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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 495-504, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001457

RESUMO

Abstract Forest edges typically exhibit higher luminosity and lower humidity than the forest interior, resulting in an abiotic gradient. However, the degree of abiotic difference can be affected from the type of the matrix, influencing the selection of species. We compared the floristic and phytosociological structure of understory communities of ferns and lycophytes of the edge and interior of three forest sites influenced by different types of surrounding matrices (natural field, Pinus plantation, and cultivation of crops). In the region of Araucaria Forest, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, twelve 10 × 10 m plots were selected at the edge and interior of each site, totaling 72 plots and to evaluate the phytosociological contrast, using as a parameter coverage and species richness per plot to evaluate this contrast. We recorded a total of 38 species in the studied areas, distributed in 15 families. The results show that the edge effect acts at different intensities in the analyzed sites. In the site with unnatural matrix, the composition was more homogeneous both in the edges and in the interiors and presented lower richness, showing a more pronounced and deep impact. Already in the site with natural matrix surroundings, although the border also presents low richness, the interior was about 3x richer. Based on our results, we concluded that fern conservation efforts should focus on fragments of Araucaria Forest inserted in the natural field, because the conversion of natural field into Pinus planting and cultivation of crops decreases ferns species both in the edges and forest interiors of the studied fragments, besides altering the phytosociological structure leading the communities to simplification.


Resumo Bordas florestais tipicamente exibem maior luminosidade e menor umidade que o interior florestal, resultando em um gradiente abiótico. Entretanto, o grau de diferença abiótica pode ser afetado a partir do tipo da matriz, influenciando a seleção de espécies. Comparamos a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica das comunidades de samambaias e licófitas na borda e interior de três sítios influenciados por diferentes matrizes (campo natural, plantio de Pinus e cultivo de olerícolas). Na região de Floresta com Araucária no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foram sorteadas doze parcelas de 10 × 10 m na borda e no interior de cada sítio, totalizando 72 parcelas para avaliar o contraste fitossociológico, utilizando como parâmetro cobertura e riqueza das espécies por parcela para avaliar esse contraste. Registramos um total de 38 espécies nas áreas estudadas, distribuídas em 15 famílias. Os resultados mostraram que o efeito de borda atua em intensidades distintas nos sítios analisados. Nos sítios com matriz antropizada, a composição foi mais homogênea tanto nas bordas, quanto nos interiores e apresentou menor riqueza, demonstrando impacto mais pronunciado e profundo. Já no sítio com matriz de entorno natural, apesar da borda também apresentar baixa riqueza, o interior foi cerca de 3x mais rico. Sugerimos que os esforços de conservação de samambaias e licófitas em fragmentos com araucária, devem se concentrar em sítios inseridos em campo natural, pois, a conversão destes em plantio de Pinus e cultivo de olerícolas, diminui a diversidade dessas plantas, tanto nas bordas quanto nos interiores da floresta, além de alterar a estrutura fitossociológica levando as comunidades à simplificação.


Assuntos
Florestas , Gleiquênias , Lycopodiaceae , Biota , Brasil
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 1161-1195, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-753681

RESUMO

Studies on reproductive aspects, spore morphology and ultrastructure of Lycopodiaceae are not very common in the scientific literature, and constitute essential information to support taxonomic and systematic relationships among the group. In order to complete existing information, adding new and broader contributions on these topics, a comparative analysis of the sporogenesis ultrastructure, with emphasis on cytological aspects of the sporocyte coat development, tapetum, monoplastidic and polyplastidic meiosis, sporoderm ontogeny and ornamentation of the mature spores, was carried out in 43 taxa of eight genera of the Lycopodiaceae: Austrolycopodium, Diphasium, Diphasiastrum, Huperzia (including Phlegmariurus), Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, Palhinhaea and Pseudolycopodiella growing in the Andes of Colombia and the Neotropics. For this study, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples were collected in Cauca and Valle del Cauca Departments, while most of the spores for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were obtained from herbarium samples. We followed standard preparation procedures for spore observation by TEM and SEM. Results showed that the sporocyte coat is largely composed by primary wall components; the sporocyte develop much of their metabolic activity in the production of their coat, which is retained until the spores release; protective functions for the diploid cells undergoing meiosis is postulated here for this layer. The abundance of dictyosomes in the sporocyte cytoplasm was related to the formation and development of the sporocyte coat. Besides microtubule activity, the membrane of sporocyte folds, associated with electrodense material, and would early determine the final patterns of spore ornamentation. Monoplastidic condition is common in Lycopodium s.l., whereas polyplastidic condition was observed in species of Huperzia and Lycopodiella s. l.. In monoplastidic species, the tapetum presents abundant multivesicular bodies, while in polyplastidic species, the secretory activity of the tapetum is less intense. Sporoderm development is centripetal, exospore is the first formed layer, then the endospore and, if present, perispore is the final deposited layer. Adult spores of the Lycopodiaceae showed two patterns of ornamentation: negative or caviform (foveolate spores) and positive or muriform ornamentation, the latter with two subtypes (rugate and reticulate spores). The spores of Huperzia are characteristically foveolate, the rugate spores were found in a few species of Huperzia and in all of the Lycopodiella s. l. taxa studied, while Lycopodium s.l. spores bear reticulate ornamentation. Numerous ornamentation traits are diagnostic at the specific level. The types of ornamentation found do not support the recent extreme fragmentation of the family in several genera, but could match, a priori, with the idea of three subfamilies. The findings of sporogenesis, extremely similar in all taxa studied, point more to consider fewer genera, more comprehensive, than the recent, markedsplitting of the family. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 1161-1195. Epub 2014 September 01.


