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1.
NOVA publ. cient ; 16(30): 31-35, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-976286

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo. Evaluar la potencial actividad degradadora de la cepa comercial Pleurotus ostreatus sobre petróleo crudo como única fuente de carbono. Método. Se empleó un inóculo de 10mg del hongo en medio mínimo líquido de sales con volúmenes de 0,5% y 1% de petróleo en agitación constante durante 21 días a temperatura ambiente, registrando peso seco a los 0, 8,15 y 21 días. Resultados. Se obtuvo un máximo de biomasa 45mg para 0,5% de 39mg para 1%. Esto sugiere que el hongo sufre una adaptación fisiológica para utilizar el petróleo crudo para su crecimiento.


Abstract Objectives. To evaluate the potential crude oil-degrading activity of Pleurotus ostreatus using it as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Methods. An inoculum of 10 mg of the fungus in the minimal liquid of salt with 0.5% or 1% crude oil in constant agitation for 21 days was used. Dry weight at 0, 8, 15 and 21 days was obtained. Results. The maximum biomass with a value of 45mg of 0.5% oil treatment registered while the 1% oil treatment reached a value of 39mg. These values suggest physiological adaptation of the fungus to crude oil as its sole carbon source for growth.


Assuntos
Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Petróleo , Pleurotus , Hidrocarbonetos
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 757-769, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974306

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Anthropogenic activity, such as accidental oil spills, are typical sources of urban mangrove pollution that may affect mangrove bacterial communities as well as their mobile genetic elements. To evaluate remediation strategies, we followed over the time the effects of a petroleum hydrocarbon degrading consortium inoculated on mangrove tree Avicennia schaueriana against artificial petroleum contamination in a phytoremediation greenhouse experiment. Interestingly, despite plant protection due to the inoculation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from the total community DNA indicated that the different treatments did not significantly affect the bacterial community composition. However, while the bacterial community was rather stable, pronounced shifts were observed in the abundance of bacteria carrying plasmids. A PCR-Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated an increase in the abundance of IncP-9 catabolic plasmids. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of naphthalene dioxygenase (ndo) genes amplified from cDNA (RNA) indicated the dominance of a specific ndo gene in the inoculated petroleum amendment treatment. The petroleum hydrocarbon degrading consortium characterization indicated the prevalence of bacteria assigned to Pseudomonas spp., Comamonas spp. and Ochrobactrum spp. IncP-9 plasmids were detected for the first time in Comamonas sp. and Ochrobactrum spp., which is a novelty of this study.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Avicennia/microbiologia , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Petróleo/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Avicennia/metabolismo , Rizosfera
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(4): 888-898, july/aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-967032

RESUMO

The efficiency of co-application of Eisenia fetida and ryegrass was evaluated in a process called earthworm-assisted phytoremediation. Anthracene was used as a model compound for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experiments were conducted on a loamy soil in greenhouse conditions. At the end of the experiment, the soil samples were analyzed for residual anthracene by HPLC. Results showed that, phytoremediation using ryegrass could remove 81% of anthracene; however, the rate of removal was 92% when E. fetida was applied simultaneously. E. fetida alone could also remove the initial concentration of anthracene by 40%. Although ryegrass itself could remove anthracene significantly, the employment of earthworm, together with plant was more efficient than each of them individually. The application of E. fetida could also enhance the growth parameters of ryegrass significantly. In comparison to the control, the presence of E. fetida increased plant dry weight (7.8%), root length (47%), shoots length (32%), and root volume (12%). The number of live earthworms was also increased in the planted pots, indicating the helpfulness of the plant for survival of the earthworm in the PAH-contaminated soil. Although plant and earthworm use completely different mechanisms for anthracene degradation, they improve efficiency and survival of the three-component-system.


