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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(4): e146525, Dezembro 21, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-969305

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, a disease that affects dairy herds throughout the Brazilian territory, constituting a neglected zoonosis transmitted by raw milk and its derivatives. In this study, we evaluated the presence of M. bovis and other mycobacteria in Minas cheese obtained from open fairs in the city of São Paulo between 2012 and 2013. Samples (n = 133) were decontaminated using hexa-cetylpyridinium chloride and seeded on Stonebrink­Leslie medium. The isolates were submitted to molecular identification by TB Multiplex PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and amplicon nucleotide sequencing. From 16 cheese samples (12%), we obtained 26 putative colonies of Mycobacterium spp, none of which belonged to any of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, or Mycobacterium intracellulare complexes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sample sequences were grouped in a clade that includes only non-tuberculous mycobacteria with proximity to sequences obtained from Mycobacterium novocastrense (3 sequences), Mycobacterium holsaticum (1 sequence), and Mycobacterium elephantis (2 sequences). Although no epidemiological evidence was found regarding the importance of oral transmission of mycobacteria in healthy people, their importance in the immunosuppressed population remains uncertain.(AU)


Mycobacterium bovis é o agente da tuberculose bovina, doença que acomete o rebanho em todo território brasileiro e é uma negligenciada zoonose transmitida pelo leite e seus derivados. Este trabalho avaliou a presença de M. bovise outras micobactérias, em queijo minas meia-cura, obtidos em feiras-livres na cidade de São Paulo, entre os anos de 2012 e 2013. As amostras (n = 133) foram descontaminadas pelo método HPC (hexa-cetyl-pyridinium chloride) e semeadas em meio Stonebrink Leslie. Os isolados foram submetidos à identificação molecular por PCR TB multiplex, pesquisando-se o gene 16S rRNA, e ao sequenciamento nucleotídico. Dezesseis amostras (12%) possuiam 26 colônias sugestivas de Mycobacterium spp, mas nenhuma delas pertencia aos complexos Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium e Mycobacterium intracellulare. A análise filogenética mostrou que todas as amostras estavam agrupadas em clados que incluem apenas micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT), sendo que algumas possuiam proximidade com sequências obtidas de Mycobacterium novocastrense (3 sequências), Mycobacterium hosaticum(1 sequência) e Mycobacterium elephantis (2 sequências). Embora no momento não haja evidência epidemiológica da importância da transmissão oral das micobactérias pra indivíduos saudáveis, sua importância na população imunossuprimida ainda é incerta.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Queijo/virologia , Mycobacterium , Saneamento de Mercados
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 430-436, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1038447

RESUMO

La tuberculosis extrapulmonar representa el 1520 % de todas las formas de presentación. La tuberculosis ganglionar periférica es la segunda forma extrapulmonar más frecuente en niños de Argentina, luego de la pleural. En el Servicio de Tisiología del Hospital de Niños "Dr. Ricardo Gutiérrez", se analizaron en forma retrospectiva 92 casos de tuberculosis ganglionar periférica asistidos entre agosto, 2000-septiembre, 2015. La edad media fue 8,7 ± 5 años. Las adenopatías fueron periféricas únicas (31,5 %), periféricas múltiples (20,6 %) y periféricas asociadas a profundas (47,8 %). Predominó la localización cervical (80 %). El 80 % recibió antibioticoterapia previa, sin respuesta. El 56 % tenía foco de contagio conocido; 69 %, prueba cutánea de tuberculina positiva y 54 %, radiografía de tórax patológica. Todos iniciaron tratamiento antifímico por clínica compatible, exposición y/o prueba cutánea de tuberculina positiva, antes de la confirmación microbiológica o histológica. La evolución fue curación (81,5 %), derivación cercana al domicilio (8,7 %), abandono (8,7 %). Un paciente falleció.


Extrapulmonary tuberculosis accounts for 15-20 % of all clinical presentations of tuberculosis. Peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis is the second most common presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children, after pleural tuberculosis, in Argentina. We analyzed 92 patients with peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis seen at the Department of Tisiology of Hospital de Niños "Dr. Ricardo Gutiérrez" between August 2000 and September 2015. The patients' mean age was 8.7 ± 5 years. Nodal sites corresponded to single peripheral (31.5 %), multiple peripheral (20.6 %), and peripheral associated with deep nodes (47.8 %). Cervical lymph nodes were the most common site of involvement (80 %). In 80 % of patients previous antibiotic therapy had been administered, without response. The tuberculosis source was known in 56 %; 69 % had a positive tuberculin skin test; and 54 %, a pathological chest X-ray. Tuberculosis treatment was started on all patients based on clinical criteria, exposure and/or positive tuberculin skin test, prior to microbiological or histological confirmation. The clinical course was either healing (81.5 %), referral to a facility near home (8.7 %) or dropout (8.7 %). One patient died.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Pediatria , Tuberculose , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Linfadenopatia , Mycobacterium
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(supl.2): 87-94, ago. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-974010

