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Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190210, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101271


BACKGROUND The influence of Plasmodium spp. infection in the health of Southern brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans, the main reservoir of malaria in the Atlantic Forest, is still unknown. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the positivity rate of Plasmodium infection in free-living howler monkeys in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Joinville/SC and to associate the infection with clinical, morphometrical, haematological and biochemical alterations. METHODS Molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in the captured monkeys was performed by Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (18S rRNA and coxI). Haematological and biochemical parameters were compared among infected and uninfected monkeys; clinical and morphometrical parameters were also compared. FINDINGS The positivity rate of Plasmodium infection was 70% among forty captured animals, the highest reported for neotropical primates. None statistical differences were detected in the clinical parameters, and morphometric measures comparing infected and uninfected groups. The main significant alteration was the higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in infected compared to uninfected monkeys. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Therefore, Plasmodium infection in howler monkeys may causes haematological/biochemical alterations which might suggest hepatic impairment. Moreover, infection must be monitored for the eco-epidemiological surveillance of malaria in the Atlantic Forest and during primate conservation program that involves the animal movement, such as translocations.

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Alouatta/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Alouatta/sangue , Malária/sangue , Malária/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Macacos/sangue , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 169-178, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886912


ABSTRACT The wall of the diaphragm can be affected by congenital or acquired alterations which allow the passage of viscera between the abdominal and chest cavities, allowing the formation of a diaphragmatic hernia. We characterized morphology and performed biometrics of the diaphragm in the common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. After fixation, muscle fragments were collected and processed for optical microscopy. In this species the diaphragm muscle is attached to the lung by phrenopericardial ligament. It is also connected to the liver via the coronary and falciform ligaments. The muscle is composed of three segments in total: 1) sternal; 2) costal, and 3) a segment consisting of right and left diaphragmatic pillars. The anatomical structures analyzed were similar to those reported for other mammals. Histological analysis revealed stable, organized muscle fibers with alternation of light and dark streaks, indicating transverse striation.

Animais , Masculino , Saimiri/anatomia & histologia , Diafragma/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Valores de Referência , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/patologia , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(6): 447-451, June 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040570


The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil is the most severe one in the country in recent times. It has rapidly spread to areas where YF virus (YFV) activity has not been observed for more than 70 years and vaccine coverage is almost null. Here, we sequenced the whole YFV genome of two naturally infected howler-monkeys (Alouatta clamitans) obtained from the Municipality of Domingos Martins, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These two ongoing-outbreak genome sequences are identical. They clustered in the 1E sub-clade (South America genotype I) along with the Brazilian and Venezuelan strains recently characterised from infections in humans and non-human primates that have been described in the last 20 years. However, we detected eight unique amino acid changes in the viral proteins, including the structural capsid protein (one change), and the components of the viral replicase complex, the NS3 (two changes) and NS5 (five changes) proteins, that could impact the capacity of viral infection in vertebrate and/or invertebrate hosts and spreading of the ongoing outbreak.

Animais , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Alouatta/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Filogenia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/virologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Genótipo , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(9): 570-576, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-794731


Abstract Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have evolved with host switches between non-human primates (NHPs) and humans. Studies on the infection dynamics of Plasmodium species in NHPs will improve our understanding of the evolution of these parasites; however, such studies are hampered by the difficulty of handling animals in the field. The aim of this study was to detect genomic DNA of Plasmodium species from the faeces of New World monkeys. Faecal samples from 23 Alouatta clamitans from the Centre for Biological Research of Indaial (Santa Catarina, Brazil) were collected. Extracted DNA from faecal samples was used for molecular diagnosis of malaria by nested polymerase chain reaction. One natural infection with Plasmodium simium was identified by amplification of DNA extracted from the faeces of A. clamitans. Extracted DNA from a captive NHP was also used for parasite genotyping. The detection limit of the technique was evaluated in vitro using an artificial mixture of cultured P. falciparum in NHP faeces and determined to be 6.5 parasites/µL. Faecal samples of New World primates can be used to detect malaria infections in field surveys and also to monitor the genetic variability of parasites and dynamics of infection.