A eficiência da co-aplicação de Eisenia fetida e azevém foi avaliada em um processo denominado fitorremediação assistida por minhocas. O antraceno foi usado como um composto modelo para hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs). Os experimentos foram conduzidos em um solo argiloso em condições de estufa. No final da experiência, as amostras de solo foram analisadas quanto ao antraceno residual por HPLC. Os resultados mostraram que, a fitorremediação com azevém pode remover 81% do antraceno; no entanto, a taxa de remoção foi de 92% quando E. fetida foi aplicada simultaneamente. E. fetida sozinha também foi capaz de remover a concentração inicial de antraceno em 40%. Embora o próprio azevém pudesse remover significativamente o antraceno, o emprego da minhoca, juntamente com a planta, foi mais eficiente do que cada um deles individualmente. A aplicação de E. fetida também pode melhorar significativamente os parâmetros de crescimento do azevém. Em comparação com o controle, a presença de E. fetida aumentou o peso seco da planta (7,8%), o comprimento da raiz (47%), o comprimento da parte aérea (32%) e o volume radicular (12%). O número de minhocas vivas também aumentou nos vasos plantados, indicando a utilidade da planta para a sobrevivência da minhoca no solo contaminado com PAH. Embora plantas e minhocas usem mecanismos completamente diferentes para a degradação do antraceno, eles melhoram a eficiência e a sobrevivência do sistema de três componentes.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Antracenos , Lolium , Hidrocarbonetos
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 118 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-882833

RESUMO

Ocorrem anualmente aproximadamente 600.000 mortes de crianças com até cinco anos, no mundo. Pneumonia é a principal causa e mais de 50 por cento destas mortes são atribuídas à poluição do ar. Ela ainda é responsável pelo aumento do risco de infecções respiratórias, asma, condições neonatais adversas e anomalias congênitas. A poluição do ar também afeta o desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças e induz o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas na idade adulta. Entre 70 e 80 por cento da poluição do ar em nações em desenvolvimento são de origem veicular. Objetivando definir critérios baseados em medições com sensoriamento remoto para identificação de veículos automotores leves do ciclo Otto com elevadas emissões de monóxido de carbono, hidrocarbonetos ou óxido nítrico, foram utilizados os dados secundários gerados pela Remote Sensing do Brasil Ltda dos quais foram selecionados 179.142 veículos em uso da frota circulante da cidade de São Paulo com medições completas dos índices de emissão dos poluentes monóxido de carbono (CO), hidrocarbonetos (HC) e óxido nítrico (NO) e ainda velocidade e aceleração do veículo quando da medição e inclinação da pista no local escolhido para as medições. Foram ajustados modelos estatísticos da classe Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) visando testar a influência do Tipo de Combustível, da Potência Específica do Veículo (VSP) e das Fases do Programa de Controle da Poluição do Ar por Veículos Automotores (Proconve) sobre as emissões de CO, HC e NO, medidos usando o Remote Sensing Device (RSD). As emissões foram então conceitualmente subdivididas em dois grupos: veículos com emissões normais e com emissões anormais, isso para os diversos poluentes em veículos das Fases L3, L4 e L5 que são as fases de interesse para o gerenciamento da qualidade do ar. Variáveis latentes foram definidas para indicarem as distribuições dos veículos em relação a esses grupos e Fases. O algoritmo Expectation-Maximization (EM) foi empregado para identificação dos parâmetros das distribuições. Para determinação dos valores associados aos veículos com elevadas emissões de determinado poluente e fase do Proconve, foi empregado o percentil 98 por cento da distribuição ajustada para os veículos dos grupos com emissões normais. Assim sendo, o Erro de Tipo I foi fixado em 2 por cento sendo que esse percentual foi estabelecido considerando o Erro de Tipo II, de apontar o veículo como tendo emissão normal quando na realidade trata-se de um high emitter. Através desta abordagem foram determinados os valores indicativos de veículos com elevadas emissões segundo o poluente e a Fase do Proconve. Os resultados apontaram decréscimo nas emissões de CO e de HC segundo as Fases do Proconve. Para o NO, o comportamento das emissões não acompanhou as reduções impostas pelas Fases do Proconve. Foi constatado que os veículos de 2005 a 2009, movidos exclusivamente a gasool, foram os que apresentaram as maiores emissões de NO. Diversos possíveis fatores causadores deste comportamento diferenciado do NO foram discutidos neste trabalho. Os dados de qualidade do ar detectaram aumento significativo nas concentrações ambientais de Óxidos de Nitrogênio (NOx) em 2007, quando foi monitorado este parâmetro no período de inverno, o que pode indicar a influência dos high emitters, mas necessita de estudos mais aprofundados para confirmação da causa deste comportamento