RESUMO

Introducción. En los últimos años se ha observado un aumento en la prevalencia de micobacteriosis ocasionadas por micobacterias no tuberculosas, las cuales hoy se consideran como agentes patógenos emergentes. Su presencia depende de varios factores, como los antecedentes clínicos, el estado de salud de la persona afectada y la presencia de estos microorganismos en el agua, el suelo y los animales, entre otros. Objetivo. Describir las micobacteriosis identificadas en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Micobacterias del Instituto Nacional de Salud, entre 2012 y 2016. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un análisis retrospectivo que incluyó 273 pacientes con micobacteriosis. Las variables analizadas fueron el tipo de micobacteriosis, el agente etiológico y los factores de riesgo asociados. Resultados. El 57,1 % de los casos presentó micobacteriosis pulmonar, el 26 %, cutánea, el 10,6 %, diseminada, y el 2,6 %, linfática. La comparación entre la forma pulmonar y la extrapulmonar evidenció que el complejo Mycobacterium avium se presenta con mayor frecuencia en las micobacteriosis pulmonares, en tanto que M. abscessus fue más frecuente en las extrapulmonares. Los pacientes con micobacteriosis pulmonar presentaban antecedentes de tuberculosis con mayor frecuencia que aquellos con las formas extrapulmonares. Conclusión. Estos hallazgos resaltan la importancia del diagnóstico diferencial entre las especies del complejo M. tuberculosis y las micobacterias no tuberculosas, ya que estas últimas son resistentes genéticamente a los fármacos convencionales contra la tuberculosis.


Introduction: In recent years, there has been an increase in the prevalence of mycobacterioses caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria, which are considered as emerging pathogens. Their presence depends on several factors such as the clinical history, the health status of the affected person, and the presence of these microorganisms in the water, the soil, and the animals, among others. Objective: To describe the mycobacteria and the etiological agent identified in isolates received at the Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Micobacterias of the Instituto Nacional de Salud between 2012 and 2016. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of samples from 273 patients with mycobacterioses. We analyzed the following variables: mycobacteriosis type, etiological agent, and associated predisposing factors. Results: 57.1% of the cases presented pulmonary mycobacteriosis; 26%, cutaneous; 10.6%, disseminated, and 2.6%, lymphatic. We found the Mycobacterium avium complex more frequently in pulmonary mycobacteriosis, while M. abscessus was more frequent in the extrapulmonary types of the disease. Patients with pulmonary mycobacteriosis had a history of tuberculosis more frequently than those with extrapulmonary forms. Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of the differential diagnosis between M. tuberculosis complex species and non-tuberculous mycobacteria since the latter are genetically resistant to conventional antituberculosis drugs.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Infecções Oportunistas , Fatores de Risco , Colômbia , Coinfecção
5.
Medisan ; 22(7)jul.-ago. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-955056

RESUMO

Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 34 años de edad, quien acudió a consulta de Dermatología por presentar máculas eritematosas pruriginosas generalizadas. A los 3 meses con tratamiento específico comenzó a presentar febrículas vespertinas y adenopatías cervicales dolorosas, por lo que se indicó una baciloscopia en ambos codos y pabellones auriculares, pero no se halló el Mycobacterium leprae; además se realizó biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina de un ganglio cervical, cuyo resultado reveló una tuberculosis ganglionar. Finalmente se diagnosticó una coinfección por lepra y tuberculosis ganglionar, dos enfermedades producidas por el Mycobacterium, cuya coexistencia es rara.


The case report of a 34 year-old patient is described who came to the Dermatology Service due to disseminated pruritic erythematous stains. After 3 months with specific treatment he began to present evening low fevers and painful cervical adenopathies, reason why a baciloscopy was indicated in both elbows and ear pavilions, but the Mycobacterium leprae was not found; besides aspiration biopsy with fine needle of a cervical ganglion was also carried out, which result revealed a ganglionar tuberculosis. Finally a leprosy and tuberculosis ganglionar coinfection was diagnosed, two diseases emerging due to the Mycobacterium, which coexistence is strange.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 463-467, jun. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950028

RESUMO

La tuberculosis, considerada desde 2003 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud una emergencia global de salud, provoca una mortalidad anual de alrededor de 2 millones de personas, fundamentalmente, en países en vías de desarrollo. En la población pediátrica española, la incidencia es de 5 casos/100 000 niños de entre 5 y 14 años y 13 casos/100 000 niños de entre 0 y 4 años. La infección se transmite por vía respiratoria por enfermos bacilíferos. Los niños eliminan escasos bacilos en secreciones respiratorias y no suelen transmitir la infección. En España, el porcentaje de resistencias a isoniazida en la población general es de 5% y es superior en la población inmigrante, lo cual es importante tener en cuenta para el tratamiento de los casos. Se presenta un caso de tuberculosis por Mycobacterium africanum multirresistente al tratamiento, con evolución satisfactoria posterior a la terapia múltiple.


