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1.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(3): 245-247, set. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041709

RESUMO

Bulla se define como un área de enfisema bien delimitada mayor o igual a 1cm de diámetro y pared fina epitelizada de grosor generalmente menor a 1mm. Se presentan preferentemente sobre los vértices pulmonares y se corresponden con un alargamiento de los espacios centrolobulillares1. Tienden a aumentar de volumen y complicarse con neumotórax, hemorragia e infección2. Durante la infección adquieren líquido, presencia de nivel hidroaéreo y sus paredes se engrosan2. Es importante la diferenciación con la neumonía perienfisematosa, la cual cursa con la infección del parénquima circundante generando una afectación por contigüidad a la bulla, produciendo volcado de líquido inflamatorio a la misma, y comprometiendo sistémicamente al paciente


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Enfisema
2.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(2): 109-111, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041686

RESUMO

Las enfermedades del intersticio pulmonar (ILD's) comprenden más de 100 afecciones,­algunas de causas conocidas y otras no­, que comparten un cuadro clínico, radiográfico y funcional. Muchas de ellas afectan además la luz y la pared bronquiolar como sucede por ejemplo en la Neumonía Crónica Organizada (COP) y en la Bronquiolitis Respiratoria asociada a Intersticiopatía (BR-ILD)


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar , Enfisema
3.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(2): 159-161, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041695

RESUMO

Caso clínico: Paciente de sexo masculino, de 72 años. Ingresa por un cuadro de disnea súbita mMRC 2-3, con progresión a disnea mMRC 4. Refiere tos crónica sin cambio en sus características. Niega fiebre. Antecedentes: Ex tabaquista (36 paquetes/año), con antecedentes de artritis reumatoidea, y fibrosis pulmonar. Examen físico: Saturación de oxígeno 88% aire ambiente, taquipneico. Con hipoventilación y crepitantes velcro hasta el tercio medio, bilaterales. Exámenes complementarios: Hemograma normal. La gasometría arterial revela alcalosis respiratoria compensada. La espirometría y los volúmenes pulmonares se encuentran dentro de los límites de referencia, se observa disminución severa de la capacidad de difusión pulmonar (DLCO). La tomografía computarizada torácica de alta resolución (TCAR) (Figuras 1 y 2) muestra enfisema en los lóbulos superiores, con fibrosis de predominio en lóbulos inferiores, no se observan signos indirectos de hipertensión pulmonar


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Fibrose Pulmonar , Enfisema
4.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(1): 27-37, mar. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041677

RESUMO

Introducción: Las consecuencias hemodinámicas de la hiperinflación y el enfisema se producen por compresión cardíaca debido a elevadas presiones intratorácicas, lo que produciría disfunción diastólica ventricular izquierda subclínica. Nuestro objetivo es correlacionar el porcentaje de enfisema con parámetros de función pulmonar y con el tamaño de las cámaras cardíacas, función sistólica ventricular global y función diastólica ventricular izquierda, en la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Materiales y Métodos: participaron pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica moderada y severa asistidos en un Servicio de Neumonología del Hospital Privado Centro Médico de Córdoba, desde el 01 de enero al 31 de octubre de 2014. Se cuantificó el volumen y porcentaje de enfisema por tomografía computada de alta resolución, se realizaron espirometría, prueba de marcha de seis minutos, determinación de volúmenes pulmonares y ecocardiograma Doppler color. Resultados: Se encontró correlación negativa y significativa del porcentaje de enfisema con el porcentaje del valor teórico del VEF1 postbroncodilatador (p = 0.005) y el cociente VEF1/CVF postbroncodilatador (p = 0.004) y; además, entre el cociente VEF1/CVF postbroncodilatador y el volumen del enfisema en cm3 (p = 0.000). De un subgrupo de 20 pacientes. Siete pacientes (35%) presentaron diagnóstico de disfunción diastólica ventricular izquierda de grado I. Se encontraron correlaciones negativas pero no significativas entre el porcentaje de enfisema con función sistólica ventricular global y el tamaño de las cámaras cardíacas. Conclusiones: Se destaca la utilidad del ecocardiograma para reducir el sub diagnóstico de disfunción diastólica ventricular izquierda. Se destaca la importancia que tendrían la hiperinflación y el enfisema en el deterioro del patrón de llenado diastólico ventricular izquierdo y en la reducción del tamaño de las cámaras cardíacas con disminución en la tolerancia al ejercicio.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica
5.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(1): 38-48, mar. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041678