Approximately 600,000 deaths occur worldwide annually for children up to five years of age. Pneumonia is the leading cause and more than 50 per cent of these deaths are attributed to air pollution. It is still responsible for increased risk of respiratory infections, asthma, adverse neonatal conditions and congenital anomalies. Air pollution also affects the cognitive development of children and induces future development of chronic diseases in adulthood. In order to define criteria based on remote sensing measurements to identify Otto cycle light duty vehicles (LDV) with high emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons or nitric oxide it was used secondary data produced by Remote Sensing do Brasil Ltda, from which 179,142 inuse vehicles were selected, that belongs to the city of São Paulos current fleet. All those vehicles had complete measurements of emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO), and also speed and acceleration of the vehicle during measurements, and slope of the track at the place chosen for the measurements. Statistical models of the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) class were adjusted to test the influence of fuel type, Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) and of the Brazilian Vehicle Emission Control Program [Proconve] phases on CO, HC and NO emissions, measured using Remote Sensing Device (RSD). The emissions were then conceptually subdivided into two groups: vehicles with normal and abnormal emission, for the various pollutants in vehicles of L3, L4 and L5 phases of Proconve, which were of interest for the air quality management. Latent variables were defined to indicate the distribution of vehicles in relation to those groups and phases. The algorithm Expectation Maximization (EM) was employed to identify all parameters of the distributions. We use the 98 per cent percentiles of the statistical distribution set, for vehicles of groups with normal emissions to determine the limit values for vehicles with high emissions of pollutants and Proconve Phase. Therefore, the Type I Error was set at 2 per cent and this percentage was established considering the Type II Error to point the vehicle as having normal emission when in fact it is a high emitter. Through this approach, the indicative values of vehicles with high emissions according to the pollutant and the Proconve Phase were determined. Results of emissions measured with the RSD technique indicated a decrease in CO and HC emissions according to the Proconve Phase. For the NO, the emissions behavior did not follow the reductions imposed by the Proconve Phases. It was found that newer vehicles year model from 2005 to 2009 exclusively gasohol-powered vehicles, were the ones that presented the highest NO emissions. Several possible causative factors of this differential behavior of NO were discussed in this study. A significant increase in the environmental concentrations of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) was detected in 2007, when this parameter was monitored in the winter period. This may indicate the influence of the high emitter vehicles, but it requires a more in-depth cause-effect study for confirmation of this behavio


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono , Hidrocarbonetos , Óxido Nítrico
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 629-636, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889175

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are efficient, renewable and environment friendly polymeric esters. These polymers are synthesized by a variety of microbes under stress conditions. This study was carried out to check the suitability of waste frying oil in comparison to other oils for economical bioplastic production. Six bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus (KF270349), Klebsiella pneumoniae (KF270350), Bacillus subtilis (KF270351), Brevibacterium halotolerance (KF270352), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KF270353), and Stenotrophomonas rhizoposid (KF270354) by ribotyping. All strains were PHA producers so were selected for PHA synthesis using four different carbon sources, i.e., waste frying oil, canola oil, diesel and glucose. Extraction of PHA was carried out using sodium hypochlorite method and maximum amount was detected after 72 h in all cases. P. aeruginosa led to maximum PHA production after 72 h at 37 °C and 100 rpm using waste frying oil that was 53.2% PHA in comparison with glucose 37.8% and cooking oil 34.4%. B. cereus produced 40% PHA using glucose as carbon source which was high when compared against other strains. A significantly lesser amount of PHA was recorded with diesel as a carbon source for all strains. Sharp Infrared peaks around 1740-1750 cm-1 were present in Fourier Transform Infrared spectra that correspond to exact position for PHA. The use of waste oils and production of poly-3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate (3HB-co-3HV) by strains used in this study is a good aspect to consider for future prospects as this type of polymer has better properties as compared to PHBs.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/biossíntese , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Gasolina/análise , Biotransformação
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 393-394, July-Sept. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889136

