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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 632-640, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951795

RESUMO

Abstract The present study conducted a genetic characterization and determined growth rate and biomass production in solid and liquid media, using strains obtained from wild edible sporomes of Lyophyllum that grow in high mountains. Vegetative isolation was used to obtain a total of four strains, which were divided into two clades within the section Difformia: Lyophyllum sp. and Lyophyllum aff. shimeji. Growth rate and biomass production were influenced by both the culture media and the strains. In a potato dextrose agar medium, the strains presented a higher growth rate, while in a malt extract-peptone and yeast agar medium, the growth rate was lower, but with a higher biomass production that was equal to that in the malt extract-peptone and yeast liquid medium.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agaricales/genética , Cinética , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/genética , Micélio/metabolismo , Micélio/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricales/química , Fermentação , México
2.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 42: 1-10, Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-880616

RESUMO

Mushrooms have been used for centuries as a source of nourishment and sensory properties. Mushrooms are considered functional foods due to their bioactive compounds and a source of drug and nutraceutical development. More than 50 species present immunological potential that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models, and some of them have been investigated in human cancers. Cancer is a major cause of death all over the world, promoting long lasting effects throughout the lifetime of the patient. Mushrooms are a source of ergothioneine, selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. They have bioactive compounds used in cancer treatment due to their antitumor and anticarcinogenic effects. They containß-glucans,ß-proteoglycans, lectins, triterpenes, ergosterol, glutamine, and arginine. In the present study, we perform a literature review of studies that analyze positive impacts of mushroom compounds on cancer treatment due to their antitumor and anticarcinogenic effects and possible compatibility with chemotherapy management. The review indicates that a healthy diet with frequent consumption of mushrooms apparently reduces the risk of developing cancer. However, a clearer understanding of how mushrooms' bioactive principles may affect adjuvant treatments requires further research with long-term double-blind and placebo-controlled studies that evaluate a larger population in clinical trials by each type of cancer. There fore, more robust statistical results are necessary to verify their efficacy and safety on cancer treatments


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/efeitos dos fármacos , Agaricales/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico
3.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(1): 9-12, jun. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-868819

RESUMO

Inocybe sindonia (Fr.) P. Karst. y Amanita rubescens Pers. son especies típicamente asociadas a bosques de Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco y Pinus radiata D. Don respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez su presencia en Argentina en bosques de Nothofagus de la Patagonia andina como resultado de la invasión de especies forestales introducidas como recurso maderero. I. sindonia fue colectado en bosques de N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. y A. rubescens en bosques de N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser en áreas protegidas con invasión evidente de coníferas exóticas.


Inocybe sindonia (Fr.) P. Karst. and Amanita rubescens Pers. are species typically associated to Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Pinus radiata D. Don respectively. Both species have been introduced in South America together with timber species plantations. Basidiomes of I. sindonia were found occurring under Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst., while basidiomes of A. rubescens were found under N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser in protected areas that are under invasion of exotic conifers.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Basidiomycota , Florestas , Micorrizas , Cultivos Agrícolas , Argentina , Indústria da Madeira/efeitos adversos
4.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(1): 13-18, jun. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-982637

RESUMO

El género Macrolepiota cuenta con 30 especies ampliamente distribuidas en el mundo, siendo éstas saprobiontes. En Chile se han documentado tres especies: M. procera, M. bonaerensis y M. rachodes, perteneciendo actualmente esta última al género Chlorophyllum. En esta revisión, se describen según la literatura los caracteres macromorfológicos y microscópicos de las tres especies mencionadas con anterioridad. Adicionalmente, se adaptó una clave dicotómica en base a la bibliografía para facilitar la determinación de las especies.


The Macrolepiota genus include 30 species widely distributed around the world, being these saprobionts. In Chile, three species have been documented: M. procera, M. bonaerensis y M. rachodes, at present the last specie currently belong to the genus Chlorophyllum. In this review, the macromorphological, and microscopic characteristics of the three species mentioned above are described according to the literature. In addition, a dichotomous key was adapted based on the bibliography to facilitate the determination of the species.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Agaricales/citologia , Basidiomycota , Ecossistema , Chile , Ecologia
5.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 31(2): 38-43, dic. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-868814

RESUMO

Battarrea stevenii (Liboschitz) Fr. y Chlamydopus meyenianus (Klotzsch) Lloyd son dos hongos gasteroides raramente recolectados en Chile. Habitan regiones áridas y emergen después de las lluvias de primavera. Nuevas localidades y descripciones se presentan aquí.


