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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 97-101, Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098446

RESUMO

Dietary chromium supplementation before, during, and after weaning was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that chromium supplementation could reduce weaning-induced cortisol release in beef calves. We examined the effects of chromium supplementation in 150 crossbred calves (male and female) between five and six months of age. The calves were randomly divided by sex and breed into two equal homogeneous groups (n=75). One group was used as the control, and the other experimental group received supplementation with 0.9mg of chromium carbon-amino-phospho-chelate per 100kg BW. The chromium supplement was mixed with mineral salt for the consumption of 0.1% of BW, and the supplement was administered via creep feeding 60 days before and 60 days after forced weaning. Calves were weighed, and their blood and urine samples were obtained at four time-points: T0 (60 days before weaning), T1 (at weaning), T2 (48 hours after weaning), and T3 (60 days after weaning). Blood samples were used to determine chromium, cortisol, total protein, and albumin concentrations, and urine samples were used to determine urinary creatinine and chromium levels. Cumulative weight gain was higher in calves supplemented with chromium before weaning and during the experiment (P<0.05). In addition, weaning-related stress caused an increase in chromium excretion in the urine, and chromium supplementation reduced stress, which resulted in lower cortisol and total protein levels during weaning.(AU)


O estudo foi realizado para avaliar a hipótese de que a suplementação dietética com cromo antes, durante e após a desmama possa diminuir a concentração de cortisol causado por este processo em bezerros de corte. Para tal, foram utilizados 150 bezerros mestiços, machos e fêmeas, entre cinco e seis meses de idade. Os animais foram divididos randomicamente por sexo e grupo genético em dois grupos homogêneos (n=75), um mantido como controle e outro suplementado com 0,9mg de carboaminofosfoquelato de cromo/100 kg PV misturado a um sal proteinado para ser consumido na base de 0,1% do PV via creep feeding, no decorrer de 60 dias antes e 60 dias após à desmama forçada. Os animais foram pesados e foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas e urinárias no M0 (60 dias antes da desmama), M1 (desmama), M2 (48 horas após a desmama) e M3 (60 dias após à desmama) para determinação de cromo, cortisol, proteína total e albumina no sangue e da concentração urinária de creatinina e cromo. O ganho acumulado de peso foi superior nos bezerros suplementados com cromo antes da desmama e no decorrer de todo o experimento (P<0,05). A suplementação com cromo reduziu os teores de cortisol e de proteína total durante a desmama. O estresse da desmama provocou aumento da excreção de cromo pela urina.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Desmame , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cortisona/antagonistas & inibidores , Ganho de Peso , Cromo/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Urina
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(4): 245-251, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054928

RESUMO

Introducción. Debido a la fuerte industrialización de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores, la población podría estar expuesta a metales. Para poder evaluar el nivel de exposición de los niños al cromo y al mercurio, es fundamental tener valores de referencia (VR) propios. El objetivo fue determinar los VR pediátricos para cromo y mercurio en la muestra aislada de orina. Población y métodos: Se incluyeron niños y niñas no expuestos a los contaminantes evaluados que concurrieron al Servicio de Bajo Riesgo y al Consultorio del Jardín Maternal del Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". Se cuantificó cromo (UCr), mercurio (UHg) y creatinina urinarios. Se calcularon los p95 con su intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC 95 %] según el concepto para VR de la German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Resultados: Se incluyeron 160 pacientes en el estudio. Se obtuvieron 144 muestras de niños y niñas de entre 1 y 17 años (mediana: 7 años). Se cuantificó UCr a 137 muestras y UHg a 129. La mediana y rango de cromo fue 0,54 (indetectable -3,06) µg/g de creatinina y la de mercurio fue 0,49 (indetectable -7,57) µg/g de creatinina.Conclusiones: Los VR fueron, para UCr, hasta 1,5 µg/l [1,2-2,8] y hasta 2,2 µg/g de creatinina [1,8-3,0] y para UHg, hasta 2,5 µg/l [1,8-4,8] y 3,2 µg/g de creatinina [2,5-4,7


Introduction. Due to the heavy industrialization of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires, the population may have become exposed to metals.To assess the level of exposure to chromium and mercury in children, it is critical to have local reference values (RVs). Our objective was to determine pediatric RVs for chromium and mercury in a single urine sample.Population and methods: Children who were not exposed to the studied contaminants and who attended the Department of Low Risk Conditions and the Daycare Center Office of Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" were included. Urinary chromium (UCr), urinary mercury (UHg), and urinary creatinine were measured. The p95 and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were estimated based on the RV concept proposed by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission.Results: The study included 160 patients. A total of 144 samples from children aged 1-17 years (median: 7 years) were collected. UCr was measured in 137 samples and UHg, in 129 samples. The median value of chromium was 0.54 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 3.06), while that of mercury was 0.49 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 7.57). Conclusions: The RVs for UCr were up to 1.5 µg/L [1.2-2.8] and up to 2.2 µg/g of creatinine [1.8-3.0], and for UHg, up to 2.5 µg/L [1.8-4.8] and 3.2 µg/g of creatinine [2.5-4.7]