Estudios sobre aspectos reproductivos, morfología y ultraestructura de las esporas de Lycopodiaceae no son abundantes en la literatura científica y constituyen información esencial para apoyar las relaciones taxonómicas y sistemáticas en el grupo. Con el fin de completar la información existente, añadiendo contribuciones nuevas y más amplias sobre estos temas, se realizó un análisis comparado de la ultraestructura de la esporogénesis, con énfasis en aspectos citológicos que tienen que ver con la formación de la cubierta de los esporocitos, el tapete, las meiosis monoplastidial y poliplastidial, la ontogenia del esporodermo y la ornamentación de las esporas maduras en 43 táxones de ocho géneros de Lycopodiaceae: Austrolycopodium, Diphasium, Diphasiastrum, Huperzia (incluyendo Phlegmariurus), Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, Palhinhaea y Pseudolycopodiella que crecen en los Andes de Colombia y el Neotrópico. Para estudios con microscopía electrónica de trasmisión (MET) las muestras se recolectaron en los departamentos de Cauca y Valle del Cauca, mientras que la mayoría de las muestras para microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB) provienen de material herborizado de colecciones. Para la observación de las muestras con MET y MEB se utilizaron protocolos estándar para el procesamiento de esporas. La cubierta de los esporocitos está formada por pared primaria; los esporocitos invierten gran parte de su actividad metabólica en la producción de esa cubierta, que es mantenida hasta la liberación de las esporas y tiene funciones de protección de las células que harán meiosis. La abundancia de dictiosomas en los esporocitos se relacionó con la formación y desarrollo de la cubierta. Además de la actividad de los microtúbulos, la presencia de sinuosidades y plegamientos asociados con material electro denso en la membrana de los esporocitos determinarían tempranamente los patrones de ornamentación de las esporas. La condición monoplastidial es común en Lycopodium s.l.y la poliplastidial se observó en Huperzia y Lycopodiella s. l. En especies monoplastidiales el tapete presenta abundantes cuerpos plurivesiculares, en las poliplastidiales la actividad secretora del tapete es menos intensa. El desarrollo del esporodermo es centrípeto, el exosporio se forma primero, seguido del endosporio y el perisporio, si está presente, se deposita de último. En las esporas adultas de Lycopodiaceae se encontraron dos patrones de ornamentación: negativo o caviforme (esporas foveoladas) y positivo o muriforme (esporas rugadas y reticuladas). Las esporas foveoladas son características de Huperzia; las rugadas de unas pocas especies de Huperzia y las especies de Lycopodiella s. l., mientras que las reticulada son típicas de Lycopodium s. l.. Numerosos caracteres de la ornamentación resultan diagnósticos en el nivel específico. Los tipos principales no apoyan la extrema fragmentación reciente de la familia en varios géneros, aunque podría coincidir, a priori, con la idea de tres subfamilias. Los hallazgos de la esporogénesis, extremadamente similar en todos los táxones estudiados, apuntan más a la unificación de los géneros en la familia que a su segregación.