Battarrea stevenii (Liboschitz) Fr. and Chlamydopus meyenianus (Klotzsch) Lloyd are two infrequently collected stalked gasteroid in Chile. They inhabit arid regions and emerge after early spring rains. New localities and descriptions are presented here.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Zona Árida , Basidiomycota , Zona Semiárida , Esporos Fúngicos , Chile
7.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 31(1): 28-35, jun. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-982635

RESUMO

Se presenta una breve revisión del género Amanita Pers. y posteriormente, se describen los caracteres macromorfológicos de las especies nativas comestibles Amanita diemii Singer y Amanita merxmuelleri Bresinsky & Garrido, las cuales se encuentran distribuidas desde la Región del Maule hasta la Región de Magallanes asociadas a especies del género Nothofagus Blume.


A brief review of the genus Amanita Pers. is presented and then the characters macromorphological of edible native species Amanita diemii Singer and Amanita merxmuelleri Bresinsky & Garrido, which are distributed from the Maule Region to the Magallanes Region described associated with Nothofagus Blume species.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Amanita/classificação , Amanita/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota , Grupos Populacionais , População Rural , Chile , Árvores
8.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 43(1): 75-80, mar. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-787096

RESUMO

Wild edible mushrooms (WEM) have high economic and culi-nary value, due to their nutritional and medical properties. They are regarded as functional foods, as well as of the nutritional properties that they have, it has been shown to have beneficial health effects and may be used in the prevention or treatment of diseases. It's therapeutic action is attributed to the bioactive compounds that they have in their fruiting bodies. Although, globally, it has only been studied for 6% of the fungal diversity There is a wide range of WEM which can be consumed safely and that can be exploited for the development food products, therefore it is necessary to promote future researches with WEM to reveal more Information about their health benefits, because currently available information is still scanty. In this paper the importance of studying the WEM were described, the physical and chemical characteristics and the bioactive compounds of the mostpopular genus of mushroom in the food area were also described in order to know their nutritional and therapeutic benefits, eliminate false beliefs around them and encourage consumption.


Los hongos comestibles silvestres (HCS) tienen un alto valor económico y gastronómico, debido a sus propiedades nutricionales y medicinales. Son considerados como alimentos funcionales, pues además de sus propiedades nutricionales, se ha demostrado efectos benéficos para la salud que pueden ser utilizados en la prevención o tratamiento de enfermedades. Su acción terapéutica es atribuida a los compuestos bioactivos que poseen en sus cuerpos fructíferos. A nivel mundial, sólo se ha estudiado 6% de la diversidad fúngica; existe una amplia gama de HCS que pueden ser consumidos con seguridad y que pueden ser aprovechados para el desarrollo de productos alimenticios, por lo tanto es necesario impulsar futuras investigaciones que revelen mayor información sobre sus propiedades nutricionales y beneficios para la salud, ya que actualmente la información disponible aun es escasa. En el presente artículo se describe la importancia del estudio de estos vegetales, y se detallan las características físicas, químicas y los principios activos de algunos de los géneros de hongos más populares en el ámbito alimenticio con el fin de dar a conocer sus beneficios nutricionales y terapéuticos, así como de eliminar las falsas creencias entorno a ellos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapêutica , Agaricales , Alimento Funcional , Valor Nutritivo , Economia dos Alimentos
9.
Rev. med. interna Guatem ; 20(1): [1-8], ene.-mar. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-986291

RESUMO

La intoxicación por hongos, especialmente con fines alimenticios, es un importante problema terapéutico. El hongo Chlorophyllum molybdites, es uno de los principales agentes causantes de intoxicación en países Latinoameri-canos, debido a su similitud con el hongo Agaricus comestible. Se presentan dos casos de intoxicación por Chlorophyllum molybdites los cuales fueron ingeridos y posteriormente desarrollaron manifes-taciones clínicas. Se presenta con su revisión bibliográfica centrada en las diferentes opciones terapéuticas...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micotoxicose/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Agaricales/classificação , Guatemala
10.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 38(1): 71-79, jan.-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-831607