Tuberculosis, considered since 2003 by the World Health Organization a global health emergency, causes annual mortality of approximately 2 million people, mainly in developing countries. In the Spanish pediatric population, the incidence is 5 cases/100 000 children between 5 and 14 years and 13 cases/100 000 children between 0 and 4 years. The infection is transmitted through the respiratory tract by baciliferous patients. Children eliminate few bacilli in respiratory secretions and do not usually transmit the infection. In Spain, the resistance to isoniazid in the general population is 5%, being higher in the immigrant population, which is important to take into account for the treatment of cases. A case of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium africanum multiresistant to treatment is presented, with satisfactory evolution after multiple therapy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia
7.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 27(1)ene.-abr. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094598

RESUMO

La tuberculosis es uno de los mayores problemas que enfrenta la salud mundial en la actualidad. La única vacuna disponible contra esta enfermedad es la BCG, esta protege solo contra la tuberculosis grave de la infancia, lo cual plantea un reto en la búsqueda de nuevos candidatos vacunales. Teniendo en cuenta el antecedente protector de Mycobacterium ´habana´ contra la tuberculosis experimental, nos propusimos aportar elementos que avalen el empleo de M. ´habana´ TMC 5135 como candidato vacunal contra la tuberculosis, mediante estudios de infección en cultivos celulares de macrófagos murinos. Se caracterizó el proceso de fagocitosis de esta micobacteria por cultivos primarios de macrófagos peritoneales murinos y por la línea celular RAW 264.7, para lo cual se determinó el porcentaje de fagocitosis y el número fagocítico. El presente trabajo demostró que el proceso de fagocitosis de M. ´habana´ TMC 5135 está influenciado por la fuente celular empleada como célula hospedadora, así como por la carga bacteriana infectante y el tiempo de exposición a la misma. La presente investigación contribuye a la caracterización de la infección por esta micobacteria en sus principales células blanco de la inmunidad innata y traza el camino de futuras investigaciones para evaluar la activación de mecanismos efectores de la inmunidad innata frente a este candidato(AU)


Tuberculosis remains as a major problem in the global health. BCG is the available vaccine against tuberculosis but only protects against severe form of disease during childhood, so the search for new vaccine candidates is a challenge. Taking into account the protective capacity of Mycobacterium ´habana´ against experimental tuberculosis, we proposed in vitro experiments using murine macrophages (peritoneal macrophages and cell line Raw 264.7) to characterize phagocytic process of this candidate. Phagocitic index and phagocytic number were calculated. The present work demonstrated that the phagocytosis process of M. ‘habana’ TMC 5135 is influenced by the cellular source used as host cell, as well as by the infecting bacterial load and the time of exposure. The present investigation contributes to the characterization of the infection by this mycobacteria in its main target cells of innate immunity and it suggest future investigations to evaluate the activation of effector mechanisms of the innate immunity against this candidate(AU)


Assuntos
Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Vacinas/imunologia , Macrófagos , Mycobacterium/imunologia
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6): 1699-1702, nov.-dez. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-969636

RESUMO

Canine Leproid Granuloma Syndrome (CLGS), also known as canine leprosy, is a cutaneous nodular infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium sp.. Despite being reported worldwide, it is still quite unknown and underdiagnosed. Diagnosis may be achieved by cytopathology or histopathology of skin lesions, but identification of the infectious agent is complex, since bacterial in vitro growth is not possible, relying upon molecular techniques such as PCR to confirm Mycobacterium DNA in the sample. We report a CLGS case in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, diagnosed by cytopathology and submitted to molecular identification of the agent. PCR amplification of hsp65 gene was performed and revealed 100% genetic homology to M. murphy strain. This is the first CLGS report with molecular identification in Rio de Janeiro state, and this finding should raise awareness about CLGS as a differential diagnosis among granulomatous skin diseases in this region.(AU)


A síndrome de granuloma leproide canino (SGLC), também conhecida como lepra canina, é uma doença infecciosa cutânea nodular causada por Mycobacterium sp. Apesar de ser relatada mundialmente, ainda é bastante desconhecida e subdiagnosticada. O diagnóstico pode ser conseguido por citopatologia ou histopatologia de lesões cutâneas, mas a identificação do agente infeccioso é complexa, uma vez que o crescimento in vitro bacteriano não é possível, dependendo de técnicas moleculares como a PCR para confirmar o DNA de Mycobacterium na amostra. Relatou-se um caso da SGLC em Niterói, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, diagnosticado por citopatologia e submetido à identificação molecular do agente. Foi realizada amplificação por PCR do gene hsp65, que revelou 100% de homologia genética com a cepa M. murphy. Este é o primeiro relato da SGLC com identificação molecular no estado do Rio de Janeiro, o que mostra a importância de se acrescentar a SGLC ao diagnóstico diferencial das doenças granulomatosas de pele nessa região.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycobacterium/citologia , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Infecções por Mycobacterium , Cães
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 123 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-998353

