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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1535-1548, oct.-dic. 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-753709

RESUMO

Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are grazers influencing the distribution of seagrass within shallow coastal ecosystems, yet the drivers behind C. mydas patch use within seagrass beds are largely unknown. Current theories center on food quality (nutrient content) as the plant responds to grazing disturbances; however, no study has monitored these parameters in a natural setting without grazer manipulation. To determine the morphological and physiological responses potentially influencing seagrass recovery from grazing disturbances, seagrasses were monitored for one year under three different grazing scenarios (turtle grazed, fish grazed and ungrazed) in a tropical ecosystem in Akumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Significantly less soluble carbohydrates and increased nitrogen and phosphorus content in Thalassia testudinum were indicative of the stresses placed on seagrasses during herbivory. To determine if these physiological responses were the drivers of the heterogeneous grazing behavior by C. mydas recorded in Akumal Bay, patches were mapped and monitored over a six-month interval. The abandoned patches had the lowest standing crop rather than leaf nutrient or rhizome soluble carbohydrate content. This suggests a modified Giving Up Density (GUD) behavior: the critical threshold where cost of continued grazing does not provide minimum nutrients, therefore, new patches must be utilized, explains resource abandonment and mechanism behind C. mydas grazing. This study is the first to apply GUD theory, often applied in terrestrial literature, to explain marine herbivore grazing behavior.


Las tortugas verdes, Chelonia mydas, son herbívoros que influencian la distribución de pastos marinos en sistemas costeros someros, sin embargo los factores que hay detrás del uso de un parche de pastos marinos por C. mydas son desconocidos. Teorías actuales se centran en calidad de alimento (contenido de nutrientes en tejido) conforme la planta responde a la alteración causada por el pastoreo; sin embargo no hay estudios que hayan monitoreado estos parámetros en un diseño natural sin manipulación del herbívoro. Para deter minar las respuestas morfológicas y fisiológicas (productividad, morfología y almacenamiento de nutrientes) que potencialmente influencian la recuperación de los pastos de la alteración por pastoreo, los pastos fueron monitoreados por un año en tres escenarios diferentes de pastoreo (pastoreo por tortuga, pastoreo por peces, sin pastoreo) en el sistema tropical Bahía de Akumal, Quintana Roo, México. Significativamente menos carbohidratos solubles y mayor contenido de nitrógeno y fósforo fueron indicativos del estrés causado por el pastoreo en los pastos. Para determinar si estas respuestas fisiológicas de los pastos son las causantes del heterogéneo comportamiento de pastoreo de C. midas, reportado en Akumal, se mapearon y monitorearon parches de pastos en intervalos de seis meses. Los parches abandonados tuvieron menor biomasa, en vez de bajo contenido de nutrientes en hoja, o de carbohidratos en raíces. Estos resultados sugieren un comportamiento modificado de renunciamiento por densidad: el umbral crítico donde el costo de pastoreo continuo no provee los nutrimentos mínimos, por lo tanto nuevos parches deberán ser utilizados, explicando así el abandono del recurso y mecanismo detrás del comportamiento de pastoreo por C. mydas. Este es el primer estudio en aplicar la teoría de renuncia por densidad, frecuentemente utilizada en la literatura terrestre, para explicar el comportamiento de pastoreo de herbívoros.


Assuntos
Animais , Alismatales/anatomia & histologia , Alismatales/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Alismatales/classificação , Sinais (Psicologia) , México , Estações do Ano , Tartarugas/classificação
2.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-724674

RESUMO

Naja kaouthia, Ophiophagus hannah, Bungarus fasciatus and Calloselasma rhodostoma are four venomous snakes indigenous to Malaysia. In the present study, their proteomic profile by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) have been separated and compared.


Assuntos
Animais , Alismatales/classificação , Análise Espectral/métodos , Proteínas Neurotóxicas de Elapídeos/análise , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Venenos/análise
3.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-724677

RESUMO

Hematology and plasma biochemistry parameters are useful in the assessment and management of snake physiological status. Although reference ranges are readily available for many snake species, they are lacking for most venomous ophidians. We determined hematology and plasma biochemistry reference ranges for the wild-caught Indian cobra, Naja naja.