RESUMO

Introduction: The hemodynamic consequences of hyperinflation and emphysema are produced by cardiac compression due to high intrathoracic pressures, which could produce subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Our purpose is to correlate the percentage of emphysema with lung function parameters and cardiac chamber sizes, the global ventricular systolic function and the left ventricular diastolic function, in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Materials and Methods: The participants were patients with moderate and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated in the Pulmonology Service of the Hospital Privado Centro Médico de Córdoba from January 1st to October 13th, 2014. We quantified the volume and percentage of emphysema by high resolution computed tomography and carried out a spirometry, a Six Minute Walk Test, measurement of pulmonary volumes and color Doppler echocardiography. Results: We found a significant negative correlation between the percentage of emphysema and the percentage of the post-bronchodilator FEV1 theoretical value (p = 0.005) and the post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC (Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second/Forced Vital Capacity) quotient (p = 0.004), and, also, between the post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC quotient and the emphysema volume in cm3 (p = 0.000). Out of a sub-group of 20 patients, seven patients (35%) were diagnosed with grade I left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. We found negative, but not significant correlations between the percentage of emphysema and global ventricular systolic function and cardiac chamber sizes. Conclusions: We should emphasize the usefulness of the echocardiography in reducing sub-diagnoses of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. We should also stress on the importance hyperinflation and emphysema would have in the impairment of the left ventricular diastolic filling pattern and in the decrease in cardiac chamber sizes, with a decrease in exercise tolerance.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica
6.
Case reports (Universidad Nacional de Colombia. En línea) ; 3(2): 91-97, July-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989556

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is defined as the presence of air in the mediastinum. It is a rare entity considered benign and self-limiting, which mostly affects young adults. Its diagnosis is confirmed through clinical and radiological studies. Case description: 21-year-old male patient with cough and greenish expectoration for four days, associated with dyspnea, chest pain, fever and bilateral supraclavicular subcutaneous emphysema. Chest X-ray suggested pneumomediastinum, which was confirmed by tomography. The patient was hospitalized for observation and treatment. After a positive evolution, he was discharged on the sixth day. Discussion: SPM is a differential diagnosis in patients with chest pain and dyspnea. Its prevalence is lower than 0.01% and its mortality rate is low. It should be suspected in patients with chest pain and subcutaneous emphysema on physical examination. Between 70 and 90% of the cases can be identified by chest X-ray, while confirmation can be obtained through chest tomography. In most cases it does not require additional studies. Conclusion: SPM is a little known cause of acute chest pain, and rarely considered as a differential diagnosis; it is self-limited and has a good prognosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Enfisema , Enfisema Subcutâneo
7.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Quito) ; 42(2): 174-179, dic.2017. []
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005157

RESUMO

La colangiografía retrograda endoscópica (CPRE) es una técnica invasiva que permite diagnosticar y tratar patologías de vía biliar. La tasa de complicaciones es baja volviendo al procedimiento seguro, no exento de complicaciones como pancreatitis, sangrados, colangitis e incluso perforación (incidencia menor al 1,5%). Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de sexo masculino, con dolor en hipocondrio derecho, vómito y fiebre que presenta dilatación del extremo distal del colédoco por causa litiásica evidenciado por colangioresonancia. Se programa para CPR intentándose la canulación sin papilotomía; durante el procedimiento el paciente presenta enfisema subcutáneo y neumotórax a tensión ameritando tratamiento de emergencia. Se decide manejo quirúrgico a las doce horas de la CPRE por la marcada inestabilidad hemodinámica del paciente; en el intraoperatorio y en una endoscopia ulterior no se evidenció una lesión macroscópica que justifiquen la clínica e imágenes radiológicas que presentó el paciente. Se realiza tratamiento quirúrgico de perforación duodenal que obligó una estancia en terapia intensiva durante 11 días. Se complementa con una revisión bibliográfica de las complicaciones post CPRE. (AU)


Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is an invasive technique that allows diagnosing and treating pathologies of the bile duct. The rate of complications is low returning to the safe procedure, not free of complications such as pancreatitis, bleeding, cholangitis and even perforation (incidence less than 1.5%). We present the clinical case of a male patient, with pain in the right hypochondrium, vomiting and fever that presents dilatation of the distal end of the common bile duct due to lithiasic cause evidenced by cholangioresonance. It is programmed for CPR, trying cannulation without papillotomy; During the procedure, the patient presents subcutaneous emphysema and tension pneumothorax, requiring emergency treatment. Surgical management was decided twelve hours after ERCP due to the marked hemodynamic instability of the patient; In the intraoperative period and in a subsequent endoscopy, there was no evidence of a macroscopic lesion that justified the clinical and radiological images presented by the patient. Surgical treatment of duodenal perforation wasperformed, which forced a stay in intensive therapyfor11 days. It is complemented by a bibliographic review of post-ERCP complications. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pneumotórax , Enfisema Subcutâneo , Enfisema , Condições Patológicas, Sinais e Sintomas , Ductos Biliares , Colangiografia
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 6(4): 41-47, Oct.-Dec. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-905093

RESUMO

Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare infection characterized by necrosis and gas accumulation in the renal parenchyma, adjacent tissues, and/or urinary collecting system. This entity is rarely reported in transplanted kidneys. Computed tomography imaging is necessary for diagnosis and risk classification. The authors described the case of a 58-year-old man who underwent a kidney transplant and presented sepsis from a urinary tract infection. An abdominal tomography showed some characteristics of emphysematous pyelonephritis associated with an abscess. A graft biopsy, performed 45 days after the transplant, failed to show signs of infection, and tubule-interstitial and vascular rejection were ruled out. The patient had a poor outcome, and a nephrectomy was needed, the pathological analysis of which yielded the diagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis with necrotizing papillitis. The patient became hemodynamically unstable and died. The authors highlight the current tomographic criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of emphysematous pyelonephritis and question the validity of accepting the same standards used to guide the treatment of patients without transplants, and call attention to the importance of the clinical status for the indication of nephrectomy in cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfisema/patologia , Pielonefrite/patologia , Transplante de Rim
9.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 16(3): 258-268, set. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-842998

RESUMO

La Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) es una enfermedad caracterizada por limitación del flujo aéreo espiratorio donde el atrapamiento aéreo y la hiperinsuflación dinámica conducen a la producción de disnea que muchas veces incapacita al paciente a pesar de un correcto tratamiento farmacológico y de rehabilitación. Los tratamientos quirúrgicos destinados a paliar esta situación como la cirugía de reducción de volumen pulmonar (CRVP) presentan una morbimortalidad que limita su uso. La búsqueda de formas menos invasivas para conseguir el mismo propósito dieron origen a una serie de procedimientos broncoscópicos para la reducción de volumen pulmonar dentro de los cuales, las válvulas endobronquiales (VEB), son las que acumulan mayor desarrollo y experiencia. Si bien los estudios con VEB son heterogéneos y en su conjunto, muestran modestos beneficios en los test de función pulmonar, ejercicio y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, existe un grupo de pacientes con enfisema pulmonar heterogéneo, cisura interlobar intacta, atrapamiento aéreo severo y baja tolerancia al ejercicio que muestra beneficios estadística y clínicamente significativos. Nuevos estudios se encuentran en desarrollo para dar más peso de evidencia a la acumulada en la actualidad.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation, air trapping and dynamic hyperinflation that lead to disabling dyspnea despite appropriate pharmacologic treatment and pulmonary rehabilitation. Though surgical treatments such as lung transplant surgery and lung volume reduction (LVRS) are available, their high morbidity and mortality limit their use. To avoid these complications multiple procedures for bronchoscopic lung volume reduction have been developed, among which endobronchial valves (EBV) have accumulated the largest amount of evidence. While studies with EBV are heterogeneous and show modest benefits in pulmonary function tests, exercise capacity and quality of life, there is a group of patients with heterogeneous emphysema, intact interlobar fissure, severe air trapping and low exercise tolerance that show a statistically and clinically significant benefits. New studies are under way to further support the growing evidence.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema
10.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(3): 443-448, July-Sept. 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-796958