RESUMO

The search for more healthy alimentary habits has stimulated the study of new food sources. Edible mushrooms, such as the genus Agaricus, may be underscored. Current assay evaluates the dietary influence of diets supplemented with the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis on the metabolic profile of lipids and glycemic behavior in rats. A trial with 28 male Wistar rats in 4 groups with 7 rats each was carried out during 32 days. Diets given to these groups were AIN-93 (CAS) for Group 1; AIN-93 with 1% cholesterol (CAS + COL) for Group 2; the same for Group 3 and 4, but supplemented with or without mushrooms [ (COG) and (COG + COL) respectively]. Analyses of all samples for cholesterol, triacylglycerols, hepatic cholesterol and hepatic lipids on the 32nd day showed that Agaricus mushroom modified the lipid profile, reduced total cholesterol by 16% and triacylglycerols by 26.9% and increased HDL by 60.2%, coupled to reduction of lipid and cholesterol levels in the liver and a higher elimination of lipids in the stool. Glycemic curve decreased significantly between fifteen and sixty minutes in rats fed on Agaricus supplemented diets.


A busca por hábitos alimentares saudáveis tem incentivado o estudo de novas fontes alimentares. Destacam-se os cogumelos comestíveis, como os do gênero Agaricus. Este trabalho avaliou a influência da ração semi-purificada, suplementada com o cogumelo Agaricus brasiliensis no perfil de lipídios, em ratos. Foi realizado experimento com 28 ratos machos Wistar, em 32 dias. Os animais foram separados em quatro grupos de sete dos quais o primeiro recebeu dieta AIN-93 (CAS), o segundo recebeu dieta AIN-93 adicionada de 1% de colesterol (CAS + COL) e o terceiro e o quarto grupos foram alimentados com dieta AIN-93 suplementada com cogumelos sem (COG) e com (COG + COL) adição de colesterol a 1%, respectivamente. No 32.º dia, amostras foram coletadas para análises de colesterol, triglicerídeos, colesterol hepático da gordura hepática. O estudo mostrou que Agaricus brasiliensis influenciou o perfil lipídico, diminuindo o colesterol total (-16%) e os triglicérides (- 26,9%), além de aumentar o HDL (+ 60,2%). É possível afirmar que nutrientes contidos em Agaricus brasiliensis são moduladores do perfil lipídico de ratos, diminuindo a deposição de lipídios hepáticos e aumentando a sua eliminação fecal. A curva glicêmica mostrou declínio significativo entre quinze e sessenta minutos em ratos alimentados com dieta contendo o cogumelo.


Assuntos
Ratos , Agaricales , HDL-Colesterol , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 83: e0522014, 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1006464

RESUMO

O cogumelo-do-sol (Agaricus blazei Murril) é amplamente consumido, por conta de suas propriedades medicinais. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a atividade antioxidante e antibacteriana in vitro dos extratos de cogumelo do sol, mediante diferentes tempos e temperaturas de extração. As amostras foram analisadas quanto à composição centesimal, determinação do teor de fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante e antibacteriana in vitro. Os resultados demonstram que esse tipo de cogumelo aparece como um agente antioxidante potencial, obtendo-se melhores resultados na temperatura de 70ºC durante 60 minutos de extração hidroetanólica. Esse extrato não aponta atividade antibacteriana para os micro-organismos em teste.(AU)


The sun mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murril) is widely consumed due its medicinal properties. This study aimed to determine in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities of sun mushroom, through different times and temperatures of extraction. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, determination of total phenolic content and in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The results show that this kind of mushroom appears as a potential antioxidant agent, obtaining best results in the temperature of 70ºC for 60 minutes in hydroethanol extraction. This extract shows no antibacterial activity for microorganisms under test.(AU)


Assuntos
Temperatura , Extratos Vegetais , Agaricales , Compostos Fenólicos/análise , Antioxidantes , Fatores de Tempo , Anti-Infecciosos
12.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 30(2): 28-39, dic. 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-868803

RESUMO

Los bosques de Nothofagus de la zona mediterránea de Chile, que incluye la VII Región, están constituidos por especies caducifolias y siempreverdes, las cuales se encuentran asociadas a diversos hongos ectomicorrícicos dentro de los que destaca el hongo nativo Cortinarius austroturmalis Moser & Horak (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). Este hongo constituye un Producto Forestal No Maderero (PFNM) poco conocido, cuya productividad no ha sido determinada, lo que implica que la población rural cercana a las Reservas Nacionales Altos de Lircay y Los Ruiles de la VII Región, no lo identifique como un hongo apto para el consumo humano y, por consiguiente, no lo coseche. El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer la productividad de basidiomas del hongo nativo Cortinarius austroturmalis asociado a especies de Nothofagus siempreverdes y caducifolias en las Reservas Nacionales Altos de Lircay y Los Ruiles de la VII Región. Las hipótesis propuestas fueron: 1) La productividad de basidiomas de Cortinarius austroturmalis en la Reserva Nacional Los Ruiles es mayor que en la Reserva Nacional Altos de Lircay, 2) La productividad de basidiomas de Cortinarius austroturmalis asociados a especies de Nothofagus siempreverdes es mayor que la productividad de este hongo asociado a especies de Nothofagus caducifolias en ambas reservas estudiadas.