RESUMO

Abstract Dietzia sp. 111N12-1, isolated from the seawater of South China Sea, shows strong petroleum hydrocarbons degradation activity. Here, we report the draft sequence of approximately 3.7-Mbp genome of this strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome sequence of Dietzia strain isolated from the sea. The genome sequence may provide fundamental molecular information on elucidating the metabolic pathway of hydrocarbons degradation in this strain.


Assuntos
Água do Mar/microbiologia , Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Actinomycetales/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Actinomycetales/classificação , Actinomycetales/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , China
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 342-351, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839370

RESUMO

Abstract We aimed to verify the changes in the microbial community during bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil. Microbial inoculants were produced from successive additions of gasoline to municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) previously fertilized with nitrogen-phosphorous. To obtain Inoculant A, fertilized MSWC was amended with gasoline every 3 days during 18 days. Inoculant B received the same application, but at every 6 days. Inoculant C included MSWC fertilized with N–P, but no gasoline. The inoculants were applied to gasoline-contaminated soil at 10, 30, or 50 g/kg. Mineralization of gasoline hydrocarbons in soil was evaluated by respirometric analysis. The viability of the inoculants was evaluated after 103 days of storage under refrigeration or room temperature. The relative proportions of microbial groups in the inoculants and soil were evaluated by FAME. The dose of 50 g/kg of inoculants A and B led to the largest CO2 emission from soil. CO2 emissions in treatments with inoculant C were inversely proportional to the dose of inoculant. Heterotrophic bacterial counts were greater in soil treated with inoculants A and B. The application of inoculants decreased the proportion of actinobacteria and increased of Gram-negative bacteria. Decline in the density of heterotrophic bacteria in inoculants occurred after storage. This reduction was bigger in inoculants stored at room temperature. The application of stored inoculants in gasoline-contaminated soil resulted in a CO2 emission twice bigger than that observed in uninoculated soil. We concluded that MSWC is an effective material for the production of microbial inoculants for the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Gasolina , Carcinógenos Ambientais/metabolismo , Biota/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carga Bacteriana , Hidrocarbonetos/análise
8.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 22: e1759, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-838929

RESUMO

RESUMO Introdução Pesquisas voltadas para as populações com baixas exposições a solventes, ou exposições dentro dos níveis de tolerância permitidos em âmbito ocupacional ainda são restritas. Objetivo Caracterizar o perfil auditivo de frentistas de postos de combustíveis. Métodos Estudo transversal, constituído por dois grupos, pareados por gênero e idade: Grupo Controle - 23 indivíduos sem exposição a ruído ou agentes químicos; Grupo Experimental - 21 frentistas de postos de combustíveis. Foi realizada avaliação audiológica, composta por audiometria tonal liminar, logoaudiometria e medidas de imitância acústica. A análise estatística utilizou cálculo de média, desvio padrão, valor mínimo e máximo, teste Qui-quadrado e coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados Foram verificadas alterações auditivas nos frentistas, caracterizadas por comprometimento no sistema auditivo periférico, sugerindo ação tóxica da exposição a combustíveis. Houve correlação entre idade e tempo de exposição a solvente. Na comparação entre os grupos, o reflexo acústico demonstrou maior número de alterações no grupo experimental, com diferença para os reflexos acústicos ipsilaterais da orelha direita e contralaterais da orelha esquerda. Conclusão Não houve diferença entre os grupos para os limiares auditivos, porém, a diferença verificada nos reflexos acústicos ipsilaterais e contralaterais no grupo experimental sugere comprometimento retrococlear. Diante das evidências observadas neste estudo, considera-se relevante incluir a pesquisa do reflexo acústico na avaliação auditiva dos frentistas, bem como a integração desta categoria profissional aos programas de prevenção de perda auditiva.


