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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(11): 849-851, dic2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1050068

RESUMO

This study focuses on the heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) in certain common milk species are collected from Iraqi markets using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-6300 AA, Shimadzu, Japan, respectively. This study shows the pollution in the environment obtained by heavy metals. The results showed that Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Fe were varying according to the order: Zn>Fe>Cr>Cd>Cu. levels of heavy metals were 0.610(Cr), 0.125(Cd), 0.052(Cu), and 6.902(Zn), and 0.759(Fe). All the heavy metals were observed within maximum limit in milk. Overall, the number of analyzed heavy metals and sample size were limited in present study. Keywords: Heavy metals; Milk; Najaf; Flame atomic absorption; Spectrophotometer This study focuses on the heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) in certain common milk species are collected from Iraqi markets using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-6300 AA, Shimadzu, Japan, respectively. This study shows the pollution in the environment obtained by heavy metals. The results showed that Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Fe were varying according to the order: Zn>Fe>Cr>Cd>Cu. levels of heavy metals were 0.610(Cr), 0.125(Cd), 0.052(Cu), and 6.902(Zn), and 0.759(Fe). All the heavy metals were observed within maximum limit in milk. Overall, the number of analyzed heavy metals and sample size were limited in present study


Assuntos
Espectrofotometria Atômica , Espectrofotômetros de Chama , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Leite
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 659-664, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001473

RESUMO

Abstract The Doce River basin has suffered the largest environmental accident ever occurred in Brazil with the influx of tailings from Fundão and Santarém, belonging to Samarco mining company, due to the disaster in Mariana. A spill between 50 and 60 million m3 of tailings was estimated by the company. According to Samarco, the wastewater was composed mainly of clay, silt and heavy metals like iron, copper and manganese. Thereby, the objective of the present study was evaluated the genotoxic damage in juvenile of Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy e Gaimard, 1824) exposed to Doce river water before (DRWBA - Doce River water before acident) and after (DRWAA - Doce River water after acident) the influx of tailings from the Germano and Santarém Dam disasters in Mariana, MG, Brazil. For this, 24 individuals of the species G. brasiliensis (obtained on IFES/ALEGRE fish culture) were submitted to a bioassay with three treatments and eight replicates. The treatments were: 1) Control water (water from the urban water supply system, filtered with a 0.45 µm membrane), 2) DRBA and 3) DRAA. After 96 h, these fishes were anesthetized to remove blood for evaluation of genotoxic damage (micronucleus and comet). For the bioassay, a total of 80 L of The Doce River water were collected before the influx of tailings and after the influx and then submitted to metal quantification analysis. Fish exposed to DRWBA and DRWAA treatments showed a significant increase in both the number of erythrocyte micronuclei and the DNA damage index in relation to the control fish; however, they did not present any differences between the two treatments. The results demonstrate that the DRWBA treatment was already genotoxic for the fish, mainly due to dissolved Cu concentrations in the water. The DRWAA treatment probably presented genotoxicity due to the increase in the dissolved fraction and synergistic effects of several metals found in the tailings of the Mariana accident.


Resumo A bacia do Rio Doce sofreu o maior acidente ambiental com o influxo de rejeitos de Fundão e Santarém, pertencentes à empresa de mineração Samarco, devido ao desastre em Mariana. Um derramamento entre 50 e 60 milhões de m3 de rejeitos foi estimado pela empresa. De acordo com a Samarco, o rejeito despejado era composto principalmente de argila, silte e alguns metais pesados como ferro, cobre e manganês. Com isso, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os danos genotóxicos em juvenis de Geophagus brasilienses expostos a água do rio Doce antes (DRWAA - água do Rio Doce antes do acidente) e depois (DRWBA- água do Rio Doce depois do acidente) da chegada dos rejeitos do rompimento das barragens de Germano e Santarém em Mariana, MG, Brasil. Para isso, 24 indivíduos da espécie G. brasilienses (obtidos na piscicultura do IFES/ALEGRE) foram submetidos a um bioensaio com três tratamentos e oito réplicas. Os tratamentos eram: 1) Controle (com água do abastecimento urbano, filtrada com filtro analítico de 0,45 µm); 2) DRWBA e 3) DRWAA. Após um período de 96 h, esses peixes foram anestesiados para retirada de sangue para avaliação dos danos genotóxicos (micronúcleo e cometa). Para a realização do bioensaio, um total de 80 L de água do Rio Doce foram coletados antes da chegada dos rejeitos e outros 80 L foram coletados depois da chegada dos rejeitos e ambas foram submetidas a análises de quantificação de metal. Os peixes expostos ao DRWBA e ao DRWAA apresentaram um aumento significativo na quantidade de micronúcleos eritrocitários e no índice de danos do DNA em relação aos peixes controle, no entanto não apresentaram diferenças entre si. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a DRWBA já era genotóxica para os peixes, principalmente, em função das concentrações de Cu dissolvido na água. A DRWAA apresentou genotixicidade, provavelmente, em função do aumento da fração dissolvida e do efeito sinérgico de diversos metais presentes nos rejeitos do acidente de Mariana.