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Ultrasound examination of the chest has advanced in recent decades. This imaging modality is currently used to diagnose several pathological conditions and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Acoustic barriers represented by the aerated lungs and the bony framework of the chest generate well-described sonographic artifacts that can be used as diagnostic aids. The normal pleural line and A, B, C, E and Z lines (also known as false B lines) are artifacts with specific characteristics. Lung consolidation and pneumothorax sonographic patterns are also well established. Some scanning protocols have been used in patient management. The Blue, FALLS and C.A.U.S.E. protocols are examples of algorithms using artifact combinations to achieve accurate diagnoses. Combined chest ultrasonography and radiography are often sufficient to diagnose and manage lung and chest wall conditions. Chest ultrasonography is a highly valuable diagnostic tool for radiologists, emergency and intensive care physicians.


RESUMO O exame ultrassonográfico do tórax avançou nas últimas décadas, sendo utilizado para o diagnóstico de inúmeras condições patológicas, e fornecendo informações qualitativas e quantitativas. Os pulmões aerados e o arcabouço ósseo do tórax representam barreira sonora para o estudo ultrassonográfico, gerando artefatos que, bem conhecidos, são utilizados como ferramentas diagnósticas. Eco pleural normal, linhas A, linhas B, linhas C, linhas E e Z (conhecidas como falsas linhas B) são artefatos com características peculiares. Os padrões de consolidação e de pneumotórax também são bem estabelecidos. Alguns protocolos têm sido utilizados no manuseio dos pacientes: Blue Protocol, Protocolo FALLS e Protocolo C.A.U.S.E são exemplos de três propostas que, por meio da associação entre os artefatos, permitem sugerir diagnósticos precisos. A ultrassonografia de tórax, aliada à radiografia de tórax, muitas vezes é suficiente para o diagnóstico e a conduta das afecções pulmonares e da parede torácica. Trata-se de ferramenta diagnóstica de grande valia para médicos radiologistas, emergencistas e intensivistas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pleura/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/normas , Artefatos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Enfisema/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 9(1): 143-152, jan.-abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-832006

RESUMO

O enfisema pulmonar é um processo inflamatório pulmonar e tem repercussões extrapulmonares. Os objetivos desta pesquisa são investigar os efeitos da fotobiomodulação nas alterações extrapulmonares. Foram selecionados 24 ratos, divididos em três grupos de 8 animais: grupo controle (GC: recebeu apenas solução salina); grupo DPOC (GD: instilação de papaína 2 mg/kg); grupo DPOC + laser (GDL: instilação de papaína + 15 dias de laserterapia). Para análise dos dados foi coletado e observado: CKMB, LBA, Histologia (análise morfométrica) e espessura das câmaras cardíacas (análise morfométrica), respectivamente. Houve diminuição no número de células inflamatórias no LBA do GDL (p < 0,05) quando comparado com GC e GD; aumento dos níveis de CKMB no grupo GD (p < 0,05); e diminuição significativa no GDL (p = 0,0009) quando comparado com o GD, hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (p < 0,05) no grupo GD e GDL quando comparado com controle. A fotobiomodulação diminui a liberação de células inflamatórias responsáveis pela liberação do CKMB na corrente sanguínea, diminuindo assim os níveis de CKMB e reduzindo os riscos de infarto do miocárdio.