ABSTRACT Introduction Researches into populations with low solvent exposures, or exposures within tolerance levels allowed in the occupational field are still restricted. Purpose To characterize the hearing profile of gas station attendants. Methods Cross-sectional study, constituted of two groups, matched by gender and age: Control Group - 23 subjects without exposure to noise or chemicals; Experimental Group - 21 gas station attendants. An audiological evaluation was performed, composed by pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and acoustic impedance tests. The statistical analysis used average calculation, standard deviation, minimum and maximum value; Chi-square Test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The significance level was 5%. Results Hearing loss was verified in gas station attendants characterized by impairment of the peripheral auditory system, suggesting toxic effects of exposure to fuels. There was a correlation between age and solvent exposure time. Comparing the groups, the acoustic reflex showed more alterations in the experimental group, with a difference for the ipsilateral acoustic reflexes of the right ear and contralateral ones of the left ear. Conclusion There was no difference between the groups for the hearing thresholds; however, the difference observed in the ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic reflexes in the experimental group suggests retrocochlear impairment. Due to the evidence observed in this study, it is considered relevant to include the acoustic reflex research in the auditory evaluation of the gas station attendants, as well as the integration of this professional category into hearing loss prevention programs.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gasolina/efeitos adversos , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Audiometria , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes , Exposição a Produtos Químicos , Posto de Combustível , Testes Auditivos , Nível de Percepção Sonora , Reflexo Acústico , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Teste do Limiar de Recepção da Fala
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(4): e245-e248, ago. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838250

RESUMO

La aspiración de hidrocarburos puede causar un daño significativo a los pulmones al inducir una respuesta inflamatoria, alveolitis exudativa hemorrágica y pérdida de la función del tensioactivo pulmonar. El efecto secundario más grave de la aspiración de hidrocarburos es la neumonía por aspiración. Anteriormente se han notificado casos de neumotórax, neumatocele, síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA), absceso pulmonar, fístula broncopleural, derrame pleural bilateral hemorrágico y pioneumotórax. En este artículo presentamos el caso de un paciente hospitalizado debido a neumonía por aspiración que desarrolló pleuritis y neumotórax después de ingerir disolvente para pintura. Se presenta este caso ya que raramente se ha informado en niños como causa de complicaciones pulmonares diferentes. Es necesario evaluar integralmente a los pacientes con complicaciones asociadas a la intoxicación por hidrocarburos. Debe evitarse el alta hospitalaria temprana de los pacientes, quienes deben ser controlados durante, al menos, 48 horas, aunque no tengan síntomas respiratorios. Debe considerarse que los pacientes con neumonía química pueden tener complicaciones pulmonares graves.


Hydrocarbon aspiration (HA) can cause significant lung disease by inducing an inflammatory response, hemorrhagic exudative alveolitis, and loss of surfactant function. The most serious side effect of HA is aspiration pneumonia. Pneumothorax, pneumatocele, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary abscess, bronchopleural fistula, bilateral hemorrhagic pleural effusion and pyopneumothorax were previously reported. Hereby we report a patient hospitalized due to aspiration pneumonia who developed pleurisy and pneumothorax after drinking paint thinner. It is presented as it was seldom reported in children to cause distinct pulmonary complications. Patients with complaints associated withhydrocarbon poisoning must be fully evaluated. They must not be discharged from the hospital early and must be followed for at least 48 hours even if they don't have respiratory symptoms. It should be kept in mind that severe pulmonary complications can develop in patients with chemical pneumonia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Pleurisia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumotórax/induzido quimicamente , Solventes/envenenamento , Hidrocarbonetos/envenenamento , Pleurisia/complicações , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumotórax/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 20(4): 313-320, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-770543