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Valores de Referência , Cromo/urina , Mercúrio/urina , População Urbana , Urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise
3.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4546, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998216

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the levels of nickel and chromium ions in hair and Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) of orthodontic patients and to evaluate the corrosion of orthodontic bracket surfaces. Material and Methods: Nickel and chromium ion concentrations were measured in hair and GCF of 15 patients (9 females and 6 males, aged 16-28 years old) who had fixed orthodontic treatment using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were taken before treatment (baseline), 4, 8, and 16 months later during treatment. Along with ionic sampling, microscopic sampling was done. One of each patient brackets was removed to get 15 brackets per group. Five brackets were taken randomly from each group to be examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data obtained were analyzed using paired t-tests. Results: After 16 months, compared with the baseline, average hair nickel level changed from 0.125 µg/g to 0.956 µg/g with statistically significant difference (p=0.00); average chromium level changed from 0.090 µg/g to 0.295 µg/g but no significant difference (p>0.05); average GCF nickel level changed from 3.335 µg/g to 10.410 µg/g; average chromium level changed from 1.859 µg/g to 9.818 µg/g. Both of these increases were significant (p=0.000). SEM examinations showed that the corrosion on brackets was seen in the fourth month, and more severely visible after 8 and 16 months of uses. Conclusion: After 16 months of treatment, compared with the baseline, the hair nickel level was increased by 7.7 times; while for chromium was by 3.3 times. Gingival crevicular fluid nickel level was increased by 3.1 times and chromium level was by 5.3 times. The longer time of treatment, the more ions released and the more corrosion of brackets will be.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Ortodontia , Estudos Longitudinais , Cromo , Corrosão Dentária/métodos , Níquel , Indonésia , Íons
4.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4990, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998269

RESUMO

Objective: To determine and compare the corrosion resistance (based on the release of nickel and chromium in artificial saliva) of various brands of stainless steel brackets after thermal recycling by direct flaming. Material and Methods: This research study employed 40 stainlesssteel maxillary premolar brackets from different brands (Ormco, GAC, Versadent, S-Ortho, and Protect), which were divided into 5 groups consisting of 8 brackets. The nickel and chromium content of the metal brackets were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), conducted before immersion. For the first treatment, each group was immersed in artificial saliva without direct flaming (recycling); for the second treatment, each group was immersed in artificial saliva with direct flaming (recycling) for 30 days in a pH-neutral (pH=7) solution. ICP-MS was employed to analyze the nickel and chromium released in saliva. The mean differences were measured with Wilcoxon, Kruskal Wallis test, and Post-Hoc Mann Whitney test. Differences were considered statistically significant when p-value<0.05. Results: The mean corrosion resistance based on the nickel content released by the new brackets was 99.95%, 99.87%, 87.09%, 90.58%, and 90.26% for groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. The mean corrosion resistance based on the nickel content released by the recycled brackets was 99.90%, 99.80%, 98.19%, 89.76%, and 72.82%, respectively. There was a significant difference in corrosion resistance among the 5 groups after recycling by direct flaming and between new and recycled brackets in each group. Conclusion: The corrosion resistance of the brackets in groups A (Ormco), B (GAC), D (S-Ortho), and E (Protect) decreased after thermal recycling by direct flaming. The Ormco brackets had the highest corrosion resistance after thermal recycling by direct faming.


Assuntos
Aço Inoxidável , Cromo , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Corrosão Dentária , Níquel , Análise Espectral/métodos , Indonésia
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18148, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039038

RESUMO

According to Anvisa risk rating, hypodermic needles offer medium risk to the user's health. This study discussed the importance of the corrosion resistance test in tubes of hypodermic needles, in the product quality control. A review of cannulas of hypodermic needles was carried out according to ISO 9626:2003 and 9259:1997 ABNT NBR. For the results evaluation, a scale which classifies the extent of corrosion was adjusted. 174 samples of PNI needles from 17 States and 9 different record holders were analyzed. According to the methodology of ISO 9626:2003, 100% of the samples were considered satisfactory. However, in accordance with the methodology of ISO 9259:1997, 97.1% of the samples were rejected. Irregularities can lead to impairment of product quality, resulting in risks to the consumer's health. Since 2011 the product has undergone certification, so it is necessary to reflect on the importance of corrosion resistance testing and mandatory certification for health monitoring.