Lung emphysema is a pulmonary inflammatory process, with extrapulmonary repercussions. Twenty-four rats were selected and divided into three groups with eight animals each: control (GC: received only saline solution); group DPOC (GD: with instillation of papaya proteinase 2 mg/kg); group DPOC + laser (GDL: with instillation of papaya proteinase + 15 days of laser therapy). Data analysis comprised: CKMB, LBA, Histology (morphometric analysis) and thickness of the cardiac chambers (morphometric analysis), respectively. The number of inflammatory cells in LBA of GDL decreased (p < 0.05) when compared with GC and GD; there was an increase in CKMB levels in group GD (p < 0.05); significant decrease in GDL (p = 0.0009) when compared to GD, left ventricle hypertrophy (p < 0.05) in group GD and GDL when compared to control. Photobiomodulation decreased the release of inflammatory cells by the release of CKMB in the blood and decreased CKMB levels and reduced myocardial infarction risks.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Papaína , Modelos Animais , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Enfisema , Fotobiologia
12.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 16(1): 101-102, mar. 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-842972

RESUMO

En 1997, se publicó en Argentina por primera vez la experiencia de trasplante (Tx) pulmonar en 7 pacientes con enfisema. Recientemente se publicaron los resultados del programa de Tx pulmonar de la Fundación Favaloro en 84 pacientes con enfisema avanzado, realizados entre los años 1994 y 2012


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão , Enfisema
13.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 15(4): 283-291, dic. 2015. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-842941

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: El enfisema constituye la indicación más frecuente de trasplante pulmonar (TP). El propósito del presente trabajo fue evaluar las características demográficas y funcionales de pacientes con enfisema y analizar la supervivencia. Métodos: Estudio observacional analítico de 84 pacientes con enfisema que recibieron TP entre junio 1994 y marzo 2012. Se utilizó el método de Kaplan-Meier para analizar la supervivencia. Resultados: Se realizaron 84 TP en 84 pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) por enfisema avanzado, todos fumadores, 11 (13%) padecían déficit de alfa-1 antitripsina (DA1AT); 70 trasplantes unipulmonares (TUP) (83%) y 14 trasplantes bipulmonares (TBP) (17%); 69 en situación electiva (82%) y 15 en emergencia/urgencia (18%). Edad promedio: 54,95 ± 6,10 años, 54 hombres (64%). Volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (VEF1) 0,60 ± 0,28 L (20 ± 9%); capacidad vital forzada (CVF) 1,78 ± 0,62 L (46 ± 16%); presión arterial pulmonar media (PAPm) 21,08 ± 5,79 mmHg; presión parcial de oxígeno arterial (PaO2) 67,54 ± 12,27 mmHg; presión parcial de dióxido de carbono arterial (PaCO2) 46,40 ± 8,04 mmHg; distancia recorrida en prueba de marcha de 6 minutos (PM6M) 225,59 ± 113,67 m. La mortalidad hospitalaria (MH) fue 16% (13/84). La supervivencia global a 1, 3, 5, 7 y 10 años: 67%, 53%, 40%, 27% y 13%. Supervivencia condicional a 3, 5, 7 y 10 años: 79%, 59%, 41% y 20%. Conclusiones: El TP es una opción terapéutica en enfisema avanzado. Este trabajo muestra características y supervivencia de pacientes con EPOC trasplantados en Hospital Universitario Fundación Favaloro (HUFF).