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Estabelecer o perfil audiológico de motoristas agrícolas expostos, simultaneamente, a ruído e hidrocarbonetos. Métodos: Foram analisados os prontuários de motoristas com queixas auditivas de uma empresa do ramo agrícola do município de Lençóis Paulista (SP), dentro do Programa de Prevenção de Riscos Ambientais (PPRA). As informações analisadas foram: idade, tempo de exposição combinada a ruído e hidrocarbonetos e exames de audiometria tonal liminar de referência. Para a análise da influência da idade e do tempo de exposição sobre os limiares auditivos, ajustaram-se modelos de sobrevivência para dados grupados (riscos proporcionais e logísticos). Resultados: Verificou-se que os efeitos da idade e do tempo de exposição combinada a ruído e hidrocarbonetos foram significativos na perda de audição, nos modelos de riscos proporcionais e logísticos. Conclusão: É fundamental o desenvolvimento de ações voltadas para a prevenção de perdas auditivas em motoristas agrícolas expostos aos agentes ruído e hidrocarbonetos.


ABSTRACT Purpose: To establish the audiological profile of agricultural drivers simultaneously exposed to noise and hydrocarbons. Methods: The study comprised analysis of the medical records of agricultural drivers with hearing complaints, from an agricultural company of Lençóis Paulista (SP), Brazil, within the Environmental Risk Prevention Program. The information analyzed included age, period of simultaneous exposure to noise and hydrocarbons and testing of reference pure tone audiometry. Survival models for grouped data (proportional risk and logistic) were adjusted to analyze the influence of age and period of exposure of hearing thresholds. Results: It was observed that the effects of age and period of simultaneous exposure to noise and hydrocarbons were significant for hearing loss in proportional risk and logistic models. Conclusion: It is fundamental to develop actions for the prevention of hearing loss in agricultural drivers exposed to the agents noise and hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional , Audiometria , Estudos de Coortes , Riscos Ambientais , Perda Auditiva/prevenção & controle , Programa de Prevenção de Riscos no Ambiente de Trabalho
11.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 40(1): 45-53, abr. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-749172

RESUMO

Objective: Lately, scientific knowledge on fats and oils has changed dramatically, not only in relation to medical-pharmacological and nutritional s, but also to the knowledge of chemical compounds deriving from oxidative reactions and contaminants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) due to undesired effects on human body, associated with several degenerative diseases on the organism such as arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular changes and carcinogenesis. This paper has focused its attention on the presence and quantification of these compounds in olive oils imported and marketed domestically in Brazil. Methods: For analysis of natural antioxidants, determination of hydrolysis and oxidized compounds, and screening and authenticity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, UV high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used following the methods reported in the bibliography. Results: The samples showed significant contents of oxidized composts and low nutritional healthquality indexes. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was within the European Community legislation limit. One of the parameters utilized for authenticity determination, based on equivalent carbon number (ECN42) difference analysis, showed values within the legislation limits for all samples analyzed. Conclusions: The samples show significant contents of oxidized compounds and low nutritional health quality indexes, independent of expiry date. The authenticity determination, based on ECN42 difference analysis, show values within the limits for all samples analyzed. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants was within the European Community legislation limit.


Objetivo: O quadro de conhecimento científico acerca dos lipídeos utilizados na alimentação mudou radicalmente, não somente em relação ao campo médico, farmacológico e nutricional, mas também quanto ao conhecimento de antioxidantes ? protetores orgânicos ? e de compostos derivados de reações de hidrólise, oxidação e contaminantes hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs) que produzem efeitos indesejáveis ao organismo humano,sendo associados a doenças como arteriosclerose, alterações do sistema cardiovascular em geral, carcinogênese etc. Em face do exposto, esse trabalho tem como objetivo o estudo sobre a concentração desses compostos em marcas registradas de azeites de oliva comercializados dentro do território brasileiro para a avaliação da qualidade, genuinidade e índice nutricional. Métodos: As determinações de antioxidantes naturais, compostosde hidrólise e de oxidação, hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos e de genuinidade, utilizando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência-UV, segundo métodos referidos em bibliografia, foram aplicadas às amostras de azeite extra virgem de oliva e azeite de oliva de procedências diversas. Resultados: As amostras apresentaram valores significativos em relação à hidrólise e à oxidação, consequentemente, com baixos valores de índicesde qualidade nutricional.Os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos mostraram teores dentro dos limites aceitos pelos Regulamentos da Comunidade Europeia (CE) e da União Europeia (UE) e da Federação Europeia das Indústrias de Óleos Vegetais (FEDIOL). A genuinidade apresentou valores dentro dos limites estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira e pelo Regulamento da União Europeia. Conclusões: As amostras apresentaram resultados significativos de oxidação e baixos índices de qualidade nutricional, independente das datas de vencimento. A genuinidade e os contaminantes hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos, respectivamente, apresentaram teores dentro dos limites permitidos pelaLegislação Brasileira e pelo Regulamento da União Europeia.