Assuntos
Controle de Qualidade , Corrosão , Agulhas/normas , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Brasil/etnologia , Cromo/análise , Cânula , Legislação como Assunto/normas
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 59-62, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-887156

RESUMO

Abstract: Background: Metals are common agents of allergic contact dermatitis, occupational or not, with decreasing incidence over the last years in some countries that have regulated the amount of nickel in objects. Objectives: To analyze and compare with previous studies the profile of metal sensitization between 2003-2015. Methods: Patients who underwent patch testing between 2003-2015 were evaluated retrospectively regarding the sensitization rates to metals, the associations between them, the relationship with profession and epidemiology. Results: Of the 1,386 patients tested, 438 (32%) had positive test to some metal, similar results to the 404/1,208 (33%) of the previous study (1995-2002) performed at the same service (p=0.32). The frequency of nickel (77%), cobalt (32%) and chromium (29%) changed slightly (p=0.20). Most cases of sensitization to chromium were related to the occupation (64%), in contrast to nickel and cobalt (p<0.0001). There was a predominance of females among those sensitized to metal in both studies (p=0.63) and the age group of 20-49 years old (p=0.11); the number of fair-skinned individuals increased (p<0.001), as well as the lesions in the cephalic segment (50.5%; p<0.0001) and hands (45%; p<0.0001), which are not the most frequent location anymore. The number of cleaners decreased (39% vs. 59%; p<0.0001), which still lead in front of bricklayers/painters, which increased (14% vs. 9%; p=0.013). The frequency of wet work reduced (65% vs. 81%; p<0.0001). Study limitations: The study included a single population group; only patients with positive tests to metals were considered - the others were not evaluated for the possibility of false negatives. Conclusion: The sensitization to metals, occupational or not, has been significant over the last 21 years, with few epidemiological changes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Imunização/métodos , Cobalto/administração & dosagem , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Testes do Emplastro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia
7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 4071, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966890

RESUMO

Objective: To compare levels of nickel and chromium in serum and urine in orthodontic patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods: Nickel and chromium ion concentration were measured in serum and urine of twenty patients (12 females and 8 males, aged 17-28 years old) who had fixed orthodontic treatment using Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The samples were taken before treatment (Baseline), two months, and six months later during treatment. Data were analyzed using repeated ANOVA, Bonferroni post-hoc test, and paired t-tests. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Average serum nickel level changed from 6.420 ppb to 6.855 ppb. Average serum chromium level changed from 5.305 ppb to 5.505 ppb in 6 months. Average urinary nickel level changed from 5.320 ppb to 5.610 ppb. Average urinary chromium level changed from 5.370 ppb to 5.520 ppb in 6 months. There was a statistically significant difference in serum (p<0.001) and urinary chromium (p=0.007) levels between observation times. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment might raise both urinary and serum nickel levels, but the differences were not statistically significant; the alterations in chromium levels were not consistent; nickel levels were higher in serum than in urine; chromium levels were higher in urine than in serum.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Aparelhos Ortodônticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Urina , Estudos Longitudinais , Soro , Níquel/análise , Análise de Variância , Cromo/análise , Indonésia
8.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; (77): 1-11, 2018. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1052719

RESUMO

Níveis elevados de cromo associados às águas naturais não são comuns, mas concentrações elevadas desse elemento, de ocorrência natural, têm sido relatadas nas águas subterrâneas de vários sistemas aquíferos, incluindo o Aquífero Bauru, SP, Brasil. Este fato está associado à ocorrência de rochas máficas/ultramáficas e às condições alcalinas e oxidantes. Neste estudo foi desenvolvido e aplicado um método para monitorar a concentração de cromo total em amostras de água da cidade de São José do Rio Preto. Esta cidade está localizada no estado de São Paulo, na região onde concentrações superiores ao limite estabelecido pela legislação brasileira (0,05 mg/L) foram detectadas em águas subterrâneas de poços de abastecimento. O cromo total foi determinado usando-se Espectrometria de Massas com Plasma Indutivamente Acoplado (ICPMS) em 104 amostras de água coletadas, entre 2013 e 2017, em diferentes pontos de distribuição (zona rural, residencial, distrito industrial, comercial, reservatório de distribuição e estação de tratamento de água), considerando-se 52 locais. Em 99 % das amostras as concentrações de Cr estavam acima do limite de quantificação calculado para o método (0,001 mg/L). E 15% apresentaram concentrações acima do limite de regulação na água potável (Portaria 2914/2011), sendo, portanto, consideradas impróprias para o consumo humano. (AU)


Elevated chromium levels in the natural waters are not common, but the high concentrations of naturally occurring Cr have been reported in the groundwater of several aquifer systems.This finding is linked with the occurrence of mafic/ultramafic rocks and associated with the alkaline and oxidizing conditions. This study aimed at monitoring the total chromium concentration in drinking water samples from São José do Rio Preto city. Cr concentrations higher than the limit established by the Brazilian Legislation (0.05 mg/L) were detected in the groundwater from the deep supply wells. Total chromium was determined by using an Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) in 104 samples collected from the public drinking water distribution networks in 52 sites, from 2013 to 2017. Cr concentrations above the method limit of quantification (0.001 mg/L) were found in 99% of the analyzed samples. Approximately 15% of the collected samples presented Cr in concentrations above the established legislation limit for drinking water (Ordinance 2914/2011), that should be considered as improper for consumption.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água/análise , Espectrografia , Cromo
9.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(2): 210-215, mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839140