Introduction and objectives: Emphysema is the most frequent indication of lung transplantation (LT)). The aim of this paper is to evaluate the demographic and functional characteristics of patients with emphysema and to analize survival. Methods: Observational and analytic study of 84 patients with emphysema who were transplanted between june 1994 and march 2012. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival. Results: 84 (40%) out of 212 transplanted patients had diagnosis of emphysema; 11 (13%) of them with diagnosis of alfa-1 antitrypsin defcit. Seventy of them (83%) were single lung transplantation and 14 (17%) double lung transplantation; 69 in elective situation (82%) and 15 in emergency/urgency situation (18%). Mean age: 54, 95 ± 6, 10 years, 54 male (64%). Baseline characteristics were: forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) 0,60 ± 0,28 L (20 ±9%); forced vital capacity (FVC) 1,78 ± 0,62 L (46 ± 16%); mean pulmonary artery pressure (map) 21,08 ± 5,79 mmHg; mean partial artery oxygen pressure (PaO2) 67,54 ± 12,27 mmHg; mean partial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) 46,40 ± 8,04 mmHg, Six minute walk test (6MWT) distance was 225,59± 113,67 m. In-hospital mortality was 16% (13/84). Global survival at 1, 3, 5, 7 y 10 years was 67%, 53%, 40%, 27% y 13% respectively. Conditional survival at 3, 5, 7 y 10 years was 79%, 59%, 41% y 20% respectively. Conclusions: lung transplantation is a therapeutic option in advanced emphysema. This paper shows characteristics and survival of COPD patients who underwent lung transplantation in the University Hospital Foundation Favaloro.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(3): 387-390, mar. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-745637

RESUMO

Emphysematous cystitis is found in diabetic patients and in individuals with urinary stasis and immunosuppression. We report a 58-year-old male with hypertension, type 2 Diabetes on insulin treatment and central nervous system vasculitis on immunosuppressive therapy. He was admitted with weight loss and gait instability. A PET-CT showed a circumscribed image of air in the bladder contour without involving the upper urinary tract, suggesting emphysematous cystitis. Re-interrogated, the patient referred pneumaturia, dysuria and febrile sensation one week before admission. Urine culture showed Enterobacter aerogenes. He was treated with a urinary catheter, metabolic control and parenteral antimicrobials. The patient was discharged without symptoms 21 days after admission, with the bladder catheter.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cistite/diagnóstico , Enfisema/diagnóstico , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/complicações , Disuria/etiologia , Enfisema/complicações , Imipenem/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/etiologia
16.
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 36: [12], 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-879715

RESUMO

O objetivo deste artigo é realizar uma revisão da literatura acerca de malformações broncopulmonares em RN, visando diagnóstico pré-natal através da ultrassografia, acompanhamento neonatal conforme manifestações clínicas com exames de imagem e a melhor via de tratamento, expectante ou definitiva.


The purpose of this article is a literature review about bronchopulmonary malformations in newborns, aiming to prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound, neonatal monitoring according to clinical manifestations by imaging exams and the best treatment, expectant or final.


Assuntos
Malformação Adenomatoide Cística Congênita do Pulmão , Cisto Broncogênico , Sequestro Broncopulmonar , Enfisema , Cirurgia Geral , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal
17.
Rev. med. Rosario ; 80(3): 129-134, sept.-dic. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-740632

RESUMO

La gastritis enfisematosa (GE) es una entidad poco frecuente, descripta por primera vez por Fraenkel en 1889. Se caracteriza por la invasión de la pared gástrica por gérmenes productores de gas, y se asocia a una alta morbimortalidad. Se describen en la bibliografía diferentes factores de riesgo que favorecerían su desarrollo, entre ellos ingesta de cáusticos, diabetes, abuso de alcohol, isquemia gástrica y cirugía de estómago. El cuadro clínico se caracteriza por dolor abdominal agudo y progresivo asociado a repercusión sistémica, sepsis severa, shock séptico, disfunción orgánica múltiple y muerte. Los métodos de diagnóstico por imágenes cumplen un rol fundamental en su abordaje, siendo la tomografía computada multidetector (TCMD) el método de elección, ya que cuenta con la capacidad de mostrar la presencia de gas en el interior de la pared gástrica (neumatosis gástrica) en asociación con el aumento de su espesor, siendo estos dos hallazgos la clave en el diagnóstico. También se encuentra presente un aumento de la densidad del tejido perigástrico compatible con cambios de tipo inflamatorio o infeccioso, y en algunas ocasiones se asocia a neumatosis portal. Se realiza una actualización del tema enfatizando el rol de la TCMD para su diagnóstico.