Animais , Alouatta/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Fezes , Genótipo , Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium/classificação
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(1): 29-33, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-776527


Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to the importance that Howler monkeys have on the yellow fever (YF) epidemiological sylvatic cycle in Brazil, more accurate morphological diagnostic criteria needs to be established, especially considering the differences that may exist between the genera of Brazilian non-human primates (NHPs) involved in yellow fever virus (YFV) epizootics. METHODS: Records of YF epizootics in NHPs in Brazil between 2007 and 2009 were obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health database to select YF positive (n=98) Howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) for this study. The changes described in the histopathological reports were categorized by organ and their frequencies calculated. RESULTS: The most frequent lesions observed in the animals with YF were hepatocyte apoptosis (Councilman body formation), midzonal hepatocyte necrosis, steatosis, liver hemorrhage, inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltration of the liver, renal acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Midzonal hepatocyte necrosis, steatosis and hemorrhage presented positive correlations with apoptosis of hepatocytes, suggesting strong YFV pathogenic effect association; they were also the main histopathological changes in the Alouatta sp. A pronounced negative correlation between apoptosis of hepatocytes and hepatic mononuclear cell infiltration pointed to significant histopathological differences between YFV infection in Howler monkeys and humans. CONCLUSIONS: The results warn that NHPs may exhibit different response patterns following YFV infection and require a more careful diagnosis. Presumptive diagnosis based on primate histopathological lesions may contribute to public health service control.

Animais , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Alouatta/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Febre Amarela/patologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-774574


Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs) (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112) of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75) of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0/37) of A. caraya. In addition, all samples were negative for the presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. These results suggest that free-ranging NTPs were exposed to HAV within the geographical regions evaluated.

Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite A/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 865-876, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-764591


In South America, yellow fever (YF) is an established infectious disease that has been identified outside of its traditional endemic areas, affecting human and nonhuman primate (NHP) populations. In the epidemics that occurred in Argentina between 2007-2009, several outbreaks affecting humans and howler monkeys (Alouatta spp) were reported, highlighting the importance of this disease in the context of conservation medicine and public health policies. Considering the lack of information about YF dynamics in New World NHP, our main goal was to apply modelling tools to better understand YF transmission dynamics among endangered brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) populations in northeastern Argentina. Two complementary modelling tools were used to evaluate brown howler population dynamics in the presence of the disease: Vortex, a stochastic demographic simulation model, and Outbreak, a stochastic disease epidemiology simulation. The baseline model of YF disease epidemiology predicted a very high probability of population decline over the next 100 years. We believe the modelling approach discussed here is a reasonable description of the disease and its effects on the howler monkey population and can be useful to support evidence-based decision-making to guide actions at a regional level.

Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Alouatta/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 211-217, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-751376


Background: Hippotherapy uses horseback riding movements for therapeutic purposes. In addition to the horse's movement, the choice of equipment and types of floor are also useful in the intervention. The quantification of dynamic parameters that define the interaction of the surface of contact between horse and rider provides insight into how the type of floor surface variations act upon the subject's postural control. Objective: To test whether different types of surfaces promote changes in the amplitude (ACOP) and velocity (VCOP) of the center of pressure (COP) displacement during the rider's contact with the saddle on the horse's back. Method: Twenty two healthy adult male subjects with experience in riding were evaluated. The penetration resistances of asphalt, sand and grass surfaces were measured. The COP data were collected on the three surfaces using a pressure measurement mat. Results: ACOP values were higher in sand, followed by grass and asphalt, with significant differences between sand and asphalt (anteroposterior, p=0.042; mediolateral, p=0.019). The ACOP and VCOP values were higher in the anteroposterior than in the mediolateral direction on all surfaces (ACOP, p=0.001; VCOP, p=0.006). The VCOP did not differ between the surfaces. Conclusion: Postural control, measured by the COP displacement, undergoes variations in its amplitude as a result of the type of floor surface. Therefore, these results reinforce the importance of the choice of floor surface when defining the strategy to be used during hippotherapy intervention. .