RESUMO

A tuberculose (TB) é considerada uma das principais doenças infecciosas e apresenta fatores críticos como a relação com o HIV/AIDS, tratamento longo e a resistência a múltiplos fármacos. A enzima di-hidrofolato redutase das micobactérias (mtDHFR) é um alvo pouco explorado e apresenta grande potencial para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos contra TB. Estudos preliminares obtiveram fragmentos com baixa afinidade à mtDHFR, entretanto com potencial para otimização. Com isso, o fragmento foi usado como protótipo para a proposição de 22 análogos. Os compostos foram planejados utilizando informações sobre ligantes e a estrutura tridimensional de mtDHFR, além do biososterismo como estratégia norteadora. Os ensaios de docking molecular com a mtDHFR revelaram que os análogos propostos tiveram escores interessantes e, além disso, a inserção de substituintes demonstrou favorecer a ligação à enzima, o que corroborou o planejamento. Com isso, sintetizou-se 22 análogos planejados e o protótipo MB872, por meio de protocolos de alquilação, hidrólise e cicloadição 1,3 dipolar para os compostos com anéis triazol e tetrazol. Os compostos foram obtidos com rendimentos de bom a ótimo (60 ~ 90%) e suas estruturas foram elucidadas por RMN 1H e 13C. Os resultados do ensaio de inibição enzimática corroboraram com os dados de docking, uma vez que a presença do grupo carboxílico revelou ser importante para a atividade. Além disso, alguns dos compostos revelaram atividades interessantes, entre 8 a 40 µM, sendo que o mais ativo apresentou IC50 de 7 µM. Ensaios de cinética enzimática com o análogo mais ativo indicou uma inibição não competitiva com o substrato natural da enzima, uma vez que os valores de Km se mantiveram constantes, enquanto Vmax decaiu (0,22 µM e 0,43 - 0,34 ΔFU/min, respectivamente). Os análogos sintetizados foram mandados para ensaio in vitro para avaliar a atividade frente a micobactéria


Tuberculosis (TB) is an important infectious disease and presents critical factors such as the relationship with HIV / AIDS, long treatment and resistance to multiple drugs. The enzyme dihydrofolate reductase from mycobacteria (mtDHFR) is a poorly explored and presents great potential to be a target for new drugs against TB. Preliminary studies have obtained fragments with low affinity to mtDHFR, but with potential to become lead compounds. Therefore, the fragment was used as a prototype for 22 analogues proposed in this work. The compounds were designed using bioisosterism, information about ligands and the three-dimensional structure of mtDHFR. Molecular docking assays with mtDHFR revealed satisfactory scores for anlogues. Furthermore, the insertion of substituents seemed to increase the affinity with the enzyme. Thereby, twenty two analogues and prototype were synthesized using alkylation, hydrolysiss and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition methods. The compounds were obtained in good yields (60 ~ 90%) and their structures were elucidated with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The enzymatic affinity assay corroborates docking results, because the presence of carboxyl group showed to be important for the activity. Furthermore, some of the compounds revealead interesting activities, ranging 8 to 40 µM. The most active showed IC50 of 7 µM and enzyme kinetics assays indicated noncompetitive inhibition with natural enzyme substrate. The synthesized analogs were sent for in vitro assay to assess mycobacteria activity


Assuntos
Otimização , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/instrumentação , Mycobacterium/classificação , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/análise , Tuberculose/patologia , Química Farmacêutica/métodos
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e00014, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889440

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Microscopy and bacterial culture are the main tools in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Since the slow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis impairs rapid diagnosis strategies, especially in countries where the latter are the only available resources, the ongoing development of new and inexpensive tools based on mycobacterial metabolism optimizing growth detection with preliminary identification is greatly welcome. When compared to the other species from the M. tuberculosis complex, M. tuberculosis is a strong nitrate reducer. Current assay compares the nitrate reductase activity of M. tuberculosis from pulmonary specimens cultivated in nitrate-supplemented media. Fifty-five sputum samples were decontaminated and inoculated in conventional (Middlebrook 7H9, Ogawa Kudoh-OK) and in nitrate-supplemented media (Middlebrook 7H9-N, Ogawa Kudoh-N). An aliquot from the media directly reacted with Griess reagent (7H9-N and OK-N) every five days, or transferred to a nitrate substrate solution (7H9, OK). Nitrate to nitrite reduction was considered positive, revealed by the pink color, indicating bacterial growth. As reference method, the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) was used for sensitivity calculations and statistical analysis. 7H9-N and OK-N assays proved to perform better in detecting M. tuberculosis than conventional assays (7H9 and OK). Indeed, broth nitrate-supplemented medium (7H9-N) was comparable to MGIT to detect M. tuberculosis, except in growth detection time. Results show that 7H9-N may be used as an alternative tool particularly in low-income countries since it is a simple and cheap technique, and does not restrict diagnosis to single-source products.