Emphysematous gastritis (EG) is a rare entity first described in 1889. It is characterized by the invasion of the gastric wall by gas-producing bacteria, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical picture is characterized by acute abdominal pain associated with progressive systemic repercussions, severe sepsis, septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction, and death. Imaging methods play a fundamental role in the diagnosis. Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) is the method of choice, since it has the ability to show the presence of gas within the gastric wall (gastric pneumatosis) in association with increased wall thickness. These two features are key findings for diagnosis. Increased density of perigastric tissue is frequently present, due to infectious or inflammatory changes; sometimes portal pneumatosis is present as well. An update on EG is presented, emphasizing the role of MDCT in diagnosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Enfisema/patologia , Gastrite/patologia , Pneumatose Cistoide Intestinal/patologia , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Tomografia/métodos , Abdome Agudo/diagnóstico , Melena/diagnóstico
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(8): 1061-1064, ago. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-728353

RESUMO

We report a 57-year-old woman who presented with low back pain, fever and impairment of consciousness. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit in Glasgow 8, with neck stiffness, peritoneal irritation, leukocytosis, hyperglycemia requiring insulin and a urine test suspecting an infection. Brain CT was unremarkable, while CT of the abdomen and pelvis evidenced emphysematous cystitis, retropneumoperitoneum and pneumorrhachis. Blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive to Escherichia coli. She was treated with ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and amikacin during one month followed by ciprofloxacin until completing 100 days. The air in the spinal canal and bladder decreased. However she suffered several infectious complications such as multiple paravertebral, epidural and psoas abscesses, L5-S1 spondylitis and a L3 fracture. As an inflammatory complication she developed a bulbar infarction and tetraparesis. She had a good clinical response with medical treatment, partial improvement of the paresis and reduction of epidural abscesses.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cistite/complicações , Enfisema/complicações , Pneumorraque/etiologia , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Meningite/etiologia , Paraparesia/etiologia , Espondilite/etiologia
19.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 14(2): 53-57, jul. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-728042

RESUMO

El enfisema lobar congénito es una entidad poco común. No existe una etiología clara y se ha descrito que la causa más común es la displasia del cartílago bronquial. El diagnóstico clínico es difícil de realizar en tanto que la tomografía multidetector, así como el estudio histopatológico pueden definir el diagnóstico. Presentamos los casos clínicos de dos neonatos de sexo masculino con clínica similar a la de una neumonía.Describimos el proceso con el cual llegamos a la conclusión diagnóstica, su manejo, pronóstico y una breve revisión de la literatura.


Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare entity; there is no clear etiology and it has been described that the most common cause is the bronchial cartilage dysplasia. Clinical diagnosis is difficult to perform and multidetector computed tomography either the histopathological study can define the diagnosis. We present two cases of two male neonates with similar symptomatology than pneumonia. We describe the process that lead us to the diagnostic conclusion, management, prognostic and we present a brief review of the literature.


Assuntos
Humanos , Enfisema/congênito , Ilustração Médica
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(1): 114-117, ene. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-708859

RESUMO

We report a 53 year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, presenting with progressive abdominal pain lasting three weeks, associated with lower abdominal swelling and fever. Clinical examination showed a large increase in abdominal volume, contraction of extracellular compartment, and signs of severe sepsis. Computed tomography showed an over-distended bladder with severe wall and luminal pneumatosis and bilateral hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was of emphysematous cystitis associated to hydronephrosis. Urine and blood cultures were positive for multi-susceptible Escherichia coli. Clinical evolution was favorable after 6 weeks of ceftriaxone and urinary catheter use. Emphysematous cystitis is a rare clinical entity, with an associated mortality of 7%. Known predisposing factors are older age, female gender and presence of diabetes. Microbiological agents most frequently involved are Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (80% of cases). Medical treatment is preferred and is based on urinary tract decompression with a bladder catheter, and prolonged broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cistite/diagnóstico , Enfisema/diagnóstico , Cistite/etiologia , /complicações , Enfisema/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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