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1.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(1): 185-191, Jan.-Mar. 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-671414

RESUMO

The urine excretion of L-carnitine (LC), acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-Lcarnitine (PLC) and their relations with the antioxidant activities are presently unknown. Liquid L-carnitine (2.0 g) was administered orally as a single dose in 12 healthy subjects. Urine concentrations of LC, ALC and PLC were detected by HPLC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrogen monoxidum (NO) activities were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The 0~2 h, 2~4 h, 4~8 h, 8~12 h, 12~24 h excretion of LC was 53.13±31.36 µmol, 166.93±76.87 µmol, 219.92±76.30 µmol, 100.48±23.89 µmol, 72.07±25.77 µmol, respectively. The excretion of ALC was 29.70±14.43 µmol, 80.59±32.70 µmol, 109.85±49.21 µmol, 58.65±18.55 µmol, and 80.43±35.44 µmol, respectively. The urine concentration of PLC was 6.63±4.50 µmol, 15.33±12.59 µmol, 15.46±6.26 µmol, 13.41±11.66 µmol and 9.67±7.92 µmol, respectively. The accumulated excretion rate of LC was 6.1% within 24h after its administration. There was also an increase in urine concentrations of SOD and T-AOC, and a decrease in NO and MDA. A positive correlation was found between urine concentrations of LC and SOD (r = 0.8277) or T-AOC (r = 0.9547), and a negative correlation was found between urine LC excretions and NO (r = -0.8575) or MDA (r = 0.7085). In conclusion, a single oral LC administration let to a gradual increase in urine L-carnitine excretion which was associated with an increase in urine antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacities. These data may be useful in designing therapeutic regimens of LC or its analogues in the future.


A excreção urinária de L-carnitina (LC), acetil-L-carnitina (ALC) e propionil-L-carnitine (PLC) e as suas relações com as atividades antioxidantes são presentemente desconhecidos. Líquido de L-carnitina (2,0 g) foi administrada por via oral como uma dose única em 12 indivíduos saudáveis. As concentrações urinárias de LC, PLC e ALC foram detectados por HPLC. Atividades superóxido dismutase (SOD), a capacidade antioxidante total (T-AOC), malondialdeído (MDA) e óxido nítrico (NO) foram medidas por métodos espectrofotométricos. O 0~2 h, 2~4 h, 4~8 h, 8~12 h, 12~24 h excreção de LC foi 53,13±31.36 µmol, 166,93±76.87 µmol, 219,92±76.30 µmol, 100,48±23.89 µmol, 72,07±25.77 µmol, respectivamente. A excreηão de ALC foi 29,70±14.43 µmol, 80,59±32.70 µmol, 109,85±49.21 µmol, 58,65±18.55 µmol, e 80,43±35.44 µmol, respectivamente. A concentraηão de urina de PLC foi 6,63±4.50 µmol, 15,33±12.59 µmol, 15,46±6.26 µmol, 13,41±11.66 µmol e 9,67±7.92 µmol, respectivamente. A taxa de excreηão acumulada de LC foi de 6,1% 24 horas após sua administração. Houve também um aumento nas concentrações de urina de SOD e T-COA e diminuição de NO e de MDA. Correlação positiva foi encontrada entre as concentrações de urina de LC e SOD (r = 0,8277) ou T-AOC (r = 0,9547) e correlação negativa entre a excreção de LC e NO (r = -0,8575) ou MDA (r = 0,7085). Em conclusão, a administração oral única de LC leva ao aumento gradual na excreção urinária de L-carnitina, que foi associada com o aumento das enzimas antioxidantes na urina e as capacidades antioxidantes totais. Estes dados podem ser úteis no futuro para o planejamento de esquemas terapêuticos de LC ou os seus análogos, no futuro.