RESUMO

Abstract This study evaluated the effects of three metal primers and one multi-mode adhesive system on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a flowable composite resin to nickel-chrome metal alloy (Ni-Cr). Ninety plates were cast from Ni-Cr and divided in nine groups (n=10). The surfaces were sandblasted with Al2O3 and primed with three adhesive primers: Alloy Primer (AP), Universal Primer (TP) and RelyX Ceramic Primer (CP), and a multi-mode adhesive (Scotchbond Universal, SU). The Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) and SU adhesives were also combined with adhesive primers. Control group did not have any surface treatment. The groups were: AP, AP+SB, AP+SU, TP+SB, TP+SU, CP+SB, CP+SU and SU. Composite cylinders were built on alloy surface. After 24 h, half the specimens were subjected to SBS and the other half to thermal cycling before testing. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (a=0.05). Failure modes were assessed by SEM observation. Higher SBS were obtained with AP and TP combined with adhesives at 24 h and the lowest one for control group. Thermocycling reduced SBS for AP, CP+SU and SU. Combination between TP and SU resulted in the highest SBS after the thermocycling. TP groups showed all types of failures and high incidence of mixed failures. The use of AP and UP metal primers before application of SU and SB adhesive systems increased the SBS of composite to Ni-Cr. These combinations between metal primers and adhesives had the highest SBS after thermocycling.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou os efeitos de três primers para metais e um sistema adesivo multi-mode na resistência da união por cisalhamento (SBS) de um compósito resinoso de baixa viscosidade a uma liga niquel-cromo (Ni-Cr). Noventa placas Ni-Cr foram divididas em 9 grupos (n=10). As superfícies foram jateadas com Al2O3 e condicionadas com três primers adesivos: Alloy Primer (AP), Universal Primer (TP) e Rely X Ceramic Primer (CP) e um adesivo multi-mode (Scotchbond Universal, SU). Os adesivos Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) e SU foram combinados com os primers para metais. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhum tipo de tratamento superficial. Os grupos foram: AP, AP+SB, AP+SU, TP+SB, TP+SU, CP+SB, CP+SU e SU. Cilindros de resina foram construídos na superfície da liga. Após 24 h, metade dos espécimes foi submetido ao SBS, a outra metade foi termociclada previamente. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA dois fatores e Tukey (a=0.05). Os tipos de fraturas foram determinados utilizando microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). Os maiores valores de SBS foram obtidos com AP e TP combinados com adesivos após 24 h e o menor valor foi obtido no grupo controle. A ciclagem térmica reduziu a SBS para AP, CP+SU e SU. Combinação entre TP e SU resultou em altos valores de SBS após termociclagem. Os grupos TP apresentaram todos os modos de fratura e alta incidência de fraturas mistas. O uso dos primers AP e UP para metais antes da aplicação dos sistemas adesivos SU e SB aumentou a SBS entre o Ni-Cr e a resina composta. Essa combinação entre primers e adesivos mostrou os maiores valores de SBS após a termociclagem.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas/química , Ligas Dentárias/química , Metacrilatos/química , Cromo/química , Teste de Materiais , Níquel/química
11.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): 178-187, 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875126

RESUMO

Wound healing and tissue repair are necessary to ensure survival and health of any organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of supplementation with chromium carbochelate (CC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on wound healing in tropical teleost fish Piaractus mesopotamicus. Thus, fish were distributed into four groups: a) control (without supplementation); b) supplemented with 18 mg/kg of chromium carbochelate; c) supplemented with 0.3% of S. cerevisiae and d) supplemented with an association of both supplements. After 105 days of feeding, full-thickness skin incisions (2.0 x 1.0 x 0.25 cm) were performed removing epidermis and dermis. Macroscopic and histologic observations were carried out at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after wounding to monitor the healing rate. Opposing fronts advanced gradually and faster each day demonstrating a progressive increase in the healing process over time. The inflammatory process was exacerbated and expansive, with an increase in mucous cells and chromatophores. Although no significant differences were observed between groups on wound retraction and microscopic parameters, fish supplemented with CC and SC showed faster re-epithelialization, greater degree of organization of collagen fibers, and higher neovascularization. We concluded that supplementation with S. cerevisiae and chromium carbochelate improves specific aspects of cutaneous healing process in pacu.(AU)