Assuntos
Nitrato Redutase/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium/classificação
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0842016, 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-996678

RESUMO

In areas where human tuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis coexist, differentiation between M. bovis and M. tuberculosis is important for monitoring the spread of M. bovis among cattle and from cattle to humans. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify M. bovis in bovines with positive diagnosis identified on tuberculin test in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Thirty-two bovines that tested positive in the comparative tuberculin test were used, from which samples of any organ with lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were collected, as well as lymph nodes, when no gross lesions were observed. Samples were submitted to histopathological exam, mycobacterial culture, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and molecular diagnosis. Twenty-one (65.6%) animals presented lesions suggestive of tuberculosis. As to body region 77.7% of lesions were found in the thoracic cavity, 12.4% in the head and 9.9% in the abdominal cavity. Among 55 samples submitted to mycobacterial culture, mycobacteria were isolated in 31 (56.4%), being 13 (41.9%) identified as M. bovis and 18 (58.1%) as Mycobacterium spp. Conclusion is that isolation and identification of M. bovis and Mycobacterium spp. in cattle suggests that humans are exposed to the risk of infection. This reinforces the need for intensification and optimization of prevention and control measures foreseen in the Brazilian National Program for the Control and Eradication of Bovine Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. Mycobacteria isolation and identification surveys are, therefore, encouraged in other Northeastern states.(AU)


Em áreas onde a tuberculose humana e a tuberculose bovina coexistem, a diferenciação entre M. bovis e M. tuberculosis é importante para monitorar a disseminação de M. bovis entre bovinos e destes para os seres humanos. Objetivou-se neste estudo isolar e identificar M. bovis em bovinos com diagnóstico positivo pelo teste de tuberculinização no estado da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. Foram submetidos 32 bovinos positivos ao teste de tuberculinização comparativa, dos quais foram colhidas amostras de qualquer órgão com lesões sugestivas de tuberculose, e, nos casos em que não foram observadas lesões sugestivas, foram colhidas amostras de linfonodos. As amostras foram submetidas a exame histopatológico, cultivo micobacteriológico, coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen e diagnóstico molecular. Apresentaram lesões sugestivas de tuberculose 21 animais (65,6%). Com relação à distribuição das lesões de acordo com a região corporal, 77,7% localizavam-se na cavidade torácica, 12,4% na cabeça e 9,9% na cavidade abdominal. De 55 amostras submetidas ao cultivo de micobactérias, em 31 (56,4%) foram isoladas micobactérias, sendo que em 13 (41,9%) foi identificado M. bovis, e nas 18 restantes (58,1%) foi identificado Mycobacterium spp. Conclui-se que o isolamento e a identificação de M. bovis e Mycobacterium spp. em bovinos indicam que os seres humanos estão expostos ao risco de infecção. Isso reforça a necessidade de intensificação e otimização de medidas de prevenção e controle previstas no Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose Bovina. Sugere-se a realização de estudos de isolamento e identificação de micobactérias em outros estados do Nordeste.(AU)


Assuntos
Bovinos , Tuberculose/transmissão , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Brucelose Bovina , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mycobacterium
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 607-609, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889170

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Mycobacterium sp. YC-RL4 is capable of utilizing a broad range of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) as sole source of carbon and energy for growth. The preliminary studies demonstrated its high degrading efficiency and good performance during the bioprocess with environmental samples. Here, we present the complete genome of Mycobacterium sp. YC-RL4, which consists of one circular chromosome (5,801,417 bp) and one plasmid (252,568 bp). The genomic analysis and gene annotation were performed and many potential genes responsible for the biodegradation of PAEs were identified from the genome. These results may advance the investigation of bioremediation of PAEs-contaminated environments by strain YC-RL4.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Plastificantes/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Ésteres/metabolismo , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium/classificação , Mycobacterium/genética
13.
Cienc. Serv. Salud Nutr ; 8(2): 13-22, nov. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-982158

RESUMO

Micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT) es una designación utilizada para referirse a un gran número de especies de micobacterias ambientales potencialmente patógenas y no patógenas, distintas de la Mycobacterium tuberculosis y Mycobacterium leprae. Mycobacterium kansasii (M. Kansasii) es una MNT oportunista causante de infecciones pulmonares, cutáneas, entre otras, cuya tasa de incidencia ha ido incrementando en los últimos años a nivel mundial. A través de presentar el siguiente caso se pretende aportar al conocimiento con respecto al abordaje de pacientes con infección por MNT a nivel pulmonar, dirigido a médicos que trabajan en atención primaria de salud (APS). Se trata del caso de una paciente de 46 años de edad que acude al Hospital Provincial General Docente de Riobamba (HPGDR) con infección por MNT a nivel pulmonar. En el examen microscópico se detectaron Bacilos­Ácido­Alcohol­Resistentes (BAAR) mientras en el cultivo de esputo más antibiograma se aisló M. kansasii resistente a los antibióticos utilizados para la terapia convencional de tuberculosis. Se trata de un caso raro en la práctica clínica. Es crucial saber cómo manejar una infección con M. kansasii debido a su implicación para la salud del paciente y el sistema de salud nacional. El médico de APS debe reconocer su papel fundamental y la importancia que tiene un diagnóstico oportuno y tratamiento adecuado.