Animais , Masculino , Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Macaca nemestrina/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transfusão de Sangue/efeitos adversos , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Terapia Genética , Modelos Animais , Macaca nemestrina/sangue , Macaca nemestrina/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/sangue , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 394-402, 05/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-745970


Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU) level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42) Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i) the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii) the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii) both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

Animais , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Leontopithecus/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Leontopithecus/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(2): 143-148, mar-apr/2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-746227


INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs) living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44) were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. RESULTS: All of the samples were negative for the Flavivirus genome following the 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These negative results indicate that the analyzed animals were not infected with arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus and did not represent a risk for viral transmission through vectors during the period in which the samples were collected. .

Animais , Alouatta/virologia , Arbovírus/isolamento & purificação , Callithrix/virologia , Cebus/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Animais Selvagens , Arbovírus/genética , Brasil , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Portador Sadio/virologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , RNA Viral/genética
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 641-653, 19/08/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-720431


Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

Animais , Alouatta/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Florestas , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(3): 280-286, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-716403


Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT). Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43), Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64), and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26) monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42) of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64) of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26) of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23) of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil. .

Animais , Camundongos , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/imunologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/diagnóstico , Encefalite de St. Louis/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Platirrinos , Prevalência
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 522-524, Jul-Aug/2013. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-683326


Sylvatic yellow fever is a zoonosis associated mainly with wild animals, especially those in the genus Alouatta, that act as the source of infection. Once infected, these animals pass the disease on to humans by way of an infected mosquito belonging to the genera Aedes, Haemagogus, or Sabethes. The present study is the first report of a case of yellow fever in non-human primates (NHP) in the State of Paraná, Brazil. After the case was diagnosed, several prophylactic measures were adopted to prevent outbreaks of the disease in humans.

Animais , Masculino , Alouatta/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Brasil , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(2): 307-311, Apr./June/2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-679419


During necropsy of a specimen of Lagothrix cana (É. Geoffroy, 1812) (Primates: Atelidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, pinworms were found in the large intestine. The intensity of infection was 64 parasites (17 males and 47 females) and there were no gross pathological changes related to parasitism. After morphological analysis the parasites were identified as Trypanoxyuris (Paraoxyuronema) lagothricis (Buckley, 1931) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae). This is the first record of this oxyurid species in primates in Brazil.

Durante a necropsia de Lagothrix cana (É. Geoffroy, 1812) (Primates: Atelidae) oriundo da Amazônia brasileira, oxiurídeos foram encontrados no intestino grosso. A intensidade de infecção foi de 64 parasitos (17 machos e 47 fêmeas), não havendo alterações patológicas macroscópicas relacionadas ao parasitismo. Após análise morfológica os parasitos foram identificados como Trypanoxyuris (Paraoxyuronema) lagothricis (Buckley, 1931) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae). Este é o primeiro relato desta espécie de oxiurídeo em primatas no Brasil.

Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Atelidae , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Oxyuroidea , Oxiuríase/veterinária , Brasil
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(1): 45-50, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-661102


Since 2000, the expansion of Sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF) has been observed in the southeast of Brazil, being detected in areas considered silent for decades. Epizootics in non-human primates (NHPs) are considered sentinel events for the detection of human cases. It is important to report epizootic events that could have impact on the conservation status of susceptible species. We describe the epizootics in NHPs, notified in state of São Paulo, Brazil, between September 2008 to August 2009. Ninety-one epizootic events, involving 147 animals, were reported in 36 counties. Samples were obtained from 65 animals (44.2%). Most of the epizootics (46.6%) were reported between March and April, the same period during which human cases of YF occurred in the state. Biological samples were collected from animals found dead and were sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, in São Paulo. Two samples, collected in two counties without an indication for YF vaccination, were positive for the virus. Another 48 animals were associated with YF by clinical-epidemiological linkage with laboratory confirmed cases. Because the disease in human and NHPs occurred in the same period, the detection of the virus in NHPs did not work as sentinel, but aided in the delineation of new areas of risk.