A cicatrização e reparação de tecidos são mecanismos essenciais para garantir a sobrevivência e saúde de qualquer indivíduo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da suplementação com carboquelato de cromo (CC) e Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) sobre a cicatrização no peixe tropical Piaractus mesopotamicus. Para isto, os peixes foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: controle (sem tratamento), suplementados com 18 mg/kg de carboquelato de cromo, 0,3% de S. cerevisiae e associação de ambos os suplementos. Após 105 dias de alimentação, foram realizadas incisões na pele de espessura completa (2,0 x 1,0 x 0,25 cm) removendo epiderme e derme. Avaliações macroscópicas e microscópicas foram realizadas 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias após a indução das feridas, para monitorar a taxa de cicatrização. As bordas opostas das feridas avançaram gradualmente a cada dia, demonstrando o aumento progressivo do processo de cicatrização ao longo do tempo. O processo inflamatório foi exacerbado e expansivo, com aumento no número de células mucosas e cromatóforos. Apesar deste processo, não foram observadas diferenças significativas na retração das feridas e nos parâmetros microscópicos entre os grupos. Peixes suplementados com CC ou Sc apresentaram rápida reepitelização, maior grau de organização de fibras colágenas e de neovascularização inicial. Concluiu-se que a suplementação com S. cerevisiae ou carboquelato de cromo melhora aspectos específicos do processo cicatricial no pacu.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Characidae/lesões , Cromo/uso terapêutico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Cicatrização , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Reepitelização
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(6): 732-736, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-837994

RESUMO

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Occupational dermatitis affects the quality of life and productivity of workers. Studies on the subject are scarce in Brazil. It is estimated that the disease is underreported and that many affected patients do not seek health care. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an epidemiological analysis of occupational dermatitis notified via SINAN in Brazil from January 2007 to December 2012; evaluate the profile of patients assisted; and check the main etiological agents involved. METHODS: We analyzed the compulsory notification forms of cases of occupational dermatitis filled nationwide during January 2007 to December 2012. RESULTS: During the study period 3027 cases of occupational dermatitis were notified in Brazil. In 61.4% of cases patients were men aged between 35-49 years (39.6%). The most described etiological agent was chromium (13.9%). The location of the body most affected was the hands, with 28.4% of cases. The construction sector is implicated in 28.7% of cases and domestic services by 18%. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most prevalent occupational dermatitis (20.6%) and the region with the highest number of notifications was the Midwest, with 376.4 cases per million inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: The profile of patients most affected by occupational dermatitis in Brazil during the study period was: men with elementary school, aged between 20 and 49 years old and working in the construction industry. The most common occupational dermatitis were allergic contact dermatitis caused by chromium after years of exposure, being the hands and head the parts of the body most affected.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Brasil/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Distribuição por Idade
13.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 38(2): 131-138, abr.-jun. 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-2533

RESUMO

The Teles Pires River basin is located in an area of the Southern Amazon where discharge of tannery effluents and intense agricultural activity occurs. These activities increase the risk of contamination by runoff and leaching of pesticides and heavy metals. This study presents the concentration and bioaccumulation of heavy metals copper (Cu) and total chromium (Cr) in matrinxã (Brycon falcatus), a species of fish highly consumed in the region. Liver and muscle tissue was analyzed from 41 samples of B. falcatus collected during the dry season in 2013 from the Teles Pires River basin. Considering that bioaccumulation is the progressive increase in the amount of a substance in an organism or part of an organism, copper bioaccumulation in liver samples from B. falcatus was verified. Cr and Cu concentrations were higher in the liver than in the muscle tissue of fish collected in all rivers. The highest concentrations of Cr in the liver were observed in fish collected from the Teles Pires River (1.87 µg•g -1) and the Celeste River (1.06 µg•g -1). The highest concentrations of Cu in the liver were observed in fish collected from the Cristalino River (44.20 µg•g-1) and the Teles Pires River (34.77 µg•g-1). The high concentration of Cu in the livers of fish collected from the Teles Pires river basin reflects the economic activities of mining and agriculture in the surrounding areas of this basin.


Na Amazônia Meridional a bacia do rio Teles Pires está numa área onde existe despejo de efluentes de curtumes e intensa atividade agrícola, aumentando o risco de lixiviação e escoamento de defensivos agrícolas e metais pesados. Este estudo apresenta a concentração e bioacumulação de metais pesados, cobre (Cu) e cromo (Cr) total no matrinxã, Brycon falcatus, uma espécie de peixe muito consumida regionalmente. Analisamos o fígado e tecido muscular de 41 exemplares de B. falcatus coletados durante a estação seca de 2013 na bacia do rio Teles Pires. Considerando que bioacumulação é o aumento progressivo na quantidade de uma substância em um organismo ou parte deste, verificamos bioacumulação de cobre nas amostras de fígado de B. falcatus. As concentrações de Cr e Cu foram maiores no fígados do que no músculo dos peixes nos rios coletados. As maiores concentrações de Cr no fígado foram observadas nos peixes coletados no rio Teles Pires (1,87 µg•g-1) e no rio Celeste (1,06 µ g•g-1). As maiores concentrações de Cu no fígado foram observadas nos peixes coletados no rio Cristalino (44,20 µg•g-1) e no rio Teles Pires (34,77 µ g•g -1). As altas concentrações de Cu no fígado dos peixes coletados na bacia do rio Teles Pires refletem as atividades econômicas do garimpo e agricultura no entorno desta bacia.