Assuntos
Animais , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/classificação , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Ciclídeos/genética , Desastres , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/classificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Rios/química , Água Doce/química , Mineração
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 818-825, may./jun. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048687

RESUMO

The mangrove forest is an important transitional ecosystem consisted of terrestrial and marine environment located in tropical and subtropical regions with average temperatures above 20 °C. In Alagoas, the mangrove forests are found on the entire coastline from Maragogi to Piaçabuçu. In the last 20 years, due to the pollution of water resources, studies of coastal aquatic ecosystems have been developed. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and determine the levels of heavy metals in mangrove sediments of the Mundaú-Manguaba estuary lagoon complex (MMELC) and Meirim River in Alagoas. Zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and chromium were chosen due to their relationship with sewer, agricultural, and industrial wastes. 22 soil samples were collected in the MMELC and in the Meirim River. The samples were submitted to soil routine analyses of Embrapa. The heavy metals were extracted by the Mehlich-1 method and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean concentrations of these metals in thesediment samples followed the order Mn > Zn >Pb > Cr> Cu >Cd in MMELC and Zn > Mn >Pb > Cr> Cu >Cd in Meirim River. All proposed heavy metals were found in sediments, however, the cadmium levels were above the normal levels proposed by Environment National Council (CONAMA) and Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. The study shows that the analysis of sediment can contribute to environmental monitoring actions and development of public policies aimed to controlling the sustainable use of natural resources of the studied areas.


O manguezal é um importante ecossistema de transição entre o ambiente marinho e terrestre, localizado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais com temperaturas médias acima de 20°C. Em Alagoas podemos encontrar florestas de mangue em praticamente todo o litoral desde Maragogi até Piaçabuçu. Nosúltimos 20 anos, a poluição dos recursos hídricos tem levado ao estudo dos ecossistemas aquáticos costeiros, que são importantes para preservação e equilíbrio da vida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as propriedades físico-químicas e determinar os teores ambientalmente disponíveis de metais nos sedimentos do mangue existente na foz CELMM (e do rio Meirim em Alagoas. Foram escolhidos os metais zinco, cobre, chumbo, cádmio e crômio por estarem ligados aos despejos de esgotos, projetos agropecuários, e fontes industriais. Foram coletadas 22 amostras de solo nos estuários do CELMM e do rio Meirim. As amostras foram submetidas as análises de rotina para solos da Embrapa. As concentrações médias desses metais nas amostras de sedimento seguiram a ordem Mn > Zn >Pb > Cr> Cu >Cd in CELMM e Zn > Mn >Pb > Cr> Cu >Cd no Rio Meirim. Os metais foram extraídos pelo método Mehlich-1 e analisados por meio de espectrometria de absorção atômica. Foram encontrados nos sedimentos todos os metais propostos na pesquisa com destaque para os teores de cádmio detectados em valores absolutos acima de valores considerados normais pelo Conselho Nacional doMeio Ambiente e pelo Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment em alguns pontos do estuário do rio Meirim. O estudo mostra que a análise dos sedimentos pode, portanto, contribuir para ações de monitoramento ambiental, subsidiando a implantação e desenvolvimento de políticas públicas que visem controlar o usoracional e sustentável dos recursos naturais das áreas do estudas.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluição Ambiental , Áreas Alagadas , Disponibilidade Biológica
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6): 1477-1487, nov./dec. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-968927

RESUMO

The large surface stacking volume of waste and tailings at the Serra Pelada gold mine, with a high content of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), has led to environmental damage in the area, which continues to this day and is yet to be measured. Total and available Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn and an indicator index was formulated for soil contamination in the artisanal mining area of Serra Pelada, Amazônia, Brazil. To obtain these data, six soil samples were collected surrounding the lake formed from the mining trenches and one from a forest area outside the influence of mining activities. Metal solubilization and partial extraction were conducted by aqua regia and 0.5 mol L-1 HCl, respectively, followed by detection using argon plasma optical emission spectrometry. All PTEs showed total contents above the quality reference values for soils in the state of Para. The available fractions of Cu, Pb, and Zn were higher than the concentrations expected for Para in forest soils. The total Cu contents were above the value of prevention defined by the National Council of Environment. In general, there was Mo enrichment (41.0) > Cu (3.5) > Pb (1.4), indicating that the areas had been contaminated by PTEs a resulting from human activity.