Desde 2000, vem sendo observada a expansão da febre amarela (FA) no Sudeste do Brasil, sendo detectados casos em áreas consideradas silenciosas por décadas. Epizootias em primatas não humanos (NHPs) são considerados eventos sentinela para a detecção de casos humanos. É importante relatar eventos epizoóticos que podem ter impacto sobre o estado de conservação de espécies sensíveis. Descrevemos as epizootias, notificadas em NHPs no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, entre setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Noventa e um eventos epizoóticos, envolvendo 147 animais, foram notificados em 36 municípios. As amostras foram obtidas a partir de 65 animais (44,2%). A maioria das epizootias (46,6%) foram registradas entre março e abril, no mesmo período no qual YF em que casos humanos ocorreram no estado. As amostras biológicas foram coletadas de animais encontrados mortos e enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz, em São Paulo. Duas amostras, coletadas em dois municípios, sem indicação para a vacinação de febre amarela, foram positivos para o vírus. Outros 48 animais foram associados com FA por vínculo clínico-epidemiológico com casos confirmados laboratorialmente. Devido a doença em humanos e NHPs terem ocorrido no mesmo período, a detecção do vírus em NHPs não funcionou como sentinela, mas ajudou no processo de delimitação de novas áreas de risco.

Animais , Humanos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
Rev. salud pública ; 13(5): 814-823, oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-625647


Objetivo Detectar anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp. en primates neotropicales y funcionarios de un zoológico colombiano e identificar factores de riesgo de la enfermedad. Métodos Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico en 65 primates y 20 funcionarios del Zoológico. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante la técnica de Microaglutinación macroscópica (MAT) usando un cepario de referencia conformado por 21 serovares de Leptospira sp. Se aplicó un instrumento estructurado al personal evaluado para identificar factores de riesgo. Resultados La seroprevalencia de la infección por Leptospira sp. fue del 25 % (5/20) en el personal y 23,07 % (15/65) en los monos neotropicales. Los serovares más frecuentes entre los funcionarios fueron bataviae, gryppotyphosa y hurstbridge. En los monos neotropicales predominaron los serovares icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona y ranarum. Las especies mono araña negro (Ateles fusciceps), mono cariblanco (Cebus albifrons) y tití gris (Saguinus leucopus), presentaron mayor reactividad. La mayor proporción del personal usaba dotación de protección. Conclusiones Se evidenció el contacto de los primates neotropicales y del personal con diferentes serovares de Leptospira. El uso de la dotación de protección y el tiempo de experiencia de los funcionarios del zoológico se consideraron como factores protectores de la enfermedad. Se sugiere que existe un riesgo de transmisión de leptospirosis, en los animales del zoológico y el personal, siendo por lo tanto importante fortalecer la vigilancia epidemiológica activa e implementar programas de promoción y prevención.

Objective Detecting antibodies against Leptospira spp. in Neotropical primates and workers in a Colombian Zoo and identifying the risk factors associated with the disease. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed regarding 65 Neotropical primates and 20 zookeepers. The samples were processed by microagglutination test (MAT) using a reference strain collection consisting of 21 Leptospira serovars. The people being evaluated were given a structured survey to identify risk factors. Results There was 25 % (5/20) Leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in the staff and 23.07 % (15/65) in Neotropical monkeys. The most frequently occurring serovars in workers were bataviae, gryppotyphosa and ranarum; icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona and ranarum were the predominant serovars in non-human primates. The black spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps), white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons) and white-footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus) showed the highest reactivity. Most of the personnel were using protective clothing. Conclusions The contact between primates and zookeepers involving different Leptospira sp. serovars was evident. Zoo personnel using protective clothing and their length of experience were considered to be protective factors for the disease. There may be a risk of Leptospira transmission between zoo animals and staff, and it is therefore important to strengthen active surveillance and implement promotion and prevention programs.

Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais de Zoológico/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Platirrinos/imunologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Colômbia , Estudos Transversais , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Leptospirose/transmissão , Doenças Profissionais/sangue , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Roupa de Proteção , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(3): 290-296, May-June 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: lil-593362