Assuntos
Animais , Metais Pesados , Ecossistema Amazônico , Cromo , Cobre , Bacias Hidrográficas
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 886-893, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-768188

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the potential for using toxicity assays with sediment samples for the detection of water pollution caused by the discharge of tannery effluents into water bodies and its application to environmental forensic investigation. The study included ecotoxicological evaluation of sediments, survey of benthic organisms in the field, as well as chromium, cadmium and lead dosage which provided data for a sediment quality triad evaluation. The sediment samples showed acute and chronic toxicity to the bioindicators, low biodiversity of benthic macrofauna and high chromium concentration, reaching up to 4365 mg.Kg–1. A close relationship was observed between the separate results of ecotoxicological sediment evaluation and the sediment quality triad. The sediment ecotoxicological assessment proved to be applicable to tracking sources of contamination related to tanneries and similar activities in environmental forensics.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o potencial de aplicação de ensaios de toxicidade com amostras de sedimento para constatação de poluição aquática causada por lançamentos de efluentes de curtumes em cursos d’água e seu emprego na perícia criminal ambiental. O estudo incluiu avaliação ecotoxicológica de sedimentos, avaliação da fauna bentônica local e dosagem de cromo, cádmio e chumbo que forneceram dados para avaliação da tríade de qualidade dos sedimentos. As amostras de sedimentos mostraram efeito de toxicidade aguda e crônica aos bioindicadores, baixa biodiversidade da macrofauna bentônica e altas concentrações de cromo que chegaram a 4365 mg.Kg–1. Houve uma estreita relação entre os resultados isolados da avaliação ecotoxicológica e a tríade de qualidade de sedimentos. A avaliação ecotoxicológica demonstrou ser aplicável na identificação de fontes de contaminação relacionadas a curtumes e atividades similares em perícias ambientais.


Assuntos
Animais , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cromo/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gastrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios
15.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 30(1): 2-9, jun. 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-868795

RESUMO

La biotecnología ambiental recurre a organismos capaces de reducir los niveles de metales pesados, entre ellos el Cr(VI), contenido en residuos y efluentes agroindustriales. El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar la biorremediación de un residuo como pulpa de limón contaminada con Cr(VI) y el efecto del metal sobre el crecimiento fúngico. Se utilizaron tres hongos filamentosos como Aspergillus niger; Penicillium expansum y P. islandicum para remediar pulpa de limón (residuo) contaminada con Cr(VI) (50 mg/L) que se realizó en las siguientes condiciones de cultivo: la pulpa se suplementó con urea, 0,006; (NH4) 2SO4, 0,012; KH2PO4,0,003 y KCl, 0,001 g/ g; 105 conidios/g, a pH 2,5, 30°C y 96 h de incubación. Se estudió el efecto tóxico de diferentes concentraciones (5; 10; 20 y 50 mg/L) del metal sobre el desarrollo del hongo de mayor eficiencia de remediación (Ef. por ciento). Aspergillus niger; obtuvo mayor EF. de remediación (97 por ciento) respecto a Penicillium expansum (95 por ciento) y P. islandicum (94 por ciento), del residuo contaminado con 50 mg/L de Cr(VI). Se determinó que la presencia de Cr(VI) y no su concentración estimuló la maduración temprana (48 h) de los conidios (blancos a negros) de A. niger, sin que se observe alteraciones en el micelio con respecto al control (72h), desarrollado en la pulpa sin el metal. En conclusión, A. niger fue más resistente y presentó altas Ef. de remediación de Cr(VI) de residuos sólidos, este proceso es una alternativa a las tecnologías físico-químicas, debido que los microorganismos pueden remover selectivamente diferentes iones de zonas contaminadas.


Environmental biotechnology uses organisms capable of reducing levels of heavy metals, including the Cr (VI), contained in waste and agro-industrial effluents. The objective of this work was to study bioremediation of waste contaminated with Cr(VI) lemon pulp and the effect of the metal on the fungal growth. We used three filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger; Penicillium expansum and P. islandicum to remedy pulp from lemon (residue) contaminated with Cr(VI) (50 mg/L) that was conducted in the following conditions of cultivation: the pulp is supplemented with urea, 0.006; (NH4) 2SO4, 0.012; KH2PO4, 0.003 and KCl, 0.001 g / g; 105 conidia/g, at pH 2.5, 30 ° C and 96 h of incubation. We studied the toxic effect of different concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/L) of the metal on the development of the fungus increased efficiency of remediation (Ef. percent). Aspergillus niger; obtained greater EF. remediation (97 percent) with respect to Penicillium expansum (95 percent) and P. islandicum (94 percent), 50 mg/L of Cr (VI)-contaminated waste. It was determined that the presence of Cr (VI) and not its concentration stimulated early maturation (48 h) of conidia (white on black) from A. niger, unless you observe alterations in the mycelium as compared to the control (72 h), developed in the pulp without the metal. In conclusion, A. niger was stronger and presented high Ef. remediation of Cr (VI) waste, this process is an alternative to physico-chemical technologies, due to the micro-organisms be removed selectively different ions from contaminated areas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aspergillus niger/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromo/toxicidade , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Remoção de Contaminantes/métodos , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(3): 755-762, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-753934