O empilhamento superficial de volume expressivo de rejeito e estéril, com alto teor de elementos potencialmente tóxicos causou danos ambientais até hoje não mensurados. Neste contexto, constituiu-se objetivo deste trabalho, avaliar os teores totais e disponíveis de Cu, Mo, Pb e Zn e determinar índices indicadores de contaminação em solos na área de exploração artesanal de Au em Serra Pelada -Amazônia, Brasil. Para tanto, foram coletados seis pontos amostrais no entorno do lago formado a partir da cava e um ponto em área de mata sem influência do garimpo. Os teores totais e disponíveis dos metais foram extraídos com água régia e solução 0,5 mol L-1 HCl respectivamente, seguidos das determinações através da espectrometria de emissão ótica com plasma de argônio acoplado indutivamente (ICP-OES). Todos os PTEs apresentaram teores totais acima dos valores de referência de qualidade para solos do estado do Pará. Os teores disponíveis de Cu, Pb e Zn foram superiores aos observados em solos de área de floresta do estado do Pará. Os teores de Cu total estão acima do valor de prevenção definido pelo Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente. Em média houve enriquecimento de Mo (41,0) > Cu (3,5) > Pb (1,4), o que indica que as áreas foram contaminadas por PTEs a partir das atividades antrópicas.


Assuntos
Solo , Contaminação Química , Substâncias Tóxicas , Metais Pesados , Ouro , Mineração
5.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20180000. 29 p p. graf., tab..
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-964155

RESUMO

El documento establece 5 lineamiento de política sectorial, que orientan los esfuerzos y acciones para la atención de la población afectada y en riesgo.


Assuntos
Assistência Integral à Saúde , Compostos Químicos , Metais Pesados
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 471-480, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951821

RESUMO

Abstract Escalating burden of antibiotic resistance that has reached new heights present a grave concern to mankind. As the problem is no longer confined to clinics, we hereby report identification of a pandrug resistant Escherichia coli isolate from heavily polluted Delhi stretch of river Yamuna, India. E. coli MRC11 was found sensitive only to tobramycin against 21 antibiotics tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values >256 µg/mL for amoxicillin, carbenicillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime and cefotaxime. Addition of certain heavy metals at higher concentrations were ineffective in increasing susceptibility of E. coli MRC11 to antibiotics. Withstanding sub-optimal concentration of cefotaxime (10 µg/mL) and mercuric chloride (2 µg/mL), and also resistance to their combinatorial use, indicates better adaptability in heavily polluted environment through clustering and expression of resistance genes. Interestingly, E. coli MRC11 harbours two different variants of blaTEM (blaTEM-116 and blaTEM-1 with and without extended-spectrum activity, respectively), in addition to mer operon (merB, merP and merT) genes. Studies employing conjugation, confirmed localization of blaTEM-116, merP and merT genes on the conjugative plasmid. Understanding potentialities of such isolates will help in determining risk factors attributing pandrug resistance and strengthening strategic development of new and effective antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Rios/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óperon , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Índia
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 556-564, mai/jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-966898

RESUMO

Tannery wastewater sludge is an industrial residue that can be used in the pure form or associated to other residues, such as byproduct production from cultivated plants. The objective of the present study was to assess substrate composition for producing conilon coffee stem cuttings, varying increasing tannery wastewater sludge doses. A randomized block design was used with four treatments, three increasing doses of tannery wastewater sludge and one conventional treatment. The stem cuttings were assessed for parameters related to photosystem II functioning and biometry. The results indicated that substrates consisting of tannery wastewater sludge, humus and subsoil promote, in general, improvement in plant growth compared to conventional substrates, highlighting the Dickson quality index. Both chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll contents estimates were not affected by using tannery wastewater sludge in the mixture to formulate substrate for conilon coffee stem cuttings.


