jun.2015. il.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-998884

RESUMO

This study aimed evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of three commercial disinfectants commonly used for environmental control of microorganisms in veterinary medicine. Sodium hypochlorite at 40 µL/mL, chloro-phenol derived at 30 µL/mL and chlorhexidine digluconate at 66.7 µL/mL were tested against 14 strains of dermatophytes, identified as Microsporum canis (n: 3) and Microsporum gypseum (n: 11). The tests was performed in accordance with guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), documents M38-A2 and M51-A, adapted to disinfectants. In the microdilution broth test, chlorhexidine digluconate had MIC values (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) of 4.16 µL/mL and MCF (Minimum Fungicidal Concentration) from 4.16 to 8.33 µL/mL, while chloro-phenol derived obtained MIC and MCF of 1.87 µL/mL, and both disinfectants had fungicidal activity at concentrations below the recommended. Sodium hypochlorite obtained MIC from 10 to 80 µL/mL and MFC of 40 to 80 µL/mL, requiring at most isolates twice the recommended concentration to achieve same activity. In the disc diffusion test, the mean inhibition zones for chlorhexidine digluconate was 10.53 mm, for chloro-phenol of 9.9 mm and for sodium hypochlorite was 6.2 mm. Chlorhexidine digluconate and chloro-phenol presented a significant reduction in the growth of dermatophytes, while sodium hypochlorite in concentration recommended showed a low antifungal activity against tested isolates.


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a atividade antidermatofítica de três desinfetantes comerciais frequentemente utilizados no controle ambiental de micro-organismos em medicina veterinária. Hipoclorito de sódio a 40 µL/mL, derivado de clorofenol a 30 µL/mL e digluconato de clorexidine a 66.7 µL/mL foram testados contra 14 cepas de dermatófitos, identificados como Microsporum canis (n: 3) e Microsporum gypseum (n: 11). Foram utilizadas as diretrizes do Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI), documentos M38-A2 e M51-A, com adaptações para desinfetantes. Na microdiluição em caldo, digluconato de clorexidine apresentou valores de CIM (Concentração Inibitória Mínima) de 4.16 µL/mL e CFM (Concentração Fungicida Mínima) entre 4.16 a 8.33 µL/mL; derivado de clorofenol obteve CIM e CFM de 1.87 µL/mL, demonstrando que ambos os desinfetantes apresentaram atividade fungicida em concentrações inferiores às recomendadas. O hipoclorito de sódio demonstrou CIM entre 10 a 80 µL/mL e CFM de 40 a 80 µL/mL, requerendo duas vezes a concentração recomendada pelo fabricante para obter atividade fungicida frente a maioria dos isolados fúngicos testados. No teste de disco-difusão, a média das zonas de inibição do digluconato de clorexidine foi de 10.53 mm; do derivado clorofenol 9.9 mm e do hipoclorito de sódio 6.2 mm. O digluconato de clorexidine e o derivado cloro-fenol apresentaram redução significante no crescimento dos dermatófitos testados, enquanto o hipoclorito de sódio, na concentração recomendada, demonstrou baixa atividade antifúngica contra os dermatófitos testados.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Arthrodermataceae , Fungos
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 781-784, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-727002

RESUMO

Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%). In 24 of the patients (19.8%) Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered.


Assuntos
Humanos , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Eritrasma/epidemiologia , Doenças do Pé/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Eritrasma/microbiologia , Doenças do Pé/microbiologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Prevalência
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1035-1041, Oct.-Dec. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-705291

RESUMO

Millions of people and animals suffer from superficial infections caused by a group of highly specialized filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes, which only infect keratinized structures. With the appearance of AIDS, the incidence of dermatophytosis has increased. Current drug therapy used for these infections is often toxic, long-term, and expensive and has limited effectiveness; therefore, the discovery of new anti dermatophytic compounds is a necessity. Natural products have been the most productive source for new drug development. This paper provides a brief review of the current literature regarding the presence of dermatophytes in immunocompromised patients, drug resistance to conventional treatments and new anti dermatophytic treatments.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(6): 377-383, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-690349

RESUMO

SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. .