Assuntos
Humanos , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
2.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 44(2): 189-193, mar.-jun. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-633116

RESUMO

La determinación de acilcarnitinas en sangre es una herramienta importante para el diagnóstico de algunas enfermedades hereditarias, así como deficiencias metabólicas secundarias. Bajo las condiciones acídicas y la alta temperatura utilizadas durante el proceso de derivatización, es posible que pueda ocurrir algún grado de hidrólisis de acilcarnitinas, lo cual puede potencialmente interferir con las determinaciones de la carnitina libre. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar la hidrólisis de las acilcarnitinas (de cadena corta, media y larga) durante el proceso de derivatización y analizar su efecto sobre la determinación de carnitina libre. El porcentaje de hidrólisis fue de 27% para acilcarnitinas de cadena corta, 17% para acilcarnitinas de cadena media y 5% para acilcarnitinas de cadena larga. Estos resultados pueden ocasionar un incremento en los niveles de carnitina libre de las muestras analizadas.


The measurement of acylcarnitines in blood is an important tool for diagnosis of some inherited metabolic diseases and secondary metabolic deficiencies. Under the acidic conditions and the high temperature used for the derivatisation process, it is feasible that some degree of hydrolysis of acylcarnitines to free carnitine may occur and therefore potentially interfere with free carnitine measurements. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hydrolysis of acylcarnitines (short-chain-, medium-chain, and long chain acylcarnitines) during derivatisation process and to analyse its effect on free carnitine measurement. The average percentage of hydrolysis was 27% for short-chain acylcarnitines, 17% for medium-chain acylcarnitines, and 5% for long-chain acylcarnitines. These results can increase the free carnitine levels in the analysed samples.


Assuntos
Humanos , Acetilcarnitina/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Acetilcarnitina/metabolismo , Carnitina , Hidrólise
3.
Braz. j. morphol. sci ; 21(2): 105-110, Apr.-Jun. 2004. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-406363

RESUMO

In this work, we evaluated the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine supplmentation on the presence of NADPH-diaphorase positive myenteric neurons in the distal colon of rats with diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin. Rats 105 days old were divided into four groups: normoglycemic, normoglycemic supplemented with acetyl-L-carnitine, diabetic and diabetic supplemented with acetyl-L-carnitine. Diabetes was induced by the administration of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i. v.). Supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine was done for 105 days. The neuronal density was similar in all groups. In diabetic rats, the area of neuronal cell body profile was greater (p<0, 05) than in normoglycemic rats, whereas in diabetic rats receiving acetyl-L-carnitine the areas were smaller than in the non-supplemented diabetic rats (p<0, 05). The increase in the colonic area of diabetic rats was greater than in diabetic rats treated with acetyl-L-carnitine (p<0, 05), indicating that the increment in the population of these neurons was higher in treated diabetic rats. These results suggest that the beneficial effect of carnitine is restricted to preventing an excessive increase in neuronal area. The greater dilatation of the distal colon seen in diabetic rats supplemented with acetyl-L-carnitine probably represents and adverse effect of this compound.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Acetilcarnitina , Diabetes Mellitus , NADPH Desidrogenase , Neurônios , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 61(4): 962-967, Dec. 2003. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-352434

RESUMO

The effect of the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on neurons releasing the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) of the submucous plexus in the jejunum of diabetic rats was the purpose of our investigation. Diabetes (DM) was induced by injecting streptozotocin endovenously (35mg/kg). After sacrificing the animals, the jejunum was collected and processed for VIP detection. Four groups were used: C (non-diabetic), CC (non-diabetic treated with ALC), D (diabetic), DC (diabetes treated with ALC). We analyzed the immunoreactivity and the cellular profile of 126 cell bodies. The treatment with ALC improved some aspects of DM. However, it promoted a small increase in the area of neurons from group CC, suggesting a possible neurotrophic effect. Neurons from groups D and DC showed a large increase in their cellular profile and immunoreactivity when compared to C and CC, suggesting a larger concentration of this neurotransmitter within the neurons that produce it. This observation constitutes a recurrent finding in diabetic animals, suggesting that ALC doesnot interfere in the pathophysiological mechanisms that unchain a higher production and/or neurotransmitter accumulation and increase the profile of the VIP-ergic neurons


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Acetilcarnitina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Jejuno/inervação , Neurônios/metabolismo , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Plexo Submucoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Jejuno/química , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/análise
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