O lodo de curtume é um resíduo industrial que pode ser aproveitado de forma pura ou associado a outros resíduos, como na produção de substratos de plantas cultivadas. Neste sentido, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a composição de substrato para a produção de mudas de café conilon, variando doses crescentes de lodo de curtume. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, sendo três doses crescentes de lodo e um tratamento convencional. As mudas foram avaliadas em relação aos parâmetros relacionados ao funcionamento do fotossistema II e a biometria. Os resultados indicam que substratos compostos por lodo, húmus e terra de subsolo promoveram, em geral, melhoria no crescimento das mudas quando comparados aos substratos convencionais, destacandose o índice de qualidade de Dickson. Os parâmetros de fluorescência e estimativas do teor de clorofila não foram afetados pela utilização do lodo de curtume na mistura para formulação de substrato de mudas de café conilon.


Assuntos
Solo , Curtume , Café , Coffea , Clorofila , Metais Pesados , Fluorescência , Resíduos Industriais
8.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(1): 1-11, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-973611

RESUMO

El hombre ha cambiado el ambiente para sostener la demanda global de recursos naturales como el agua. La gestión de los cuerpos hídricos tiene que ser constante, con el propósito preventivo y correctivo, dependiendo del estado de antropización de cada sistema. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la toxicidad del sedimento y los metales Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd y Cu, en el reservorio Paiva Castro, que abastece la Region Metropolitana de São Paulo. Se realizaron 2 muestreos (Mayo 2011, estación seca y Enero de 2012, estación húmeda) y se analizaron 5 puntos próximos a la captación de agua por la Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. Se realizaron ensayos de toxicidad aguda y crónica en sedimento, a través de ensayos biológicos con el cladócero Daphnia similis y el insecto Chironomus xanthus. El tratamiento de datos se realizó con el test de Fisher (mortalidad). El nivel de asociación entre las variables en sedimento y en los test ecotoxicológicos fueron evaluados por test no-paramétricos, a través del coeficiente de correlación de Spearman's. Los resultados del presente trabajo señalaron bajas concentracones de metales en el sedimento del área de estudio y ausencia de toxicidad en los organismos ensayados. Se puede concluir que área estudiada del reservorio Paiva Castro se encuentra poco impactada por los metales, sin efectos directos sobre la calidad de vida los organismos bentónicos: D. similis y C. xanthus.


Man had changed the natural environment in an attempt trying to supply the global demand for resources. The management of the hydric bodies has to be constant, with preventive and corrective purpose, depending on the eutrophization state of each one. The objective of this article was to analyze the sediment toxicity and the metals Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cu, in the Paiva Castro reservoir, that supply the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. It was made 2 collections (May 2011, dry season and January 2012, wet season). It was analyzed 5 points next to the water captation station by the Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. The sediment was analyzed as for acute and chronic toxicity through bioassays with the cladocerans Daphnia similis and the insect Chironomus xanthus. Data treatment was done with Fisher Exact Test (mortality). The association level between the variables in sediment and ecotoxicological tests was available in non-parametric tests, through the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Oriented on the results presented in this work, pointing low concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments presented in the collect local, and the absence of toxicity, we can say that at this reservoir, at least in the collect area, it's low impacted, not implicating in direct interferences in the quality of life of benthonic organisms.


Assuntos
Zinco/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Reservatórios de Água/prevenção & controle , Sedimentos/análise , Cobre/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Manganês/toxicidade , Níquel/toxicidade , Brasil , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Toxicidade Aguda/análise , Toxicidade Aguda/métodos , Toxicidade Crônica/análise , Toxicidade Crônica/métodos
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889196

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and iron (Fe). The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2) regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd), (0-1000 Cu), (0-400 Pb), (0-500 As) and (0-800 Fe) concentrations (mgkg-1) incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA) in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000 mgkg-1), not differing significantly (p > 0.05) from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p > 0.05) difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25 mgkg-1 Cd and 125 mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cobre/análise , Cobre/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Ouro/análise , Ouro/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Filogenia , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 7-9, Jan.-Mar. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889192

RESUMO

ABSTRACT In this report, we present a draft genome of 2,886,173 bp of an Exiguobacterium aurantiacum strain PN47 isolate from the sediment of a saline pond named "Salar del Huasco" in the Altiplano in the North of Chile. Strain PN47 encodes adaptive characteristics enabling survival in extreme environmental conditions of high heavy metal and salt concentrations and high alkalinity.