Assuntos
Lycopodiaceae/ultraestrutura , Meiose , Esporângios/embriologia , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colômbia , Lycopodiaceae/classificação , Lycopodiaceae/embriologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Esporângios/ultraestrutura , Esporos/ultraestrutura
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 1217-1227, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-753684

RESUMO

Phlegmariurus is the only genus of Lycopodiaceae with the species grouped in 22 informal groups. Species level relationships within Phlegmariurus are poorly understood and their circumscriptions require a thorough molecular and morphological review. A detailed study of morphology and anatomy of caulinar axes, lycophylls and sporangia of Phlegmariurus phylicifolius was carried out in order to contribute to the elucidation of species circumscription in the informal group Phlegmariurus phlegmaria. Small pieces of caulinar axes bearing trophophylls, sporophylls and sporangia were fixed, dehydrated, Histowax (paraffin) embedded, sectioned in a rotatory microtome, and stained using the common Safranin O-Fast Green technique; handmade cross sections were also made and stained with the same technique. P. phylicifolius includes slender, pendulous plants up to 40cm long. Shoots heterophyllous, in the basal divisions ca. 10-20(-25)mm in diameter including the trophophylls, then abruptly constricted to (l-) 1.5-2(-2.5)mm in diameter including the imbricate, reduced sporophylls. Trophophylls are borne in alternating whorls of three, or decussate, subdecussate, or alternate, widely spaced in alternate leaved caulinar axes portions, perpendicular to the caulinar axes to falcately ascending, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, with flat to slightly revolute margins. Each lycophyll is supplied by a single central vascular bundle, connected to a protoxylem pole in the stele. At the site of leaf-trace departure, no leaf (lycophyll) gap is present. Caulinar axes excluding leaves 0.7-1.2mm thick at the base, upward tapering to ca. 0.5mm. Caulinar axes present unistratified epidermis and endodermis, the cortex is characterized by the presence of a trabecular structure of lisigenous origin formed in the parenchimatous tissue next to the endodermis. The vascular tissue occupies the central part of the caulinar axes, forming a plectostele of subradiate organization, with five poles of protoxylem. The epidermal cells present sinuous anticlinal walls; invaginations in the inner side of external periclinal wall of the epidermal cells could be probably adaptive morphological feature of a water deficient environment. Leaves of constricted terminal divisions are decussate, or subdecussate, continuously or discontinuously sporangiate, appressed, abaxially rounded to carinate, widely lanceolate to widely ovate or subcordate, acute to mucronate or cuspidate, shorter than the sporangia. Each sporangium originates from a group of epidermal cells, axilar to the sporophylls. The cell walls of epidermal cell of the sporangia are Huperzioideae type. The morphological studies of trophophylls contribute to confirm the differences between P. phylicifolius and P. subulatus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 1217-1227. Epub 2014 September 01.


Phlegmariurus es el único género de Lycopodiaceae con las especies reunidas en 22 grupos informales. Las relaciones a nivel de especie dentro de Phlegmariurus están pobremente estudiadas y la circunscripción de las mismas requiere profundos exámenes moleculares y morfológicos. Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio detallado de la morfología y la anatomía de ejes caulinares, licofilos y esporangios de P. phylicifolius, con el fin de contribuir al esclarecimiento en la delimitación de las especies en el grupo Phlegmariurus phlegmaria. Segmentos de ejes caulinares con trofofilos, esporofilos y esporangios fueron fijados, deshidratados, incluidos en Histowax (parafina), cortados con un micrótomo rotatorio y coloreados usando la técnica tradicional Safranina O-Verde Rápido; además se hicieron cortes a mano alzada y se colorearon con la misma técnica. P. phylicifolius incluye plantas colgantes y péndulas de hasta 40cm de longitud. Los ejes son heterofilos, de aproximadamente 10-20(-25)mm de diámetro en las divisiones basales incluyendo los trofofilos, luego abruptamente reducidos a (l-) 1.5-2(-2.5)mm de diámetro incluyendo los esporofilos reducidos e imbricados. Los trofofilos están dispuestos en anillos alternantes de a tres, o decusados, subdecusados o alternos, dispuestos en forma espaciada en los ejes caulinares, perpendiculares al tallo hasta falcadamente ascendentes, lanceolados a lineal-lanceolados, con márgenes lisos o levemente revolutos. Cada licofilo está provisto de un haz vascular simple y central, conectado a un polo de protoxilema de la estela y sin laguna foliar. Los tallos poseen un ancho de 0.7-1.2mm en la base, excluyendo los licofilos, estrechándose hasta cerca de 0.5mm hacia el ápice. Los ejes caulinares presentan una epidermis uniestratificada y endodermis, la corteza se caracteriza por la presencia de una estructura trabecular de origen lisígeno formada en el tejido parenquimático próximo a la endodermis. El tejido vascular ocupa la parte central del eje caulinar, formando una plectostela de organización subradiada, con cinco polos de protoxilema. Las células epidérmicas presentan paredes anticlinales sinuosas; las invaginaciones en la cara interna de la pared periclinal externa podrían ser probablemente un característica morfológica adaptativa a un ambiente con períodos de sequía. Las hojas de las porciones apicales son decusadas o subdecusadas, con esporangio de disposición continua o discontinua, adpresas, abaxialmente redondeadas a carinadas, ampliamente lanceoladas a ovadas o subcordadas, ápice agudo a mucronado o cuspidado, más corto que el esporangio. Cada esporangio se origina de un grupo de células epidérmicas, en la axila de los esporofilos con el eje caulinar. Las paredes celulares de las células epidérmicas del esporangio son de tipo Huperzioideae. El estudio de la morfología de los trofofilos contribuye a confirmar las diferencias entre P. phylicifolius y P. subulatus.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Lycopodiaceae/citologia , Esporângios/citologia , Esporos/citologia , Lycopodiaceae/química , Lycopodiaceae/classificação , Lycopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporângios/química , Esporângios/classificação , Esporângios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos/química , Esporos/classificação , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 282-307, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-715430