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate absorption of radio-labeled chromium oxide (51Cr2O3), used as biological marker in nutrition studies with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. An experimental diet with approximately 58 µCi of specific activity of the element was encapsulated and fed daily to 35 adult Nile tilapia; a group of 35 fish was used as control feeding on a basal diet. At the beginning of the experiment five fish from each group were randomly selected and blood samples were drawn from control (BC) and experimental fish (BE). Fish were then euthanized by anesthetic overdoses and samples of the liver tissue (LT), renal tissue (RT), stomach without content (S), intestine without content (I), gills tissue (GT), muscle tissue (fillet; MT), visceral fat (VF), content of the digestive tract (CTDE) and water aquarium were collected from the experimental fish. The procedure was repeated daily for one week. Simple linear regressions were adjusted - days of collection vs. determination coefficients, and were established for statistical comparisons of the measured activity of 51Cr readings in sampled blood and tissues (logarithmic transformation) for samples of the control and experimental fish. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between samples from BC fish and BE, RT, VF, MT and LT of treated fish, but samples of GT, I, S, CTDE and WA from the tanks holding fish which received the experimental diet differed from control (P<0.05). The experimental results indicate that the trivalent chromium in the form of 51Cr2O3 was not significantly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, gills or another possible route of absorption under these experimental conditions and with Nile tilapia. Therefore, this marker was shown to be inert and can be safely used in nutrition studies.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a taxa de absorção de radiomarcador óxido de crômio (51Cr2O3), utilizado como marcador biológico em estudos de nutrição, com tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus. Uma dieta experimental com cerca de 58µCi de atividade específica do elemento foi encapsulada, e 35 adultos de tilápia foram alimentados diariamente; um grupo de 35 peixes foi usado como controle e alimentado com uma dieta basal. No início do estudo, cinco peixes de cada grupo foram selecionados aleatoriamente, e amostras de sangue foram coletadas dos peixes controle (BC) e experimentais (BE). Os peixes foram sacrificados por overdose de anestésicos, e amostras do tecido do fígado (LT), rins (RT), estômago sem conteúdo (S), intestino sem conteúdo (I), brânquias (GT), tecido muscular (filé; MT), gordura visceral (VF), conteúdo do trato digestivo (CTDE) e água do aquário (WA) foram coletadas somente dos peixes experimentais. O processo foi repetido diariamente durante uma semana. As regressões lineares simples foram ajustadas - dias de coleta versus coeficientes de determinação - e foram estabelecidas para comparações estatísticas da leitura das atividades medidas de 51Cr (transformação logarítmica) nas amostras dos peixes controle e experimentais. Não foram detectadas diferenças (P>0,05) entre as amostras BC dos peixes controle e BE, RT, VF , MT e LT dos peixes experimentais, mas as amostras de GT, I, S, CTDE e WA dos peixes que receberam a dieta experimental apresentaram diferença significativa em relação aos que receberam a dieta controle (P<0,05). Os resultados experimentais indicam que o crômio trivalente na forma de 51Cr2O3 não foi significativamente absorvido pelo trato gastrointestinal, pelas brânquias ou por outra via possível de absorção nessas condições experimentais e com tilápia do Nilo. Portanto, esse marcador demonstrou ser suficientemente inerte, o que torna seguro seu uso em estudos de nutrição.


Assuntos
Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Ciclídeos , Cromo/análise , Absorção Fisiológica/fisiologia , Absorção Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(1): 127-134, jan./fev. 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-963697

RESUMO

Com a industrialização, a produção de resíduos tem aumentado durante os anos. Além disso, a disposição destes resíduos é uma posição discutida entre os órgãos ambientais. Em virtude disto, o objetivo foi estudar o efeito residual de adições sucessivas de resíduos de curtume e carboníferos sobre as propriedades químicas do solo e o acumulo de metais pesados nas plantas de cenoura. Os tratamentos aplicados a campo foram T1 = Controle, somente solo; T2 = Adubação com NPK + calcário para atingir pH 6,0; T3 = Lodo de curtume em quantidade adequada para atingir pH 6,0 + PK; T4 = Duas vezes a quantidade de lodo de curtume utilizada no tratamento 3 + PK; T5 = Resíduo carbonífero + NPK + calcário em quantidade adequada para atingir pH 6,0; T6 = Resíduo carbonífero + lodo de curtume em quantidade adequada para atingir pH 6,0 + PK; T7 = Serragem cromada + NPK + calcário em quantidade adequada para atingir pH 6,0; T8 = Cr mineral + lodo de curtume em quantidade adequada para atingir pH 6,0 + PK. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições por tratamento. A adição de cromo, tanto via mineral, quanto via resíduos não afetaram o crescimento da cenoura. Além disso, os teores encontrados na parte aérea, radicular, e córtex da raiz são considerados baixos, demonstrando um baixo potencial de contaminação destes resíduos.