Non­tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is a designation for a large number of mycobacterial species potentially pathogenous and non­pathogenous, different than Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii) is an opportunistic NTM that causes among other things, pulmonary and cutaneous infections, whose incidence is increasing worldwide. Trough the following case report we seek to provide a guide to physicians working on primary health care (PHC) on the management of patients with pulmonary infection caused by NTM. We report the case of a 46­year­old female patient who came to the Hospital Provincial General Docente de Riobamba (HPGDR) with a pulmonary infection caused by NTM. In the microscopic examination it was identified Acid­Fast Bacilli (AFB), meanwhile the microbiological culture and antibiogram it was isolated M. kansasii resistant to common antibiotics used for conventional tuberculosis therapy. It is a rare case in the clinical practice. It is crucial to know how to manage an infection with M. Kansasii due to its implication on the health of affected subjects and the national health system. A physician working on PHC has to know his/her fundamental role and the importance of an early diagnosis and adequate treatment.


Assuntos
Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium kansasii , Mycobacterium , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Equador
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(11): 775-778, Nov. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-894846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) includes species with high resistance rates among mycobacterial pathogens. In fact, MABC infections may not respond to clarithromycin treatment, which has historically been very effective against MABC infection. Molecular markers have been proposed to detect both acquired (rrl polymorphisms) and inducible (erm(41) polymorphisms) clarithromycin resistance in MABC isolates. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility profile and molecular markers of clarithromycin resistance in MABC. METHODS The clarithromycin susceptibility profile was determined by broth microdilution with reads on days 3, 5, 7 and 14. Mutations in the rrl and erm(41) genes were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers, followed by sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 14 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates and 28 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates were evaluated, and clarithromycin resistance was observed in all isolates for up to three days of incubation. None of the 42 isolates exhibited a point mutation in the rrl gene, while all the isolates had a T28 polymorphism in the erm(41) gene. Moreover, all 28 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates had a deletion in the erm(41) gene. MAIN CONCLUSIONS While all the MABC isolates exhibited acquired clarithromycin resistance, no isolates exhibited a point mutation in the rrl gene in this study. The M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates demonstrated clarithromycin resistance, which is an uncommon phenotype. The molecular data for the rrl and erm(41) genes were not consistent with the phenotypic test results of clarithromycin susceptibility, indicating a lack of correlation between molecular clarithromycin resistance markers for both acquired and inducible resistance.


Assuntos
Humanos , Claritromicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mutação/genética , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Genes Bacterianos
15.
INSPILIP ; 1(1): 1-10, ene.-jun 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-987858

RESUMO

La tuberculosis (TB) es una enfermedad que representa un gran problema de salud pública en países en vías de desarrollo, como lo es el Ecuador, en el que, pese a una incidencia cada vez menor de casos reportados, sigue presente dentro de los grupos vulnerables de la población, como son los pacientes inmunodeprimidos, e incluso existen formas de difícil tratamiento como las multidrogorresistentes (TB-MDR). En este estudio presentamos la frecuencia de casos diagnosticados positivos a través del uso del kit Xpert MTB/RIF (GeneXpert®, Cepheid Innovation) y la frecuencia de casos resistentes a la rifampicina (Rifr). De este estudio, evidenciamos la aplicabilidad y utilidad del ensayo molecular para la detección de TB en muestras pulmonares y extrapulmonares, consiguiendo resultados de positividad del 13 %, y de ellos 7 % Rifr, resultados que superan los obtenidos con técnicas tradicionales de laboratorio.


The tuberculosis (TB),is a major Public Health Issue in the Developing Countries, like Ecuador, in which, in spite of the low incidence of reported infections, TB still exist among the vulnerable population groups, like the immune compromised patients, and also as the multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). In this study, we present the frequency of positive diagnosed cases, using the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay kit (GeneXpert®, Cepheid Innovation) and the frequency of Rifampicin-resistant cases (Rifr). From this study, we evidenced the applicability and utility of this assay in the TB detection in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary samples: 13% were TB positive and 7 % of them were Rifr. These results surpass those obtained through traditional laboratory techniques.


Assuntos
Humanos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Tuberculose , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Grupos de Risco , Mycobacterium , Incidência
16.
Rev. ADM ; 74(1): 6-10, ene.-feb. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-869346

RESUMO

Las medidas de bioseguridad están predestinadas a reducir el riesgo de transmisión de microorganismos a partir de fuentes de infección reconocidas o no reconocidas en clínicas dentales vinculadas con lacontaminación de los materiales, aparatos y/o instrumentos. Un microorganismo reemergente es el Mycobacterium abscessus, que es unabacteria ambiental que puede ocasionar problemas de salud muy serios, por lo que debe ser controlada y prevenida su transmisión.


Biosafety measures are designed to reduce the risk of transmission ofmicroorganisms from recognized or unrecognized sources of infectionin dental procedures associated with the contamination of materials,apparatus, and/or instruments. One reemerging microorganism isMycobacterium abscessus, which is an environmental bacterium thatcan cause serious health problems and therefore needs to be controlledand prevented.