INTRODUCTION: Following yellow fever virus (YFV) isolation in monkeys from the São José do Rio Preto region and two fatal human autochthonous cases from the Ribeirão Preto region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, two expeditions for entomological research and eco-epidemiological evaluation were conducted. METHODS: A total of 577 samples from humans, 108 from monkeys and 3,049 mosquitoes were analyzed by one or more methods: virus isolation, ELISA-IgM, RT-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemical. RESULTS: Of the 577 human samples, 531 were tested by ELISA-IgM, with 3 positives, and 235 were inoculated into mice and 199 in cell culture, resulting in one virus isolation. One sample was positive by histopathology and immunohistochemical. Using RT-PCR, 25 samples were processed with 4 positive reactions. A total of 108 specimens of monkeys were examined, 108 were inoculated into mice and 45 in cell culture. Four virus strains were isolated from Alouattacaraya. A total of 931 mosquitoes were captured in Sao Jose do Rio Preto and 2,118 in Ribeirão Preto and separated into batches. A single isolation of YFV was derived from a batch of 9 mosquitoes Psorophoraferox, collected in Urupês, Ribeirão Preto region. A serological survey was conducted with 128 samples from the municipalities of São Carlos, Rincão and Ribeirão Preto and 10 samples from contacts of patients from Ribeirão Preto. All samples were negative by ELISA-IgM for YFV. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the circulation of yellow fever, even though sporadic, in the Sao Paulo State and reinforce the importance of vaccination against yellow fever in areas considered at risk.

INTRODUÇÃO: A partir do isolamento do vírus febre amarela (VFA), de macacos, da região de São José do Rio Preto e de dois casos humanos autóctones fatais, da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, foram realizadas duas expedições para pesquisa entomológica e avaliação ecoepidemiológica. MÉTODOS: Um total de 577 amostras de humanos, 108 de macacos e 3.049 mosquitos foram analisados por um ou mais métodos: isolamento viral, ELISA-IgM, RT-PCR, histopatologia e imunohistoquímica. RESULTADOS: De 577 amostras humanas, 531 foram testadas por ELISA-IgM, sendo 3 positivas, 235 foram inoculadas em camundongos, 199 em cultura de células, obtendo-se 1 isolamento viral. Uma amostra foi positiva por histopatologia e imunohistoquímica. Por RT-PCR foram processadas 25 amostras com 4 reações positivas. Os 108 espécimes de macacos foram inoculados em camundongos, 45 em cultura de células, obtendo-se 4 isolamentos de VFA, de Alouatta caraya. Um total de 931 mosquitos foram capturados em São José do Rio Preto e 2.118 em Ribeirão Preto e separados em lotes. Um único isolamento de VFA foi derivado de um lote de 9 mosquitos Psorophora ferox, coletados em Urupês, região de Ribeirão Preto. Um inquérito sorológico foi realizado com 128 amostras dos municípios de São Carlos, Rincão e Ribeirão Preto e mais 10 amostras de contactantes de pacientes de Ribeirão Preto. Todas as amostras foram negativas por ELISA-IgM para VFA. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam a circulação, mesmo que esporádica, do VFA no Estado de São Paulo e reforça a importância da vacinação antiamarílica nas áreas consideradas de risco.

Animais , Humanos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Culicidae/classificação , Haplorrinos/virologia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Haplorrinos/classificação , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Febre Amarela/veterinária
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(3): 356-363, May-June 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-593351


INTRODUÇÃO: Uma variante do vírus da raivafoi identificadaem associação a casos de raiva humanos, no Estado do Ceará, transmitidos por saguis (Callithrix jacchus), primatas frequentemente criados como animais de estimação. Essa variante não apresenta proximidade antigênica ou relação genética com as variantes do vírus encontradas em morcegos e mamíferos terrestres das Américas. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os fatores de risco de transmissão do vírus da raiva oriundo de sagui (C. jacchus), criado como animal de estimação, para o homem na região metropolitana de Fortaleza, Ceará. MÉTODOS: Foi aplicado um questionário estruturado aos criadores de saguis, residentes nos municípios de Aquiraz e Maranguape, Ceará, enfocando o manejo e a interação desses primatas com humanos. Para avaliação da ocorrência de antígenos rábicos, através do teste de imunofluorescência direta (IFD), foram coletadas amostras de saliva dos saguis domiciliados e semidomiciliados. Com base nos resultados obtidos desses espécimes, foram analisadas amostras de sistema nervoso central (SNC). RESULTADOS: Na análise dos questionários, observou-se a proximidade dos criadores de saguis durante o manejo desses animais nos domicílios, bem como, seus conhecimentos limitados sobre a raiva, demonstrando haver risco quanto à transmissão do vírus. De 29 amostras de saliva de saguis reavaliadas, uma (3,4 por cento) apresentou reação de IFD positiva. De 11 amostras de SNC, três (27,3 por cento) apresentaram positividade. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados laboratoriais estão de acordo com os achados dos questionários, confirmando haver risco da transmissão do vírus da raiva devido à convivência de humanos com saguis (C. jacchus).