Nothofagus forests in the Mediterranean region of Chile, including VII Region consist of deciduous and evergreen species, which are associated with different ectomycorrhizal fungi within which highlights the native mushroom Cortinarius austroturmalis Moser & Horak (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). This fungus is a Non-Wood Forest Product (NWFP) obscure, whose productivity has not been determined, implying that close to the National Reserves Altos de Lircay and Los Ruiles, VII Region, rural population does not identify it a fungus suitable for human consumption and therefore not harvested. The objective of this research was to determine the productivity of fruit body of the native mushroom Cortinarius austroturmalis associated with Nothofagus species of evergreen and deciduous in the National Reserves Altos de Lircay and Los Ruiles, VII Region. The proposed hypotheses were: 1) Productivity of Cortinarius austroturmalis in the National Reserve Los Ruiles is higher than in the National Reserve Altos de Lircay, 2) Productivity of Cortinarius austroturmalis associated with Nothofagus species evergreen is greater than the productivity of this fungus associated with deciduous Nothofagus species in both reserves studied.


Assuntos
Agaricales/isolamento & purificação , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cortinarius/isolamento & purificação , Cortinarius/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção de Alimentos , Micorrizas , Basidiomycota , Biomassa , Chile , Clima , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Reservas Naturais , Umidade do Solo
13.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 2(2): 95-104, jul.-dic. 2015. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-834321

RESUMO

Lepista nuda es un hongo comestible muy apreciado por su delicado sabor, especialmente en varios países de Europa. En Guatemala, lo consumen personas de las etnias Kaqchikel y Mam, por lo que constituye un alimento ancestral que puede aprovecharse como una alternativa alimenticia y económica. Por tal razón, en este estudio se investigaron cinco cepas nativas de L. nuda y se evaluó su crecimiento in vitro en tres medios de cultivo (agar extracto de malta –AEM, agar papa dextrosa -APD- y agar Sabouraud -SAB-) a dos temperaturas (18 y 26°C), así como la producción de inóculo en granos de trigo, cebada y sorgo. Se determinó que el medio más adecuado para el crecimiento micelial de las cepas fue AEM incubado a 26°C. Todas las cepas presentaron colonias de color blanco a lila, textura algodonosa, bordes irregulares, con hifas de 1 a 4 μm y fíbulas en regular cantidad a abundantes en todos los medios evaluados. En la producción de inóculo, las cepas presentaron mayor velocidad de colonización en los granos de trigo. Se recomienda utilizar AEM para la producción de biomasa y granos de trigo para la producción de inóculo de las cepas evaluadas.


Lepista nuda is an edible mushroom highly appreciated for its delicate flavor and in several European countries. In Guatemala is used by people of Kaqchikel and Mam ethnic groups and constituting an ancient food that can be used for economic and nutritional alternatives for the country. For this reason, five native strains of L. nuda were studied in vitro in three culture media (malt extract agar -AEM-, potato dextrose agar -APD- and Sabouraud agar -SAB-) at two different temperatures (18 and 26°C). The spawn production where evaluated in wheat, barley and sorghum grains. The most appropriate medium for the mycelial growth of the strains was AEM incubated at 26°C. All strains showed colonies white to lilac, cottony texture, irregular edges, with hyphae of 1 to 4 μm, and moderate to abundant quantity of clamp connections in all media tested. In the spawn production, the strains showed faster colonization in wheat grains. It is recommend the medium AEM for the production of biomass and wheat grain for spawn production for the strains tested.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Agaricales , Alimentos
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 389-395, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-749734

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats, female Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 28 d to generate hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were individually treated with three different dosages of K. marxianus M3+HCD or physiological saline+HCD via oral gavage for 28 d. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the serum and liver of the rats were measured using commercially available enzyme kits. In addition, the liver morphology was also examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscopy. According to our results, the serum and liver TC, TG, LDL-C levels and atherogenic index (AI) were significantly decreased in rats orally administered K. marxianus M3 (p <0.01), and the HDL-C levels and anti atherogenic index (AAI) were significantly increased (p <0.01) compared to the control group. Moreover, K. marxianus M3 treatment also reduced the build-up of lipid droplets in the liver and exhibited normal hepatocytes, suggesting a protective effect of K. marxianus M3 in hyperlipidemic rats.


