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1.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 15(1): 167-171, ene.-jun. 2013. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-696128

RESUMO

El mantenimiento en campo de los Bancos de Germoplasma resulta muy costoso, además de los riesgos a que se exponen. El cultivo de tejidos constituye una solución a estos problemas siendo conveniente utilizar una combinación de técnicas de almacenamiento en los cultivos de propagación vegetativa para no depender de una sola. El cultivo in vitro ofrece nuevas alternativas para el mejoramiento de la productividad y la producción de material de siembra sano en malanga (Xanthosoma spp.). La presente investigación se desarrolló en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos del Instituto de Investigaciones de Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT), Cuba, con el objetivo de estudiar las condiciones para la conservación en crecimiento mínimo in vitro de germoplasma de esta especie. Como material vegetal se utilizó el clon de Malanga Xanthosoma "INIVIT MX-2008". El establecimiento del material vegetal y su posterior multiplicación fueron realizadas según la metodología recomendada por García et al. (1999). Para la conservación en medio de cultivo de crecimiento mínimo se utilizó el medio basal MS y se estudiaron 15 tratamientos que combinaron concentraciones de Manitol (regulador osmótico) (1,5; 3 y 4%) y Nitrato de plata (inhibidor de la acción etileno) (0, 2, 4, 8, 10 mg.L-1). Se concluye que es posible conservar in vitro los recursos genéticos de malanga Xanthosoma durante más de 10 meses, en un medio de cultivo compuesto por sales y vitaminas MS suplementado con 4% de manitol y 4 mg.L-1 de Nitrato de plata. Las plantas propagadas a partir de este medio de cultivo se recuperaron exitosamente. La mayor concentración de manitol en el medio de cultivo pudo haber influido en la mejor recuperación del material conservado.


Maintenance field genebanks are costly, in addition to the risks they face; to that effect on tissue culture is a solution to these problems. In vegetative propagated crops is desirable to use a combination of storage technology rather than relying on just one. in vitro culture provides an alternative for improving productivity and production of healthy planting material of taro (Xanthosoma spp.). This research was conducted in the Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Research Institute of Tropical Crops. Our objective was study the conditions for minimal growth conservation in vitro germplasm in this species. As plant material was used clone of Taro Xanthosoma 'INIVIT MX-2008'. The establishment of the plant material and its subsequent multiplication were carried out according to the methodology recommended by García et al. (1999). For the maintenance in culture of minimal growth basal medium MS was used and studied 15 treatments with combined concentrations of mannitol (osmotic regulator) (1.5, 3 and 4%) and silver nitrate (Ethylene inhibitor) (0, 2, 4, 8, 10 mg.L-1). It concludes that it is possible to conserve taro Xanthosoma genetic resources in vitro, for over 10 months in a culture medium composed of MS salts and vitamins and supplemented with 4% mannitol and 4 mg.L-1 of silver nitrate. Plants propagated from this culture medium were recovered successfully. The presence of higher concentrations of mannitol, may have influenced that increases survival of preserved material. O3.


Assuntos
Manitol , Nitrato de Prata , Xanthosoma , Crescimento
2.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 13(2): 155-161, dic 1, 2011.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-645176

RESUMO

Se determinó el efecto depresivo sobre plantas de malanga producidas in vitro del cultivar “Amarilla Especial”, de los hongos Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Rhizoctonia solani Kühn y Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc aislados de plantas infectadas que presentaban síntomas de escaso desarrollo, clorosis, necrosis foliar y pudrición de las raíces. Los tratamientos consistieron en el aislamiento de los tres hongos por separado, la mezcla de los tres hongos y un control sin inocular. Se plantaron plantas previamente aclimatizadas en cámaras que tenían una dimensión de 0,90 x 0,90 x 0,90 m, en bloque completamente al azar con cuatro réplicas. Se inocularon 100 plantas por cada tratamiento y como control se dejaron igual número de plantas sin inocular, se evaluó en cada caso la altura de la planta, el número de raíces por planta y el número de raíces enfermas, y posteriormente se determinó el peso fresco y seco de las raíces y el follaje. Se cosechó a los 10 meses después de la plantación y se evaluaron algunos componentes del rendimiento, como el número de cormos y cormelos y su peso fresco, al igual que la intensidad de los daños en el momento de la cosecha. Los resultados mostraron que los hongos fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Rhizoctonia solani Kühn y Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc asociados a las pudriciones secas, ocasionaron un efecto depresivo en las plantas de malanga producidas in vitro cultivadas en cámaras. La mezcla de estos tres hongos resultó muy agresiva, lo que provocó en las plantas una disminución en la altura, el peso fresco del follaje y en el número de raíces, cormos y cormelos.


Depressive effect was determined on plants produced in vitro taro cultivar 'Amarilla Especial', fungi Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc isolated from infected plants with symptoms of poor development, chlorosis, leaf necrosis and rot the roots. Treatments consisted of the isolation of the three fungi separately, the mixture of the three fungi and uninoculated control. Previously acclimatized plants were planted in chambers had dimensions 0.90 x 0.90 x 0.90 m, in randomized complete block with four replications. 100 plants were inoculated for each treatment and control is left as an equal number of uninoculated plants was evaluated in each case the plant height, number of roots per plant and number of diseased roots and subsequently determined the fresh weight and dry the roots and foliage. Was harvested at 10 months after planting and assessed some components of performance, as the number of corms and cormels and their fresh weight, as the intensity of damage at the time of harvest. The results showed that the fungal pathogens Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc associated with dry rot caused a depressive effect on taro plants grown in vitro produced cameras. The mixture of these three fungi was very aggressive, resulting in reduced plant height, fresh weight of leaves and number of roots, corms and cormels.


Assuntos
Xanthosoma/efeitos adversos , Xanthosoma/parasitologia , Xanthosoma/toxicidade , Xanthosoma/ultraestrutura , Agaricales/classificação , Agaricales/química
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 27(5): 706-709, sept./oct. 2011.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-911861

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta produtiva do mangarito em função de diferentes tamanhos de rizomas-semente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com três tipos de rizomas-semente (rizoma mãe, rizoma filho 1 e rizoma filho 2) e sete repetições. A parcela experimental foi composta por 16 plantas, sendo avaliadas as oito plantas centrais. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: massa fresca total, produção líquida e produção comercial. Verificou-se que a produção total, líquida e de rizoma-mãe e filho foi maior ao usar como semente o rizoma-mãe; no entanto, a produção comercial do rizoma-mãe foi estatisticamente igual à do rizoma filho 1. Recomenda-se o cultivo de Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott usando como semente propágulos de rizoma-mãe por apresentar uma maior produção e por não ser comercializável.


The aim of this work was to evaluate the productive response of the tannia in function of different sizes of seed-rhizomes. The experimental design was randomized block with three types of seed-rhizomes (cormel, cormel 1 and cormel 2) and seven replicates. The experimental plot consisted of 16 plants, whereas evaluated the eight central plants. It was evaluated the following characteristics: total fresh weight, net production and commercial production. It was verified that the total, net, cormel and of the cormel 1 production was greater when using the cormel rhizome as seed. However, the commercial production of the cormel was equal to the cormel 1. We recommend growing Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott using as seed cormel propagules by a larger production and for not being marketable.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produção Agrícola , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rizoma , Xanthosoma
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