With the industrialization, waste production has been increased over the years. Moreover, the disposition of these wastes is a position discussed among environmental agencies. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of successive additions of tannery waste and coal on the chemical properties of the soil and the accumulation of heavy metals in carrot plants. The treatments were applied to field: T1 = Control, only solo; T2 = fertilization with NPK + lime to reach pH 6.0; T3 = tannery sludge in adequate quantity to achieve pH 6.0 + PK; T4 = Twice the amount tannery sludge used in treatment 3 + PK; T5 = waste coal + NPK + lime in adequate quantity to achieve pH 6.0; T6 = waste coal + tannery sludge in adequate quantity to achieve pH 6.0 + PK; T7 = Sawdust = chrome + NPK + lime in adequate quantity to reach pH 6.0; T8 = Cr + mineral tannery sludge in adequate quantity to achieve pH 6.0 + PK. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with three replicates per treatment. The results demonstrate that carrot plants grew normally in the treatments with high chromium concentrations, either addition with residues or mineral. Furthermore, the levels found in the shoots, roots and roots cortex were low, indicating a low potential of these waste contamination.


Assuntos
Solo , Curtume , Resíduos , Cromo , Daucus carota , Metais Pesados
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 573-583, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723121

RESUMO

Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 µgmL-1 caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology.


Assuntos
Cromo/metabolismo , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Cromo/toxicidade , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oxirredução , Ochrobactrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ochrobactrum/efeitos da radiação , Ochrobactrum/ultraestrutura , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos da radiação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura
20.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 108-114, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-714614

RESUMO

Objective: To test the null hypothesis that the aging process in self-ligating brackets is not higher than in conventional brackets. Methods: Twenty-five conventional (GN-3M/Unitek; GE-GAC; VE-Aditek) and 25 self-ligating (SCs-3M/Unitek; INs-GAC; ECs-Aditek) metal brackets from three manufacturers (n = 150) were submitted to aging process in 0.9% NaCl solution at a constant temperature of 37 ± 1ºC for 21 days. The content of nickel, chromium and iron ions in the solution collected at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days was quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After the aging process, the brackets were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) under 22X and 1,000X magnifications. Results: Comparison of metal release in self-ligating and conventional brackets from the same manufacturer proved that the SCs group released more nickel (p < 0.05) than the GN group after 7 and 14 days, but less chromium (p < 0.05) after 14 days and less iron (p < 0.05) at the three experimental time intervals. The INs group released less iron (p < 0.05) than the GE group after 7 days and less nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05) after 14 and 21 days. The ECs group released more nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05) than the VE group after 14 days, but released less nickel and chromium (p < 0.05) after 7 days and less chromium and iron (p < 0.05) after 21 days. The SEM analysis revealed alterations on surface topography of conventional and self-ligating brackets. Conclusions: The aging process in self-ligating brackets was not greater than in conventional brackets from the same manufacturer. The null hypothesis was accepted. .


Objetivo: testar a hipótese nula de que o processo de envelhecimento em braquetes autoligáveis não é superior ao de braquetes convencionais. Métodos: Vinte e cinco braquetes metálicos convencionais (GN, 3M/Unitek; GE, GAC; VE, Aditek) e 25 autoligáveis (SCs, 3M/Unitek; INs, GAC; ECs, Aditek) de três fabricantes (n = 150) foram submetidos ao envelhecimento em solução de NaCl à temperatura constante de 37 ± 1ºC, durante 21 dias. O conteúdo de íons níquel, cromo e ferro na solução coletada com 7, 14 e 21 dias foi quantificado por meio de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Depois de completado o processo de envelhecimento, os braquetes foram analisados com microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV), em magnificações de 22x e de 1.000x. Resultados: comparando-se a liberação de metais por braquetes autoligáveis e convencionais do mesmo fabricante, observou-se que o grupo SCs liberou mais níquel (p < 0,05) que o grupo GN após 7 e 14 dias, mas menos cromo (p < 0,05) após 14 dias e menos ferro (p < 0,05) nos três períodos experimentais. O grupo INs liberou menos ferro (p < 0,05) que o grupo GE após 7 dias, e menos níquel, cromo e ferro (p < 0,05) após 14 e 21 dias. O grupo ECs liberou mais níquel, cromo e ferro (p < 0,05) que o grupo VE após 14 dias; entretanto, liberou menos níquel e cromo (p < 0,05) após 7 dias e menos cromo e ferro (p < 0,05) após 21 dias. A análise no MEV demonstrou alterações na topografia da superfície de braquetes convencionais e autoligáveis. Conclusões: o processo de envelhecimento em braquetes autoligáveis não foi superior ao de braquetes convencionais do mesmo fabricante. A hipótese nula está aceita. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Ligas Dentárias/química , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Corrosão , Cromo/química , Difusão , Ferro/química , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Níquel/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Propriedades de Superfície , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Aço Inoxidável/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
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