Assuntos
Bacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Bacillaceae/genética , Tanques/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Filogenia , Bacillaceae/classificação , Bacillaceae/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Sequência de Bases , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Tanques/química , Chile , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(1): 138-150, jan./feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-966620

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate Pb and Zn uptake, mobility, and accumulation in Stipa hohenackeriana using field soil in pot and field experiments. Moreover, the effects of Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC) (0, 1, and 2%) and Nano-Silica (NS) (0, 250, and 500 mg/kg) on Stipa biomass, Pb and Zn availability in the soil, and Pb and Zn uptake and accumulation were studied using pot experiments. Samples of soil, root, and shoots of Stipa were collected from field and greenhouse and after drying, extraction of Pb and Zn was done by acid digestion. Bio- Concentration Factor (BCF) and Translocation Factor (TF) were calculated to determine Pb and Zn phytoremediation efficiency. The amount of Zn and Pb remediation by Stipa from soil was determined by remediation factor (RF). The results of field experiments showed the Pb and Zn level decreased in the order of: soil >shoot>root. Results of the pot experiments also showed that plants grown in NS500-amended pots had 33% and 32% higher Pb in roots and shoots compared to control pots, respectively. In comparison, roots Pb concentration in pots amended with MSWC1% and MSWC2% decreased 22.4% and 1.7%, respectively. Roots and shoots Zn concentration in NS500-amended pots was 5.6% and 6.5% higher, respectively. However, root Zn concentration in treatments of MSWC1% and MSWC2% decreased 52.3% and 39.4%, respectively. Shoots Zn concentration decreased 52.5% and 40.0%, respectively. Although MSWC decreased the uptake and accumulation of Pb and Zn in Stipa roots and shoots, it improved the plant growth and consequently increased RF and soil remediation compared to the NS. Thus, it seems that applying MSWC and NS simultaneously can be a suitable strategy for the purpose of improving phytoremediation capability of Stipa in the Pb and Zn contaminated soils. In general, Stipa can be a suitable candidate for the accumulation of heavy metals, especially for Pb and Zn contaminated soils.


Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a absorção, mobilidade e acumulação de Pb e Zn em Stipa hohenackeriana em experiências usando solo de campo em vaso e em campo. Além disso, os efeitos do Composto Municipal de Resíduos Sólidos (MSWC) (0, 1 e 2%) e de nanopartículas de sílica (NS) (0, 250 e 500 mg/kg) na biomassa de Stipa, na disponibilidade de Pb e Zn no solo, e na absorção e acúmulo de Pb e Zn foram estudados usando experiências em vaso. Amostras de solo, raiz e brotos de Stipa foram coletadas do campo e da estufa e, após a secagem, a extração de Pb e Zn foi feita por digestão ácida. O Fator de Bioconcentração (BCF) e o Fator de Translocação (TF) foram calculados para determinar a eficiência de fitorremediação de Pb e Zn. A quantidade de remediação de Zn e Pb pela Stipa a partir do solo foi determinada pelo Fator de Remediação (RF). Os resultados das experiências de campo mostraram que o nível de Pb e Zn diminuiu na seguinte ordem: solo > broto > raiz. Os resultados das experiências em vaso também mostraram que as plantas cultivadas em vasos corrigidos com NS500 apresentaram teores de Pb 33% e 32% maiores em raízes e brotos em comparação com vasos de controle, respectivamente. Em comparação, a concentração de Pb em raízes em vasos corrigidos com MSWC1% e MSWC2% diminuiu 22,4% e 1,7%, respectivamente. A concentração de Zn em raízes e brotos em vasos corrigidos com NS500 foi de 5,6% e 6,5% maior, respectivamente. No entanto, a concentração de Zn da raiz nos tratamentos de MSWC1% e MSWC2% diminuiu 52,3% e 39,4%, respectivamente. A concentração de Zn nos brotos diminuiu 52,5% e 40,0%, respectivamente. Embora o MSWC tenha diminuído a absorção e acumulação de Pb e Zn nas raízes e brotos de Stipa, melhorou o crescimento da planta e consequentemente aumentou o RF e a remediação do solo em relação ao NS. Assim, parece que aplicar MSWC e NS simultaneamente pode ser uma estratégia adequada com o objetivo de melhorar a capacidade de fitorremediação de Stipa nos solos contaminados com Pb e Zn. Em geral, a Stipa pode ser um candidato adequado para a acumulação de metais pesados, especialmente para solos contaminados com Pb e Zn.