Assuntos
Animais , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta/métodos , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Kluyveromyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Kluyveromyces/metabolismo , Agaricales , Histocitoquímica , Kluyveromyces/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/química , Fígado/patologia , Microscopia , Ratos Wistar , Soro/química
15.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 1(1): 35-42, jul.-dic. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-834309

RESUMO

En el presente estudio se determinó la producción de cuerpos fructíferos de cinco cepas nativas de Agrocybe cylindracea sobre tres sustratos y dos tratamientos térmicos, a través del porcentaje de eficiencia biológica y la medición del diámetro de los píleos. Se encontró que el mayor porcentaje de eficiencia biológica de las cepas en los sustratos evaluados fue 115.84 %, que correspondió al sustrato constituido por 29% paja de trigo más 1% de harina de soya pasteurizado y obtenido por la cepa 58.01, la cual también produjo las mayores eficiencias biológicas en todos los sustratos evaluados. Al confrontar el porcentaje de eficiencia biológica en los diferentes sustratos, todas las cepas presentaron valores altos en el sustrato compuesto por 28% de paja de trigo, 1% harina de soya y CaCO3. Con respecto al diámetro de los cuerpos fructíferos, las cepas 58.01, 59.01, 60.01 y 638.08 produjeron píleos menores de 2 cm, entre 2-4 cm y mayores a 4.0 cm en los diferentes sustratos y tratamientos, excepto la cepa 59.01 que en el sustrato formulado con 29% de paja de trigo y 1% de harina de soya, solo produjo cuerpos fructíferos con píleos menores a 2 cm y entre 2-4 cm. En el análisis proximal de los basidiomas de las cepas evaluadas se obtuvo un alto porcentaje de proteínas, fibra cruda y carbohidratos, así como bajo porcentaje de grasas. Se recomienda que en futuras investigaciones o transferencia de tecnología a comunidades o entidades interesadas en el cultivo de este hongo, utilizar paja de trigo suplementada con harina de soya y como regulador de pH CaCO3, ya que en dicho sustrato se obtuvieron los mayores porcentajes de eficiencia biológica para la producción de cuerpos fructíferos de A. cylindracea.


This study determined the production of fruiting bodies of five native strains of Agrocybe cylindracea over three different substrates and two heat treatments, by the biological efficiency percentage and the measurement of diameters of pileus. The major percentage of biological efficiency found from the strains in the evaluated substrates was 115.84%, and corresponded to the substrate formulated by 29% of wheat straw and 1% of pasteurized soy flour, and obtained from the strain 58.01, which also produced the major biological efficiencies in all of the evaluated substrates. When confronting the percentage of biological efficiency in the different substrates, all the strains presented high values in the substrate comprising 28% of wheat straw, 1% of soy flour and CaCO3. In relation to the diameter of the fruiting bodies, the strains 58.01, 59.01, 60.01 and 638.08 produced pileus less than 2 cm, between 2-4 cm and greater than 4 cm in the different substrates and treatments, excepting the strain 59.01 which in the substrate formulated with 29% of wheat straw and 1% of soy flour, only produced fruiting bodies with pileus less than 2 cm and between 2-4 cm. In the chemical proximate analysis of the fruiting bodies of the tested strains, a high percentage of proteins, crude fiber and carbohydrates was obtained, and also a low percentage of fats. For future research or when transferring the technology to communities interested in mushroom cultivation, the utilization of wheat straw supplemented with soy flour and as a regulator of pH CaCO3 is recommended, as in this substrate the highest percentages of biological efficiency for the production of fruiting bodies of A. cylindracea where obtained.