Assuntos
Humanos , Consultórios Odontológicos/normas , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/métodos , Infecções por Mycobacterium/classificação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Mycobacterium/transmissão , Desinfecção/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/classificação , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/transmissão , Mycobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(1): 58-65, jan. 2017. ilus.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-837457

RESUMO

A tuberculose é uma enfermidade infectocontagiosa, debilitante, causada por bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes (BAAR), pertencentes ao complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (CMT). As micobacterioses têm importância em Medicina Veterinária devido ao seu potencial zoonótico e sua distribuição mundial, afetando todas as classes de vertebrados. Em animais selvagens as micobacterioses têm sido um problema relatado principalmente em cativeiro. Contudo, há relatos de sua ocorrência também em animais de vida livre, colocando em risco e dificultando os programas de erradicação da tuberculose em animais de produção. O diagnóstico nas espécies selvagens em geral é post mortem, uma vez que o teste de tuberculina não está padronizado para essas espécies, assim como não é confiável para triagem. São consideradas para o diagnóstico lesões de necropsia, observação microscópica de BAAR na coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) e, principalmente, isolamento e identificação do agente. No entanto, apenas os achados morfológicos macro e microscópicos não permitem distinguir a espécie de Mycobacterium envolvida. A técnica de imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) com anticorpo policlonal anti-M. tuberculosis confirma a infecção pelo CMT, mas não é específica, pois pode ocorrer marcação de outras micobactérias. As características histológicas, os achados na coloração de ZN e na IHQ de 13 casos de herbívoros selvagens diagnosticados com tuberculose no Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS) no período de 2003 a 2015 são descritos. A partir das amostras em blocos de parafina foram confeccionadas novas lâminas histológicas, coradas com hematoxilina e eosina (HE) e ZN. Cortes foram submetidos à técnica de IHQ para detecção do CMT. Todos os animais eram adultos, provenientes de cativeiro e incluíram lhama (5/13), cervo sambar (4/13), camelo (1/13), cervo vermelho (1/13), anta brasileira (1/13) e antílope Nilgai (1/13). Na IHQ observou-se imunomarcação acentuada (4/13), moderada (4/13) ou discreta (4/13), exceto em um caso, em que não havia quantidade suficiente de material. As características histológicas, bem como os achados na coloração de ZN e na técnica de IHQ confirmaram o diagnóstico de infecção por Mycobacterium sp. e foram considerados métodos rápidos e eficientes, de forma que podem ajudar na prevenção da disseminação da doença em animais.(AU)


Tuberculosis is a debilitating infecto-contagious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus (AFB) that belong to different species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Mycobacteriosis are important diseases in veterinary medicine because of their zoonotic potential and worldwide distribution, affecting all classes of vertebrates. In wild animals the mycobacteriosis have been reported mainly as a problem in captivity. There are also reports in free-ranging wildlife, endangering and hampering tuberculosis erradication programs in animal production. The diagnosis of the disease in wildlife is usually postmortem, because the tuberculin test is not standardized for wildlife species, and also it is not reliable for screening. The postmortem diagnosis is based on macroscopic findings, microscopic detection of AFB at Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN), and mainly isolation and identification of the agent. However, only gross and microscopic exams do not allow to distinguish the species of Mycobacterium involved. The immunostaining with polyclonal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis confirms tuberculosis infection, but is not specific; there may be marking of other mycobacteria. The aim of this study was to describe the histologic findings, of ZN staining and immunohistochemistry technique (IHC) of 13 cases of wildlife herbivores diagnosed with tuberculosis in the Setor de Patologia Veterinária of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS) during the 2003- 2015 period. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues were recut, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and ZN, and samples were submitted to the IHC (anti-M. tuberculosis marking, streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method). All animals included were adults living in captivity and belonged to the following species: llama (5/13), sambar deer (4/13), camel (1/13), red deer (1/13), Brazilian tapir (1/13) and Nilgai antelope (1/13). The IHC revealed immunostaining of accentuated (4/13), moderate (4/13) and discrete (4/13) intensity, except in a case with insufficient material. The histological features, findings in ZN staining and IHC in the wild herbivores with tuberculosis lesions allowed the diagnosis of infection with Mycobacterium sp., turning into fast and efficient methods of diagnosis, which can help to prevent the spread of this disease in animals from the same herd.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Antílopes , Camelídeos Americanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária
18.
Appl. cancer res ; 37: 1-7, 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-915103

RESUMO

Background: MIP is a cultivable, non-pathogenic organism, which shares several antigens with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. It has several proposed clinical applications. However, its cytotoxic effect on pancreatic cancer has not been documented. Hence, the study was conducted to investigate MIP induced cytotoxicity on Mia-Pa-Ca2 cells. To determine the cytotoxic potential of heat killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) on pancreatic cancer cells in vitro along with gemcitabine & 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) level was also studied post MIP treatment. Methods: Cytotoxic effect of MIP, gemcitabine and 5-FU on Mia-Pa-Ca2 cells was determined. We have analyzed extent of apoptosis using flow cytometry and changes in p38 levels, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal­regulated kinase (ERK) using ELISA. Results: MIP not only exhibits cell cytotoxicity in dose dependent manner, but also enhances efficacy of gemcitabine and 5-FU when used in combination. Flow cytometry analyses reveals apoptosis of Mia-Pa-Ca2 cells post MIP treatment compared to untreated cells. MAPK pathway study using ELISA shows that p38 and JNK levels are suppressed while there is no change in ERK level. Conclusion: With these results we conclude that MIP is a cytotoxic agent. Cytotoxicity is exhibited by apoptosis. Combining MIP with gemcitabine and 5-FU shows synergistic effect (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Fluoruracila , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium
19.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-961677