INTRODUCTION: In the State of Ceará, a new variant of the rabies virus was identified associated with cases of human rabies transmitted by common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), which are frequently kept as pets. This new variant does not present antigenic proximity or genetic relationship to variants of the virus isolated from bats and terrestrial mammals from the American continent. The present study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of rabies virus transmission from common marmosets (C. jacchus) maintained as pets in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, to human beings. METHODS: A questionnaire focusing on animal management and interaction between humans and primates was applied to individuals who had marmosets in the municipalities of Aquiraz and Maranguape. In order to evaluate the presence of rabies antigens by direct immunofluorescence test (DIF), samples of saliva were collected from domiciliary captive marmosets. Based on the detection of rabies antigens, biopsy samples of central nervous system (CNS) were analyzed. RESULTS: Analysis of questionnaire data verified that a close relation exists between humans and their pet marmosets, especially during management practices. Additionally, these people showed minimal knowledge regarding rabies, which represents a greater risk of infection. Of the 29 saliva samples evaluated, one (3.4 percent) was positive for DIF reaction and of the 11 CNS samples, three (27.3 percent) were positive. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory data are in agreement with the questionnaire findings, which confirm an increased risk of rabies virus transmission due to the close relation between humans and marmosets.

Animais , Humanos , Antígenos Virais/análise , Callithrix/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/transmissão , Brasil , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(1): 45-50, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-576966


In Amazonian Brazil, the Cebus apella monkey (Primates: Cebidae) has been associated with the enzootic cycle of Leishmania (V.) shawi, a dermotropic parasite causing American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). It has also been successfully used as animal model for studying cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this work, there has been investigated its susceptibility to experimental Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infection, the etiologic agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). There were used ten C. apella specimens, eight adult and two young, four males and six females, all born and raised in captivity. Two experimental infection protocols were performed: i) six monkeys were inoculated, intra-dermal via (ID), into the base of the tail with 2 x 10(6) promastigotes forms from the stationary phase culture medium; ii) other four monkeys were inoculated with 3 x 10(7) amastigotes forms from the visceral infection of infected hamsters by two different via: a) two by intravenous via (IV) and, b) other two by intra-peritoneal via (IP). The parameters of infection evaluation included: a) clinical: physical exam of abdomen, weigh and body temperature; b) parasitological: needle aspiration of the bone-marrow for searching of amastigotes (Giemsa-stained smears) and promastigotes forms (culture medium); c) immunological: Indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and, Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). In the six monkeys ID inoculated (promastigotes forms) all parameters of infection evaluation were negative during the 12 months period of follow-up. Among the four monkeys inoculated with amastigotes forms, two IV inoculated showed the parasite in the bone-marrow from the first toward to the sixth month p.i. and following that they cleared the infection, whereas the other two IP inoculated were totally negative. These four monkeys showed specific IgG-antibody response since the third month p.i. (IP: 1/80 and IV: 1/320 IgG) toward to the 12th month (IP: 1/160 and IV: 1/5120). The DTH-conversion occurred in only one IV inoculated monkey with a strong (30 mm) skin reaction. Considering these results, we do not encourage the use of C. apella monkey as animal model for studying the AVL.