RESUMO Os dermatófitos, fungos queratinofílicos, representam importantes microrganismos da microbiota do solo, onde existem espécies cosmopolitas e outras de distribuição geográfica restrita. Este estudo teve como objetivo ampliar o conhecimento da distribuição de dermatófitos do solo proveniente de áreas urbanas (terrenos baldios, escolas, favelas, praças, praias e residências) e rurais de quatro mesorregiões paraibanas e da influência do pH na adaptação desse grupo de fungos. Amostras de solos urbanos e rurais foram coletadas de 31 cidades do estado da Paraíba, Brasil. De 212 amostras 62% apresentaram crescimento fúngico, destacando-se a Mesorregião da Mata Paraibana (43.5%), a qual apresenta clima tropical, quente e úmido. O pH das amostras de solo variou de 4.65 a 9.06, com crescimento de 71% dos dermatófitos em pH alcalino (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Das 131 cepas isoladas 57.3% eram espécies geofílicas, destacando-se Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) e Microsporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum e T. ajelloi foram isolados pela primeira vez no estado da Paraíba. Entre as espécies zoofílicas foram identificadas T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3%) e T. verrucosum (7.6%) e como espécie antropofílica foi isolada T. tonsurans. Os solos de terrenos baldios, escolas, favelas e praças de cidades paraibanas são os reservatórios mais adequados dos dermatófitos, cujo crescimento pode ter sido influenciado por fatores ambientais, solos com resíduos de queratina humana e ou animal e pH alcalino. .


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Brasil , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 443-446, 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688599

RESUMO

Dermatophytosis is caused by a dermatophyte fungus that affects the stratum corneum and keratinized tissue. Dermatophyte fungus has been reported worldwide as the causative agent of dermatophytosis, but the etio-epidemiological aspects of these mycoses in the state of Pará remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the etio-epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis diagnosed in patients at the Evandro Chagas Institute from May 2005 to June 2006. A total of 494 patients were admitted, and their samples were collected, submitted for direct microscopic examination using 20% KOH and cultured in Sabouraud and Mycosel medium. The identification was based in macro and microscopic characteristics. Direct examinations were positive in 13% (66/494) of the patients, and agent isolation by cultivation of the biological sample was successful in 4% (20/494), with a high prevalence of T. mentagrophytes (40%; 8/20). Dermatophytosis was more frequent in women (58%; 38/66). Fifty-two percent (21/38) of the cases were children with an average age of 8 years. The most frequent clinical presentation was Tinea corporis (55%, 36/66). For the cases in which the dermatophyte agent was not isolated, we discuss the factors that may be interfering with isolation. Tinea corporis occurred more frequently observed when T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were the major etiologic agents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Demografia , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Microscopia
17.
West Indian med. j ; 61(9): 912-915, Dec. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-694365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of keratinophilic fungi including dermatophytes on feathers of domestic and wild birds in the islands of St Kitts and Nevis. METHOD: During 2010-2011, samples of feathers from ninety-four birds were examined by hair-baiting technique in Petri-dishes containing sterilized soil. Fungal growths appearing on the feathers and the hair-baits were microscopically examined and the cultures obtained were identified on the basis of their microscopic and colonial morphology. RESULTS: Chrysosporium constituted the majority (86.9%) of the 72 isolates of keratinophilic fungi, represented by mainly C tropicum and C indicum. Sepedonium spp isolates were recovered from nine of the feather samples; two of these were identified as Sepedonium chrysospermum, and the other two as S ampullosporum. CONCLUSION: Recovery of four isolates of the dermatophyte, Microsporum gypseum complex (two each of M gyspeum and M fulvum) from feathers of birds is a finding of public health significance.


OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar la presencia de hongos queratinofílicos, incluyendo dermatofitos, en las plumas de aves domésticas y silvestres en las islas de St Kitts y Nieves. MÉTODOS: Durante 2010-2011, se examinaron muestras de plumas de noventa y cuatro aves, utilizando la técnica de anzuelo queratínico (técnica de Vanbreuseghem) en placas de Petri con tierra esterilizada. Los crecimientos fúngicos que aparecieron sobre las plumas y los anzuelos de queratina de pelos (hair baits) fueron examinados bajo el microscopio, y los cultivos obtenidos fueron identificados sobre la base de su morfología microscópica y colonial. RESULTADOS: Chrysosporium constituyó la mayor parte (86.9%) de los 72 aislados de hongos queratinofílicos, representados principalmente por el C tropicum y el C indicum. Aislados de Sepedonium spp fueron obtenidos de nueve muestras de plumas. Dos de ellos fueron identificados como Sepedonium chrysospermum y los otros dos como S ampullosporum. CONCLUSIÓN: La recuperación de cuatro aislados del complejo M gypseum dermatofito (formado por dos M gyspeum y dos M fulvum respectivamente) de las plumas de aves, es un hallazgo de importancia para la salud pública.


Assuntos
Animais , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Aves/microbiologia , Chrysosporium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chrysosporium/isolamento & purificação , Plumas/microbiologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Queratinas , Fungos/classificação , Micologia/métodos , São Cristóvão e Névis
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 895-902, July-Sept. 2012. graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-656650

RESUMO

A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum). The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/enzimologia , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , Microsporum/enzimologia , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/análise , Queratinas/análise , Ativação Enzimática , Métodos , Virulência
19.
CES med ; 26(1): 43-55, ene.-jun. 2012. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-652806

RESUMO

Los hongos C. albicans y los dermatofitos tienen características especiales que les confierenla habilidad de infectar tejido queratinizado. C. albicans es un comensal que en algunascircunstancias y en el hospedero susceptible es capaz de causar infecciones superficiales o sistémicas.Los factores de virulencia de este patógeno oportunista incluyen: su capacidad de adherencia alhospedero, la secreción de enzimas degradativas, su cambio de morfología y la formación de biopelículas.Los dermatofitos son la causa más común de infección de la piel, la cual logran infectarpor factores de virulencia como la adherencia y la invasión de tejidos queratinizados. Conocer aprofundidad los factores de virulencia puede ayudar en la elaboración de terapias dirigidas y eficacesfrente a ellos. A continuación se presentan una revisión de la literatura de los factores de virulenciade C. albicans y los dermatofitos.


C. albicans and dermatophytes have special characteristicsthat confer them the ability to infectkeratinized tissues. C. albicans is part of the human flora but under some circumstances andin susceptible individuals it can cause systemic and superficial infections. Virulence factors ofthis opportunist include: its capacity to adhere to the host, secretion of degradation enzymes,its ability to change morphologically and to form biofilms. Dermatophytes are the most common cause of skin infection and they can achieve thisdue to virulence factors such as their ability to adhere and invade keratinized tissues. To knowand understand in depth the virulence factors of these fungi might to find further direct therapiesin a more efficacious way. We present a literature review about the virulence factors of C. albicans and dermatophytes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Arthrodermataceae , Candida albicans , Dermatopatias , Fatores de Virulência
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 786-792, Apr.-June 2012. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-644497

RESUMO

Dermatophytosis is caused by a group of pathogenic fungi namely, dermatophytes, is among the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Azole drugs are widely used in the treatment of dermatomycosis, but can cause various side effects and drug resistance to the patients. Hence, for solving this problem can be used from the plant extract as alternative for chemical drugs. Allicin is a pure bioactive compound isolated from garlic was tested for its potential as a treatment of dermatomycosis in this study. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy of pure allicin against ten isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and the MIC50 and MIC90 ranged from 0.78-12.5 µg/ml for allicin. The results revealed that the order of efficacy based on the MICs values, all isolates showed almost comparable response to allicin and ketoconazole except for some isolates, at 28 ºC for both 7 and 10 days incubation. Mann-Whitney test indicate that MICs at 7 days incubation was not observed a significant difference between the effects of allicin and ketoconazole (p > 0.05), but MICs at 10 days incubation, a significant difference was observed (p < 0.05). On the other side, time kill studies revealed that allicin used its fungicidal activity within 12-24 h of management in vitro as well as ketoconazole. In conclusion, allicin showed very good potential as an antifungal compound against mycoses-causing dermatophytes, almost the same as the synthetic drug ketoconazole. Therefore, this antifungal agent appears to be effective, safe and suitable alternative for the treatment of dermatomycosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Técnicas In Vitro , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pacientes , Resultado do Tratamento
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