Assuntos
Animais , Bioquímica , Hematologia/métodos , Plasma , Alismatales/classificação
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(1): 465-472, mar. 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-638080

RESUMO

Antioxidant effect and polyphenol content of Syringodium filiforme (Cymodoceaceae). The marine phanerogam Syringodium filiforme, known as "manatee grass", is a common species that grows in coastal areas associated to Thalassia testudinum. With the aim to describe some of its possible chemical characteristics, this study was performed with a sample of 1.2kg, collected in March 2009, in Guanabo beach, Havana, Cuba. The sample was dried (less than 12% humidity) and a total extract prepared; other three extracts were prepared with the use of solvents of increasing polarity. The phytochemical screening and analytical determinations of each fraction were undertaken Total polyphenol content was determined using pyrogallol as reference´s standard; chlorophyll a and b and anthocyanin content were also quantified. Total extract and fractions antioxidant activity were evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay with 1,1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl reactive (knowing as DPPH´s method). The phytochemical screening of the different extracts detected the presence of high concentrations of flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, antocyaninns, reducing sugars and alkaloids. The total extract and methanol fraction showed significant free radical scavenging properties, while the petroleum ether fraction showed moderate activity, and the chloroform fraction and the aqueous soluble precipitate (residual salt) obtained didn’t show antioxidant properties against free radicals. The results of this work confirmed the potentialities of this species for biological purposes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1): 465-472. Epub 2011 March 01.


La fanerógama marina Syringodium filiforme, conocida comúnmente como "Hierba Manatí", crece en los fondos marinos tropicales asociada con la especie Thalassia testudinum. Este estudio fue realizado con una muestra de S. filiforme (1.2kg peso húmedo) recolectada en la playa de Guanabo en La Habana, Cuba en Marzo 2009. La muestra fue secada hasta humedad inferior al 12% y se realizaron tres extracciones con solventes de polaridad creciente previamente al tamizaje fitoquímico y a las determinaciones analíticas. A partir del extracto total y en las fracciones se detectó la presencia de grupos químicos, fundamentalmente estructuras típicas de los flavonoides, por las absorbancias obtenidas en los espectros ultravioleta-visible. En el tamizaje fitoquímico se corroboró la existencia de altas concentraciones de flavonoides, triterpenos, polifenoles, antocianinas, azúcares reductores y alcaloides en los diferentes extractos obtenidos. El contenido de polifenoles totales de S. filiforme, se cuantificó mediante el uso de pirogalol como patrón de referencia; así como el contenido de clorofilas a y b, y el nivel de antocianinas. La actividad antioxidante se determinó por el método reducción del 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH). El extracto total y la fracción metanólica mostraron elevada actividad antioxidante en correspondencia con la concentración de polifenoles, mientras que la fracción de éter de petróleo mostró actividad moderada y la fracción clorofórmica y el precipitado remanente no muestran actividad antioxidante significativa. Estos resultados predicen las potencialidades de la especie para su uso con fines biológicos.


Assuntos
Alismatales/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alismatales/classificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(1): 55-63, mar. 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-496390

RESUMO

The meiofauna from seagrass meadows in the western sector of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba were studied to describe the spatial and temporal variations in community structure. Replicated cores were taken in three locations (arranged in m- and km-scales) and in two seasons (dry and wet). The meiofauna (metazoans between 500 and 45 microm) were identified to major taxa. Temporal changes in the meiofaunal communities could not be detected and they are not linked to the subtle seasonal changes in the water column. A larger variation in community structure was observed in the spatial m-scale (among cores in a station) probably accredited to heterogeneity of microenvironment and biological processes. A second source of variation in the km-scale (among locations) was identified relating to physical processes affecting seagrass meadows: marine currents and anthropogenic disturbances. Distribution patterns of meiofauna across locations coincide with one study from 20 years ago in seagrass beds (i.e. higher densities in area closer to break-shelf and diminution of fauna at southern of Pinar del Rio); however, cumulative anthropogenic disturbances on seagrass meadows would most likely explain the depletion of communities observed in our survey in comparison with decades ago. Estimates of meiofaunal density and richness of major taxa from our study (and other areas from the Cuban shelf) are consistently lower than other temperate and tropical sites; possibly caused by low primary productivity due to narrow tidal amplitude and oligotrophic waters.


La meiofauna asociada a pastos marinos en el sector occidental del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba se estudió para describir las variaciones espaciales y temporales en la estructura de la comunidad. Se tomaron muestras repetidas, a escala de m- y km, en tres localidades y en dos estaciones (seca y lluvia). La meiofauna (metazoos entre 500 y 45 μm) fue identificada hasta grupos taxonómicos principales. No se detectaron cambios estacionales en la estructura de las comunidades de meiofauna ni asociación con los factores abióticos en la columna de agua. La mayor variación en la estructura de la comunidad fue observada a escala espacial de metros (entre muestras en una estación), causada probablemente por la heterogeneidad del micro-ambiente y procesos biológicos. La segunda fuente de variación aparece en escala de kilómetros (entre localidades) y está relacionada a procesos físicos que afectan los pastos marinos: corrientes marinas y disturbios antropogénicos. Los patrones de distribución de la meiofauna a través de las localidades coinciden con un estudio de hace 20 años en pastos marinos (densidades mayores en las áreas más cercanas al borde de la plataforma y menores en el Sur de Pinar del Río); sin embargo, la acumulación de los efectos del impacto antropogénico probablemente explique la disminución de la densidad en las comunidades actuales de meiofauna. Los estimados de densidad de meiofauna y de riqueza de táxones en nuestro estudio (y en otras áreas de la plataforma de Cuba) son coherentemente más bajos que en otros sitios templados y tropicales; la causa posible es la baja productividad primaria debido a la estrecha amplitud de mareas y la oligotrofia de las aguas.