Assuntos
Solo , Zinco , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Chumbo
12.
Food Sci. Technol (SBCTA, Impr.) ; 38(4): 625-628, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-999848

RESUMO

Tea is one of the most consumed beverages after water, but unfortunately the application of pesticides and heavy metals in crops make it unsafe for use. This research was conducted to evaluate the risk of heavy metals and pesticides in samples of natural source tea (gardens) and different local market brands. High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to detect pesticides, Bifenthrin, Lambda chalothrin, Imadachloroprid, Dichlorovas, Glyphosate and Emamectin. Heavy metals such as Zinc, Iron, Chromium, copper, manganese and cobalt were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The value of HRI and THQ was still calculated for some exceeded samples. From results obtained some of the tea samples were contaminated from with heavy metals i.e., cobalt and manganese and pesticides as: dichlorovas, imacloroprid, bifenthrin, emamectin, glyphosate, difenaconazole and lambda above the allowed limits. The assessments revealed the potential for potential health risk for the consumers. The results of the study suggested that risk assessment and monitoring should be done at source that is at the production and processing area so that toxic effects are not passed on to the consumers or to the environment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Chá , Medição de Risco , Praguicidas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Metais Pesados , Monitoramento
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(3): 713-720, may/jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-966230

RESUMO

Cd is a highly detrimental global environmental pollutant. Plants have evolved complex defense mechanisms as an adaptation to against Cd toxicity. In this study, a pot experiment was performed to evaluate the protein profile of saffron in response to Cd stress. Fifteen proteins were found to be up-regulated in the leaves of plants under Cd stress and were primarily related to metabolism, signal transduction, stress and defense response and energy. Eleven proteins were found to be down-regulated following Cd treatment, including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), ferredoxin-NADP reductase, a 70 kDa heat shock-related protein and three protein synthesis-associated proteins. The results provide valuable insights regarding the molecular mechanism of saffron in response to Cd toxicity and the possible utilization of genetic resources in developing Cd tolerant/low-accumulation saffron.


O cádmio (Cd) é um poluente ambiental global altamente prejudicial. As plantas desenvolveram mecanismos de defesa complexos como uma adaptação contra a toxicidade por Cd. Neste estudo, realizou-se um experimento em vaso para avaliar o perfil proteico do açafrão em resposta ao estresse por Cd. Foi descoberto que quinze proteínas foram supra-reguladas (up-regulated) nas folhas de plantas sob estresse por Cd e foram principalmente relacionados ao metabolismo, transdução de sinal, estresse e resposta de defesa e energia. Foi descoberto ainda que onze proteínas foram infra-reguladas (down-regulated) após tratamento com Cd, incluindo ribulose bifosfato carboxilase oxigenase (RuBisCO), ferredoxina-NADP redutase, uma proteína relacionada com o choque térmico de 70 kDa e três proteínas associadas à síntese de proteínas. Os resultados fornecem informações valiosas sobre o mecanismo molecular do açafrão em resposta à toxicidade do Cd e a possível utilização de recursos genéticos no desenvolvimento de açafrão tolerante ao Cd e de baixa acumulação.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Cádmio , Metais Pesados , Proteoma , Crocus
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 71-78, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839359

RESUMO

Abstract In this study, determination of heavy metal parameters and microbiological characterization of marine sediments obtained from two heavily polluted sites and one low-grade contaminated reference station at Jiaozhou Bay in China were carried out. The microbial communities found in the sampled marine sediments were studied using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) fingerprinting profiles in combination with multivariate analysis. Clustering analysis of DGGE and matrix of heavy metals displayed similar occurrence patterns. On this basis, 17 samples were classified into two clusters depending on the presence or absence of the high level contamination. Moreover, the cluster of highly contaminated samples was further classified into two sub-groups based on the stations of their origin. These results showed that the composition of the bacterial community is strongly influenced by heavy metal variables present in the sediments found in the Jiaozhou Bay. This study also suggested that metagenomic techniques such as PCR-DGGE fingerprinting in combination with multivariate analysis is an efficient method to examine the effect of metal contamination on the bacterial community structure.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados , Biodiversidade , Microbiologia Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental , Bactérias/classificação , Análise por Conglomerados , China , Baías , Meio Ambiente
15.
Univ. salud ; 19(1): 102-115, mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-904645