Na Amazônia Brasileira, o macaco Cebus apella (Primata: Cebidae) tem sido associado com o ciclo enzoótico da Leishmania (V.) shawi, um parasito dermotrópico causador da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA). Ele tem sido também empregado com sucesso como modelo experimental para estudo da leishmaniose tegumentar. Neste trabalho, foi investigada sua susceptibilidade à infecção experimental por Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, o agente etiológico da Leishmaniose Visceral Americana (LVA). Foram usados dez espécimes de C. apella oito adultos e dois jovens, quatro machos e seis fêmeas, todos nascidos e criados em cativeiro. Dois protocolos de infecção experimental foram feitos: i) seis macacos foram inoculados por via intradérmica (ID), na base da cauda com 2x10(6) formas promastigotas em fase estacionária de crescimento; ii) outros quatro macacos foram inoculados com 3x10(7) formas amastigotas de infecção visceral de hamsteres por duas vias diferentes: a) dois por via intravenosa (IV) e, b) outros dois pela via intraperitoneal (IP). A avaliação da infecção incluiu parâmetros: clínico: exame físico do abdômen, peso e temperatura corporal; b) parasitológico: aspirado de medula óssea por agulha para procura de amastigotas (esfregaço corado por Giemsa) e formas promastigotas (meio de cultura); c) imunológico: Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI) e, resposta de hipersensibilidade tardia (DTH). Nos seis macacos inoculados ID (formas promastigotas) todos os parâmetros de avaliação da infecção foram negativos durante o período de 12 meses. Entre os quatro macacos inoculados com formas amastigotas, dois inoculados IV mostraram parasitos na medula óssea do primeiro ao sexto mês p.i. e em seguida houve a resolução da infecção, no entanto os outros dois inoculados IP foram totalmente negativos. Esses quatro macacos apresentaram resposta específica de anticorpo IgG desde o terceiro mês p.i. (IP: 1/80 e IV: 1/320) até o décimo segundo mês (IP: 1/160 e IV: 1/5120). A conversão DTH ocorreu em apenas um macaco inoculado IV com uma forte reação na pele (30 mm). Considerando esses resultados, nós não recomendamos o uso do macaco C. apella como modelo animal para estudo da LVA.

Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Cebus/parasitologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Cebus/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(4): 1335-1346, dic. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-638005


Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica. Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) was observed between March and December of 2006. A total of 75 feces samples were obtained. Once a sample was collected, the eaten plant type was identified to family and species level, and feces were processed in the laboratory to determine parasite incidence. Results showed that Moraceae was the most represented family in the samples. Among parasites, Strongyloides spp. and Acanthocephala were the most common. Positive prevalence of parasites was found similar and independent of sex and age of capuchin individuals. Microsporids were mainly reported in feces associated with Piperaceae. A low presence of these parasites was found in samples associated with Myrtaceae, with possible anti-parasite active components. The occurrence of parasites was relatively high in EBLS, when compared to other regions in Costa Rica. The higher occurrence of parasites observed in capuchins at EBLS may be due to the fact that this rain forest is surrounded by areas affected by human activities. We suggest the promotion of research in neotropical primates parasitology, for a better comprehension of the parasite-host relationship, and in a long term, being able to understand the ecosystems where they coexist, and consequently, preserve the biodiversity of the whole region. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1335-1346. Epub 2010 December 01.

La deforestación de bosques tropicales está amenazando la biodiversidad de las especies de primates y su estado de salud, dependiente de un lugar ecológicamente equilibrado. Con el fin de evaluar esta relación, se analizó la presencia de parásitos en los intestinos de esta especie. El estudio se realizó en la Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. El grupo de monos capuchinos cariblancos (Cebus capucinus) fue observado entre marzo y diciembre de 2006. Se recolectaron 75 muestras de heces a las que se les identificó las plantas ingeridas, y se procesaron en el laboratorio para evaluar la prevalencia de parásitos. Moraceae fue la familia de plantas más reportada. Strongyloides spp. y acantocéfalos fueron los más comunes. La distribución positiva de las mismas fue similar independientemente del sexo y la edad. Microsporidios se reportaron mayoritariamente en heces asociadas con la familia Piperaceae. Fue encontrada una baja existencia de éstos parásitos en muestras asociadas con Myrtaceae en cuyo género Psidium, se han reportado compuestos activos antiparasitarios. La aparición de parásitos fue relativamente mayor en la EBLS, comparado con muestras de otras regiones más secas de Costa Rica. Por lo tanto, esa expresión parasitaria puede deberse al hecho de ser la EBLS una selva lluviosa, además de estar rodeada por zonas con actividades antrópicas. Se sugiere incrementar las investigaciones de parasitología de campo en primates neotropicales con el fin de entender plenamente las relaciones parásitos-hospederos, para en un largo plazo poder comprender los ecosistemas donde conviven, y en consecuencia, preservar la diversidad biológica.

Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Cebus/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Costa Rica , Comportamento Alimentar , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Plantas/classificação