Assuntos
Humanos , Agaricales , Agrocybe/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos , Alimentos de Soja , Triticum , Alimentos Integrais
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1263-1270, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741276

RESUMO

Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 ºC), immersion in hot water (60 and 80 ºC), and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (10(5) conidia/mL) and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 ºC for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desinfecção/métodos , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Álcalis/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Eucalyptus/microbiologia , Temperatura Alta , Populus/microbiologia , Temperatura , Trichoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichoderma/efeitos da radiação , Triticum/microbiologia
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 900-907, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-753660

RESUMO

Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthora roreri, known commonly as “monilia”, has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. Fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Trichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia) at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma). Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of moniliainfection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p<0.05) in only 35d, ascompared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1 500kg dried beans/ha by 198kg/ha up to 1 698kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110ha plantation by 21 780kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days) would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal control measure has the potential of revitalizing the production of cacao in the region. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 899-907. Epub 2014 September 01.


El cacao (Theobroma cacao) es un cultivo comercial importante en los climas tropicales como los de América Latina. A lo largo de las últimas décadas la infección de cacao cultivado con Moniliophthora roreri, conocida comúnmente como “monilia”, ha dificultado la producción del cacao en América Latina de manera significativa. Algunos estudios han propuesto el uso del hongo Trichoderma sp. en tratamientos de control biológico para prevenir y reducir la infección por monilia. No obstante, pruebas realizadas con tratamientos por aspersión que contenían Trichoderma en cultivos de cacao agroforestales produjeron resultados diversos. Investigadores y trabajadores agrícolas han sugerido que la adición de tierra, cenizas volantes u otras fuentes de carbón a la aspersión de Trichoderma podría mejorar su eficacia en la lucha contra la monilia. Para probar la validez de estas sugerencias, diseñamos una serie de mezclas para la aspersión que incluían cultivos de Trichoderma, tierra y todos los testigos necesarios. Aplicamos aspersiones a 80 árboles de cacao (20 árboles para cada uno de cuatro clones seleccionados anteriormente por su resistencia a la monilia) en la finca de cacao orgánico FINMAC en Pueblo Nuevo de Guácimo, provincia de Limón, noreste de Costa Rica durante marzo y abril de 2013. Se aplicaron cinco tratamientos (testigo, agua, agua con tierra esterilizada, agua con Trichoderma, y agua con tierra esterilizada y Trichoderma). Se aplicó cada tratamiento a cuatro árboles de cada clon. Medimos la tasa de incidencia de infección por monilia bajo cada tratamiento por aspersión durante 35d. La aplicación de dos aspersiones a los árboles completos con una mezcla de Trichoderma y tierra esterilizada redujo la tasa de incidencia de infección por monilia en 11% (p<0.05) en solo 35d, en comparación con el tratamiento testigo. Esta reducción en la pérdida de frutos de cacao representa un aumento de 198kg/ha de semillas secas sobre la producción media de 1 500kg/ha, o un aumento total de 21 780kg en toda la plantación de 110ha. Proponemos que el uso de tal aspersión fungicida a lo largo de todo el ciclo de cultivo (120d) produciría una disminución aún mayor de la tasa de incidencia de infección. La aplicación de este método de control fungicida tiene el potencial de revitalizar la producción de cacao en la región.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Cacau/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Trichoderma , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Costa Rica , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
18.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 81(3): 272-281, July-Sept. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1009431

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição mineral (macro e micronutrientes) dos substratos [(inicial e residual (pós-colheita)] à base de diferentes combinações de resíduos (folha, pseudocaule e pseudocaule + folha) e cultivares de bananeira - Musa spp. (Thap Maeo, Prata Anã, Pelipita e Caipira), durante 49 dias de cultivo da linhagem POS 09/100 de Pleurotus ostreatus. Verificaram-se que todos os substratos à base de resíduos de diferentes cultivares de bananeira apresentaram quantidades satisfatórias de nutrientes para o cultivo de P. ostreatus, tanto na fase inicial de cultivo como na final.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the mineral composition (macro e micronutrients) of the substrates [initial and residual (postharvest)] based on different combinations of waste (leaf, pseudo-stem and pseudo-stem + leaf) and banana cultivars - Musa spp. (Thap Maeo, Prata Anã, Pelipita and Caipira) during 49 days for the cultivation of POS 09/100 strain of P. ostreatus. It was verified that all of the substrates based on different combinations of waste and banana cultivars presented satisfactory amounts of nutrients for the cultivation of P. ostreatus, both in the initial phase of cultivation and in the end.(AU)


Assuntos
Pleurotus , Agaricales , Musa , Fungos
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(7): 659-662, jul. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-720441