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia en la reducción de Cromo en un tratamiento tipo Batch, utilizando como sustrato agua residual municipal inoculada con una bacteria silvestre. Materiales y métodos: Se verificó a escala de laboratorio el porcentaje de reducción de Cromo hexavalente de tres bacterias silvestres previamente aisladas de agua residual del Río Pasto (Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens y Paenibacillus sp.); se seleccionó el aislado que presentó mayor porcentaje de reducción de Cr y fue sometido a diferentes tratamientos. El análisis de los resultados se hizo mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: B. thuringiensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, y Paenibacillus sp., presentaron porcentajes de reducción de Cr (VI) de 82,01%; 80,85% y 79,27%, respectivamente. Se determinó que el tercer tratamiento (agua sin esterilizar del Río Pasto con B. thuringiensis) presentó diferencias significativas respecto a los demás (p = 0,0001 α = 0,05), concluyendo que B. thuringiensis reduce en mayor proporción el Cr (VI), los resultados encontrados en esta investigación son promisorios en el campo de la biorremediación de efluentes contaminados con Cromo ya que pueden ser tomados como base para implementar estrategias de biorremediación a gran escala. Conclusión: La bacteria B. thuringiensis presentó alta eficiencia en la reducción de Cromo hexavalente (99,42%), cuando fue implementada en un tratamiento a escala de laboratorio de agua residual sin esterilizar.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficiency in the reduction of chromium in a Batch treatment type, using municipal residual water substrate inoculated with a wild bacterium. Materials and methods: The reduction percentage of hexavalent chromium of three wild bacteria previously isolated from residual water from the Pasto River was verified at laboratory scale (Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Paenibacillus sp.); the isolated that showed the highest percentage of reduction of Cr was selected and was subjected to different treatments. The analysis of results was done using descriptive statistics. Results: B. thuringiensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and Paenibacillus sp., presented percentages of reduction of Cr (VI) of 82,01%; 80,85% and 79,27%, respectively. It was determined that the third treatment (nonsterile water from the Pasto River with B. thuringiensis) presented significant differences with regard to the other (p = 0.0001 α = 0.05), concluding that B. thuringiensis reduces in greater proportion the Cr (VI). The results found in this research are promising in the field of bioremediation of contaminated effluents with Chrome since they may be taken as the basis for implementing strategies of bioremediation on a large scale. Conclusion: The bacteria B. thuringiensis presented high efficiency in the reduction of hexavalent chromium (99.42%) when implemented in a treatment at laboratory scale of residual nonsterile water.


Assuntos
Remoção de Contaminantes , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 853-862, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828206

RESUMO

Abstract Spore counts, species composition and richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and soil glomalin contents were evaluated in a soil contaminated with Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb after rehabilitation by partial replacement of the contaminated soil with non-contaminated soil, and by Eucalyptus camaldulensis planting with and without Brachiaria decumbens sowing. These rehabilitation procedures were compared with soils from contaminated non-rehabilitated area and non-contaminated adjacent soils. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities attributes were assessed by direct field sampling, trap culture technique, and by glomalin contents estimate. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was markedly favored by rehabilitation, and a total of 15 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi morphotypes were detected in the studied area. Species from the Glomus and Acaulospora genera were the most common mycorrhizal fungi. Number of spores was increased by as much as 300-fold, and species richness almost doubled in areas rehabilitated by planting Eucalyptus in rows and sowing B. decumbens in inter-rows. Contents of heavy metals in the soil were negatively correlated with both species richness and glomalin contents. Introduction of B. decumbens together with Eucalyptus causes enrichment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species and a more balanced community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Brasil , Micorrizas/classificação , Poluição Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/química , Esporos Fúngicos , Proteínas Fúngicas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Metais Pesados/química
18.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 38(4): 439-446, oct.-dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-831628

RESUMO

This study assessed the limnology from the Medium Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, Brazil, with a focus on the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Mn), to assess the toxicological potential (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity) for humans using as biological matrix of study human leukocyte cells. The conductivity, resistivity, and dissolved O2 levels exceeded the limits recommended by the National Environmental Council (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente - CONAMA). The percentage of non-viable human leukocyte cells exposed to water samples was approximately 20% higher than that of the negative control (<3%), but similar to the positive control. The DNA damage index was high for all heavy metal concentrations assayed when compared to the negative control 12±2.96, p < 0.0001, with a range of 155.66±23.89 to 194.33±23.23, but similar to the positive control (210.62±27.48). Moreover, the leukocyte degeneration index was higher in all samples containing heavy metals than in the negative control (4%), which demonstrates to be due the presence of Cu (11.8-12.5%), Cd (13-15.6%), and Mn (15.6-22.5%). Taken together, our results show that the quality from water samples analyzed is below than recommended by CONAMA and offers risk of contamination by heavy metals for the general population.