RESUMO

Studies on reproductive aspects of Lycopodiaceae are not very abundant in the scientific literature, and constitute essential information to support taxonomic and systematic relationships among the group. Here we present a detailed study of the ontogeny of sporangia and sporogenesis, and the chemical determination of several compounds generated during spore formation. The analyses were performed in 14 taxa of six genera of the family, Diphasiastrum, Diphasium, Huperzia (a genus which is treated here including Phlegmariurus), Lycopodiella, Lycopodium and Palhinhaea. Specimens were collected in three departments from the Colombian Andes between 1 454-3 677m altitude. Ontogeny was studied in small, 1cm long pieces of strobili and axis, which were fixed in glutaraldehyde or FAA, dehydrated in alcohol, embedded in LR White, sectioned in 0.2-0.5μm and stained with toluidine blue (TBO), a metachromatic dye that allows to detect both sporopollenin and lignin or its precursors, during these processes. For other studies, paraplast plus-embedded sections (3-5μm) were stained with safranin-fast green and alcian blue-hematoxylin. Chemical tests were also conducted in sections of fresh sporangia at different stages of maturity using alcian blue (mucopolysaccharides), Lugol solution (starch), Sudan III (lipids), phloroglucinol (lignin) and orcein (chromosomes). Sections were observed with photonic microscope equipped with differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy (for spore and sporangium walls unstained). Strobili and sporangia were dehydrated with 2.2 dimethoxypropane, critical point dried and coated with gold for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our results indicated that the ontogeny of sporangia and sporogenesis were very similar to the previously observed in Huperzia brevifolia. Cutinisation occurs in early stages of development of sporangium cell walls, but in their final stages walls become lignified. As for the sporoderm development, the exospore is the first layer formed, composed by sporopollenin. The endospore deposits as a thin inner layer composed of cellulose, pectin and carboxylated polysaccharides. The perispore, if present, deposits at last. Mucopolysaccharides were found on the sporocyte coat and its abundance in sporangial cavity persists up to the immature tetrads stage, and then disappears. The lipids were abundant in the sporocytes, tetrads and spores, representing the main source of energy of the latter. In contrast, starch is not detected in the spores, but is abundant in premeiotic sporocytes and immature tetrads, developmental stages of high cellular metabolic activity. Intrinsic fluorescence corroborates the presence of lignin and cutin in the sporangium wall, while the sporopollenin is restricted to the exospore. The transfusion cells and the perispore are not always present. However, the processes of ontogeny and sporogenesis are extremely similar throughout the taxa studied, suggesting that they represent conservative family traits, nonspecific or generic.