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever e discutir os aspectos epidemiológicos de surtos de intoxicação espontânea por Ramaria flavo-brunnescens em bovinos criados em sistema silvippastoril na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram diagnosticados três surtos da enfermidade entre 2011 e 2013. Em dois surtos a morbidade foi de 35 por cento e 37,4 por cento e a mortalidade foi de 36,12 por cento e 16 por cento, respectivamente. A letalidade nos surtos foi de 45,71 por cento e 96,55 por cento. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela epidemiologia e presença do cogumelo nas áreas onde os bovinos estavam, além dos sinais clínicos e lesões macroscópicas e histológicas características. Os dados climáticos de temperatura, umidade e precipitação pluviométrica foram analisados estatisticamente; não se observou diferenças de 2007 a 2013. Não foi possível confirmar se a presença de R. flavo-brunnescens nos bosques de eucaliptos está associada a outonos chuvosos e quentes após verões secos. É provável que outros fatores estejam associados à presença do cogumelo nos bosques e à sua toxicidade. A influência do solo e a finalidade da mata plantada podem também, determinar a presença ou não do cogumelo na área. É provável que a espécie de eucalipto seja também um fator determinante para a ocorrência do cogumelo, já que em muitas matas deste gênero o vegetal R. flavo-brunnecens não ocorre. O reconhecimento do cogumelo por trabalhadores e produtores rurais e a época em que o mesmo se desenvolve nos bosques de eucalipto é fundamental para minimizar as perdas econômicas causadas pela intoxicação.


The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the epidemiological aspects of spontaneous outbreaks of poisoning by Ramaria flavo-brunnescens in cattle maintained in silvipasture system in Southern Brazil. Three outbreaks of the disease between 2011 and 2013 were diagnosed. In two outbreaks morbidity was 35 percent and 37.4 percent, and the mortality rate was 36.12 percent and 16 percent, respectively. The fatality rate in these outbreaks was 45.71 percent and 96.55 percent. The diagnosis was confirmed by the epidemiology and the presence of the mushroom in the areas where the cattle grazed, in addition to the clinical signs, gross and histological lesions. The climatic data of temperature, humidity and rainfall were statistically analyzed and no significant differences were observed between the years 2007-2013. It was not possible to confirm that the presence of R. flavo-brunnescens in eucalyptus groves is associated with rainy autumns and warm dry summers. It is likely that other factors are associated with the presence of the mushroom in the woods and its toxicity. The soil and type of forest planted may also determine the presence of the mushroom in the area. It is possible that the species of eucalyptus is also a determining factor for the occurrence of the mushroom, since in many eucalyptus forests R. flavo-brunnescens does not occur. The recognition of the mushroom by workers and farmers and the time for its development in the eucalyptus woods is essential to minimize economic losses caused by the poisoning.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Agaricales/patogenicidade , Bovinos/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Eucalyptus , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(5): 406-410, oct. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-708525

RESUMO

En la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (FCEN-UBA) funciona el Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos. Lo integran los investigadores del Programa de Plantas Medicinales y Programa de Hongos que Intervienen en la Degradación Biológica (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) y colabora con servicios médicos, estatales y privados, identificando los materiales remitidos en casos de intoxicaciones con hongos, permitiendo, en muchos casos, realizar el tratamiento adecuado. El presente trabajo da a conocer los casos atendidos por el servicio desde 1985 hasta 2012 inclusive, además de una tabla para reconocer las especies tóxicas más comunes de la región. Según esta información, el 47% de las consultas que se recibieron correspondieron a pacientes menores de 18 años de edad que ingirieron materiales fúngicos de forma accidental (o al menos se sospechaba que lo hubieran hecho). El 53% restante correspondió a adultos que afirmaron ser capaces de distinguir hongos comestibles de tóxicos. Se determinó que Chlorophyllum molybdites fue la principal especie causante de intoxicaciones, la cual es comúnmente confundida con el hongo comestible Macrolepiota procera. En segundo lugar Amanita phalloides, un hongo altamente tóxico, que se caracteriza por presentar inicio de síntomas en forma tardía (latencia de 6-10 horas), evolucionando a falla hepática con el consiguiente requerimiento de trasplante o la muerte, si no se realiza el tratamiento adecuado en forma oportuna.


In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Agaricales/classificação , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Argentina , Agaricales/patogenicidade , Amanita/classificação , Amanita/patogenicidade , Micotoxinas/análise , Fatores de Tempo
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