RESUMO

ABSTRACT In 2014, there were 480 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) around the world, but only 25% of them were diagnosed and reported. Drug resistance in TB is necessarily a laboratory diagnosis. An urgent priority in everyday practice is to diagnose tuberculosis and rule out drug resistance as quickly and as accurately as possible. However, worldwide, only 12% of new bacteriologically confirmed TB cases and 58% of previously treated TB cases were tested for drug resistance in 2014. New tools for diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB have been introduced for clinical practice during the past decade. Those new tools can detect and identify drug resistance to antituberculosis drugs in less than 24 hours, and they should be urgently integrated into clinical practice, especially in high-burden regions. Ongoing transmission of TB generates new infections, and this infected population is the inexhaustible source of new TB cases. If we are really determined to stop the global TB epidemic, we need to treat active cases and also halt the transmission of the infection. The only strategy for preventing the development of active disease in individuals with subclinical infection is to give treatment for this latent infection. Global control of TB requires a huge investment of funds to address current detection and treatment gaps. We must reconsider our current strategy and combine social components with biomedical interventions. This will require the development of alliances between government and civil society, as well as leadership and true political commitment at the highest level of government.


RESUMEN En el 2014 se presentaron 480 000 nuevos casos de tuberculosis multirresistente, pero solo se diagnosticó y notificó 25% de ellos. La farmacorresistencia en la tuberculosis se diagnostica necesariamente por medio de pruebas de laboratorio. En la práctica clínica diaria resulta urgente y prioritario poder diagnosticar la tuberculosis y descartar la farmacorresistencia con la mayor rapidez y exactitud posibles. Sin embargo, en todo el mundo, apenas 12% de los nuevos casos de tuberculosis bacteriológicamente confirmados y 58% de los casos ya tratados se sometieron a prueba de farmacorresistencia en el 2014. En los diez últimos años se han dado a conocer nuevas herramientas para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis y la tuberculosis farmacorresistente en la práctica clínica. Esas herramientas nuevas permiten detectar e identificar la resistencia a medicamentos antituberculosos en menos de 24 horas, por lo que deberían integrarse urgentemente a la práctica clínica, especialmente en las regiones con una carga de enfermedad alta. La persistencia de la transmisión de la tuberculosis genera nuevas infecciones, y la población infectada es una fuente inagotable de nuevos casos de esta enfermedad. Si estamos realmente decididos a poner fin a la epidemia mundial de la tuberculosis, tenemos que tratar los casos activos y también detener la transmisión de la infección. La única estrategia para prevenir la aparición de la enfermedad activa en personas con infección subclínica es administrar tratamiento contra esta infección latente. El control mundial de la tuberculosis requiere una enorme inversión de fondos para cerrar las brechas existentes en la detección y el tratamiento. Debemos reconsiderar nuestra estrategia actual y combinar los componentes sociales con las intervenciones biomédicas. Esto obliga a conformar alianzas entre el gobierno y la sociedad civil, y requiere del liderazgo y de un verdadero compromiso político de las más altas instancias gubernamentales.


RESUMO Em 2014, houve 480 mil novos casos de tuberculose (TB) resistente a múltiplos medicamentos, porém apenas 25% foram diagnosticados e notificados. A resistência aos medicamentos na TB requer necessariamente que seja feito um diagnóstico laboratorial. É prioridade na prática clínica diária diagnosticar a TB e descartar a resistência aos medicamentos o mais rápido e com maior precisão possível. Porém, em 2014, o teste da resistência aos medicamentos foi realizado mundialmente em apenas 12% dos novos casos de TB com confirmação bacteriológica e em 58% dos casos de TB com tratamento anterior. Novas ferramentas para o diagnóstico de TB e TB resistente a múltiplos a medicamentos foram introduzidas na prática clínica na última década. São ferramentas com capacidade de detectar e identificar a resistência aos medicamentos antituberculose em menos de 24 horas e, portanto, é imprescindível que sejam integradas à prática clínica, sobretudo em regiões de elevada carga da doença. A transmissão contínua da TB causa novas infecções, sendo a população infectada uma fonte inesgotável de novos casos da doença. Se estivermos realmente determinados a conter a epidemia global de TB, é preciso tratar os casos ativos e interromper a transmissão da infecção. A única estratégia para prevenir o surgimento de doença ativa em indivíduos com infecção subclínica é o tratamento da infecção latente. O controle global da TB requer um enorme investimento financeiro para sanar as falhas atuais de detecção e tratamento da doença. A estratégia atual deve ser reexaminada e combinar componentes sociais e intervenções biomédicas. Faz-se necessário forjar alianças entre o governo e a sociedade civil bem como assumir a liderança e o firme compromisso no mais alto nível político.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/terapia , África/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e40, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-842765

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains as the world’s biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Bovinos/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Mycobacterium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
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