Este estudo avaliou a limnologia de amostras de água da bacia do rio Uruguai Médio, Brasil, focando as concentrações de metais pesados (Cd, Cu e Mn), para determinar o potencial toxicológico (citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade) utilizando como matriz biológica células leucocitárias humanas. A condutividade, resistividade e níveis de O2 dissolvido nas amostras analisadas excederam o limite recomendado pelo Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA). O percentual de células leucocitárias humanas não viáveis expostos às amostras de água foi de aproximadamente 20% maior que o controle negativo (<3%), mas similar ao controle positivo. O índice de dano ao DNA foi maior para todas as concentrações de metais testadas quando comparadas ao controle negativo (12±2,96), p < 0,0001, com uma variação de 155,66±23,89 a 194,33±23,23, mas estatisticamente semelhante ao observado para o controle positivo (210,62±27,48). Adicionalmente, o índice de degeneração leucocitário foi maior em todas as amostras contendo metais pesados que o controle negativo (4%), pela presença de Cu (11,8-12,5%), Cd (13-15,6%) e Mn (15,6-22,5%). Analisando esses dados conjuntamente, nossos resultados demonstram que a qualidade das amostras de água analisadas encontra-se abaixo da recomendada pela CONAMA e oferece risco de contaminação por metais pesados para a população em geral.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Genotoxicidade , Limnologia , Metais Pesados
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 571-586, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-788980

RESUMO

ABSTRACT An analysis of wastewater samples collected from different industrial regions of Egypt demonstrated dangerously high levels of nickel (0.27-31.50 mg L-1), chromium (1.50-7.41 mg L-1) and zinc (1.91-9.74 mg L-1) in the effluents. Alarmingly, these heavy metals are among the most toxic knownones to humans and wildlife. Sixty-nine Actinomycete isolates derived from contaminated sites were evaluated under single, binary, and ternary systems for their biosorption capacity for Ni2+, Cr6+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions. The results of the study identified isolates MORSY1948 and MORSY2014 as the most active biosorbents. Phenotypic and chemotypic characterization along with molecular phylogenetic evidence confirmed that the two strains are members of the Nocardiopsis and Nocardia genera, respectively. The results also proved that for both the strains, heavy metal reduction was more efficient with dead rather than live biomass. The affinity of the dead biomass of MORSY1948 strain for Ni2+, Cr6+ and Zn2+ under the optimized pH conditions of 7, 8 and 7, respectively at 40 °C temperature with 0.3% biosorbent dosage was found to be as follows: Ni2+ (87.90%) > Zn2+ (84.15%) > Cr6+ (63.75%). However, the dead biomass of MORSY2014 strain under conditions of pH 8 and 50 °C temperature with 0.3% biosorbent dose exhibited the highest affinity which was as follows: Cr6+ (95.22%) > Ni2+ (93.53%) > Zn2+ (90.37%). All heavy metals under study were found to be removed from aqueous solutions in entirety when the sorbent dosage was increased to 0.4%.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Nocardia/classificação , Nocardia/metabolismo , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Biomassa , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Adsorção , Egito , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Resíduos Industriais , Nocardia/isolamento & purificação , Nocardia/genética
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 490-497, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-787266

RESUMO

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the contamination index of metals and pesticides in pregnant women, and to relate this to perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective, exploratory study, developed from existing secondary data analyses at Level III maternity center. A total of 40 mothers with their newborns (NB), living in a rural area in Botucatu- Brazil and surrounding region. Blood samples from mothers and newborn were collected to determine the total contamination index for metals and pesticides. The concentrations of each metal and each pesticide were determined in blood samples of mothers and their newborns by Rudge's results. After obtaining these concentrations, the total contamination index in mother and NB was calculated, along with its correlation with clinical parameters of NB. RESULTS: There was no correlation (p> 0.05) between maternal contamination index with NB clinical parameters, and NB contamination index versus NB clinical parameters. CONCLUSION: The maternal contamination index of metals and pesticides was not related to perinatal outcomes, but it could be used as baseline parameter in future toxicological studies, regarding to long-term toxic characteristics as persistent organic pollutants, its long half-lives, bioacumulative, and expected to impose serious health effects on humans.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Praguicidas/sangue , Peso ao Nascer , Metais Pesados/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Praguicidas/análise , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Brasil , Gravidez , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise
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