Los estudios sobre aspectos reproductivos no son muy abundantes en la literatura científica sobre los taxones de Lycopodiaceae y constituyen información esencial para apoyar la taxonomía y relaciones sistemáticas en el grupo. Por lo tanto, se presenta aquí un análisis detallado de la ontogenia de los esporangios y esporogénesis, así como determinaciones químicas de varios compuestos generados durante la formación de las esporas. Los análisis se llevaron a cabo en 14 taxones de seis géneros de la familia: Diphasiastrum, Diphasium, Huperzia (un género que se trata aquí, incluyendo Phlegmariurus), Lycopodiella, Lycopodium y Palhinhaea. Las muestras fueron recolectadas en tres departamentos de los Andes de Colombia entre 1 454-3 677m de altitud. La ontogenia se estudió en trozos de estróbilos y ejes, de 1cm de largo, que se fijaron en glutaraldehido o FAA, se deshidrataron en alcohol, se incluyeron en LR White, se seccionaron en cortes de 0.2-0.5μm y se colorearon con azul de toluidina (TBO), un colorante metacromático que permite detectar tanto esporopolenina como lignina o sus precursores. Para estudios adicionales, secciones de 3-5μm de material incluido en paraplast plus se colorearon con safranina-verde rápido y azul alciánhematoxilina. Las pruebas químicas se llevaron a cabo en secciones de esporangios sin fijar en diferentes etapas de madurez utilizando azul alcián (mucopolisacáridos), solución de Lugol (almidón), Sudán III (lípidos), fluoroglucinol (lignina) y orceína (cromosomas). Las observaciones se efectuaron con microscopio fotónico equipado con contraste diferencial de interferencia (DIC) y microscopía de fluorescencia (para esporas y pared de los esporangios sin colorear). Para observaciones con microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB), los estróbilos y esporangios se deshidrataron con 2,2 dimetoxipropano, se desecaron a punto crítico y se metalizaron con oro. Los resultados indican que la ontogenia de los esporangios y esporogénesis es muy similar a la observada previamente en Huperzia brevifolia. En las primeras etapas de desarrollo, las paredes celulares de la epidermis del esporangio se cutinizan y en las finales se lignifican. En el desarrollo del esporodermo, la primera capa que se forma es el exosporio, compuesto por esporopolenina. El endosporio es una capa interna delgada compuesta de celulosa, pectina y polisacáridos carboxilados. El perisporio, si está presente, es la última capa que se deposita. Los mucopolisacáridos se encontraron en la cubierta del esporocito, son abundantes en la cavidad esporangial hasta la etapa de tétradas inmaduras y luego desaparecen. Los lípidos son abundantes en esporocitos, tétradas y esporas, y representan la principal fuente de energía de estas. En contraste, el almidón no se detecta en las esporas pero es abundante en esporocitos premeióticos y tétradas inmaduras, ambos con gran actividad metabólica. La fluorescencia intrínseca corrobora la presencia de lignina y cutina en la pared del esporangio, mientras que la esporopolenina se limita al exosporio. Las células de transfusión y el perisporio no siempre están presentes. Sin embargo, los procesos de la ontogenia y esporogénesis son extremadamente similares en todos los taxones estudiados, lo que sugiere que representan rasgos típicos de familia, no específicos ni genéricos.


Assuntos
Lycopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporângios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Histocitoquímica , Lycopodiaceae/química , Lycopodiaceae/classificação , Lycopodiaceae/citologia , Meiose , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Esporângios/química , Esporângios/classificação , Esporângios/citologia , Esporos/química , Esporos/classificação , Esporos/citologia
5.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 80(3): 553-563, Sept. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-491832

RESUMO

The genus Lycopodites, which encompasses the herbaceous forms of the lycopsids, presents broad time and spacial distribution during the Paleozoic in the Northern Hemisphere, with its initial records dating from the European Devonian. As to Gondwanan Paleozoic, to this moment, only Lycopodites amazonica Dolianiti had been reported for the Amazonian Middle Devonian (Curuá Group). Thus, the specimens reported in this study such as Lycopodites sp., coming from sedimentary rocks of the Itararé Subgroup, São Paulo State, and Lycopodites riograndensis sp. nov., collected in Rio Bonito Formation, Rio Grande do Sul, represent the oldest fertile forms recorded for Gondwana and the first ones to be described for the Paraná Basin. Its presence in layers, deposited after the end of the Neopaleozoic Glaciation, shows the appearance of new taxa in high latitudes, as well as the diversity of the lycopsids present in the Basin, previously indicated through the abundance of spores associated to the Class Lycopsida present in the palinomorphous assemblages.


O gênero Lycopodites, que engloba formas herbáceas de licópsidas, apresenta ampla distribuição temporal e espacial durante o Paleozóico no Hemisfério Norte, iniciando seu registro no Devoniano da Europa. Já no Paleozóico do Gondwana, até o presente momento, somente Lycopodites amazonica Dolianiti havia sido reportada para o Devoniano Médio da Amazônia (Grupo Curuá). Assim, os exemplares reportados no presente trabalho como Lycopodites sp., provenientes de rochas sedimentares do Subgrupo Itararé, SP, e Lycopodites riograndensis sp. nov., coletados na Formação Rio Bonito, RS, representam as formas férteis mais antigas registradas para o Gondwana e as primeiras a serem descritas para a Bacia do Paraná. A sua presença em camadas depositadas após o término da glaciação neopaleozóica, evidencia o ingresso de novos taxa em latitudes altas, bem como a diversidade das licópsidas presentes na Bacia, já esboçada através dos abundantes esporos associados à Classe Lycopsida presentes nas assembléias de palinomorfos.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lycopodiaceae/classificação , Brasil , Paleontologia
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