Assuntos
Animais , Alismatales/classificação , Ecossistema , Invertebrados/classificação , Cuba , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 55(1): 55-66, Mar. 2007. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-501497

RESUMO

The seagrass of Perezoso (Cahuita National Park, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica) was monitored using the CARICOMP protocol. Productivity (2.7 +/- 1.15 g/m2/d; n=74) was intermediate, compared to other Caribbean sites. Total biomass was intermediate to high (750-1500 g/m2) at most CARICOMP sites (Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Venezuela) including Costa Rica (822.8 +/- 391.84 g/m2; n=32). Turnover rates were high (5.5 +/- 1.36%; n=74) compared to what was found in March and August at other sites. Shoot densities average 725 shoots/m2, in the Caribbean region, while in Costa Rica the value was higher (1184 +/- 335.5 shoots/m2). Average leaf length and width in the entire region were 14.4 cm and 10.6 mm, respectively, similar to what we found, but leaf area index average 3.4 m2 m(-2), higher than what was found in Costa Rica (0.92 m2 m(-2)). At Cahuita, seagrass productivity was significantly lower in March 2005 compared with the previous six years, and biomass has decreased with time. Seagrass productivity and biomass are being affected by the maximum temperatures, which increased by almost 10 degrees C from 1999 to 2005, and show a high negative correlation. Turnover rate and temperature were not correlated. Recreational boating, swimming and nutrient loading from deforested lands in the coast, the upstream rivers and local pollution are potential sources of impact to the seagrass beds at Cahuita.


Assuntos
Alismatales/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água do Mar , Alismatales/classificação , Biomassa , Costa Rica , Densidade Demográfica
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 55(1): 43-53, Mar. 2007. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-501498

RESUMO

We analyzed the time-space variation of the peracarid crustaceans that inhabit seagrasses of the Alvarado Lagoon System, Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico. The organisms were collected from 108 samples in six sites with Ruppia maritima beds (December 1992 to November 1994). The assemblage was composed of 11 species. Eight species of Amphipoda (Hourstonius laguna, Cerapus benthophilus, Apocorophium louisianum, Grandidierella bonnieroides, Leptocheirus rhizophorae, Gammarus mucronatus, Melita longisetosa and Haustorius sp.), one of Isopoda (Cassidinidea ovalis) and two of Tanaidacea (Discapseudes holthuisi and Leptochelia savignyi) were identified. Taxocoenosis, density and biomass of peracarids showed seasonal pulses related to R. maritima biomass, salinity variation, epicontinental affluent and inlets. The species C. ovalis, G. mucronatus, A. louisianum and D. holthuisi were dominant.


Assuntos
Animais , Alismatales/classificação , Biomassa , Decápodes/classificação , Decápodes/fisiologia , Ecossistema , México , Densidade Demográfica
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 49(Supl.2): 273-278, dic. 2001. ilus, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-502389

RESUMO

Few papers concerning seagrasses of the eastern Pacific have been published. This paper presents the first ecological data on the seagrass, Ruppia maritima, from a non-lagoonal setting in the eastern Pacific. A 5000 m2 patch formed by R. maritima, at Playa Iguanita, Bahía Culebra, Pacific coast of Costa Rica was studied. Plant density and leaf length of R. maritima were determined along two transects on different dates. Above and below ground biomass were calculated along one transect. Plant density ranged from 1590 to 8630 individuals m(-2) along the two transects, with means of 5990 +/- 1636 and 6100 +/- 1876 plants m(-2) for transect 1 and 2, respectively. Longest leaf length per plant varied between 0.5 and 23.0 cm. Leaf biomass (LB) ranged from 10 to 97 gm(-2), and root-rhizome biomass (RB) from 31 to 411 gm(-2), resulting in RB:LB ratios of 3.07 to 15.27. Total biomass at Bahía Culebra was lower than at tropical lagoons on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but higher than in the Gulf of Mexico. The below ground: above ground biomass ratio was much higher at Bahía Culebra than at other sites on the Pacific coast of Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. Another seagrass present at Bahía Culebra was Halophila baillonii, with low densities on the deepest section of the patch. At least 44 invertebrate species associated with the seagrass bed have also been identified. The patch at Playa Iguanita and other sites within Bahía Culebra, as well as their associated organisms, disappeared after a severe storm in June 1996. No seagrasses have been found in the area or in any other location on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica since then.


Assuntos
Animais , Alismatales/classificação , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Invertebrados/classificação , Costa Rica , Oceano Pacífico , Densidade Demográfica
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