Assuntos
Avaliação Nutricional , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos/farmacologia , Oxidação/classificação
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [102] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-870759

RESUMO

Partículas da exaustão de motores a diesel (DEP) têm propriedades toxicológicas, devido às características físico-químicas. O DEP é capaz de ativar as vias de sinalização intracelular e induzir alterações metabólicas em células e tecidos do sistema respiratório. O objetivo desta tese foi: 1) avaliar o perfil das mucinas e alterações epiteliais em explantes de traqueia de camundongo BALB/c expostos ao DEP e DEP tratado com ácido nítrico e solventes orgânicos; e 2) em cultura de células de epitélio brônquico humano (BEAS-2B) expostas ao DEP e DEP tratado com hexano (DEP/HEX) para avaliar ativação de MAPK (ERK e JNK), citotoxidade, integridade de citoesqueleto, viscoelasticidade celular e expressão gênica de enzimas envolvidas no estresse oxidativo e apoptose. Os resultados mostraram que, em explantes de traqueia, o DEP causa aumento significativo em relação ao grupo controle na quantidade de muco ácido (p= 0,001), diminuição no muco neutro (p=0,001), diminuição de muco misto (p= 0,001), aumento de vacuolização (p= 0,001), aumento de apoptose (p=0,001), ora com aumento de pERK e diminuição de pJNK, e vice-versa. Os explantes submetidos à exposição ao DEP e DEP/MET aumentaram significativamente o muco ácido (p=0,01) e DEP/HEX provocou aumento da extrusão do muco (p=0,007), provavelmente devido à ação do enriquecimento inorgânico. Para as células BEAS-2B, nos resultados obtidos com células epiteliais expostas ao DEP e DEP/HEX, foram observadas alterações na membrana citoplasmática, mitocôndrias e citoesqueleto. As células expostas apenas ao DEP em baixas concentrações (15ug/mL) apresentaram alterações na expressão de genes envolvidos no apoptose (BCL-2 e Caspase-3 (p=0,05 e p=0,01) e estresse oxidativo [(SOD1 e SOD2 e GPx. p=0,01 )], e CYP1A1 ((p=0,01).


Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from diesel engines have toxic properties that result from their physical and chemical characteristics. DEPs are able to activate intracellular signaling pathways and induce metabolic changes to cells and tissues of the human respiratory system. This dissertation sought to evaluate: 1) the profile of mucins and the epithelial changes to the tracheal explants of BALB/c mice exposed to both DEP and DEP treated with nitric acid and organic solvents (50 and 100 ug/mL; and 2) human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) in culture after their exposure to both DEP and DEP treated with hexane (DEP/HEX) at 100 ug/mL in order to determine MAPK (ERK/JNK) activation, cytotoxicity, cytoskeletal integrity, cell viscoelasticity and gene expression of the enzymes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis. The results show that, in tracheal explants, DEP causes a significant increase (compared to the control) in the quantity of acidic mucus (p=0.001), a decrease in alkaline mucus (p=0.001), a decrease in mixed mucus (p=0.001), an increase in vacuolization (p=0.001), an increase in apoptosis (p=0.001), along with an increase in pERK and a decrease in pJNK, and vice versa. The explants that were exposed to DEP and DEP/MET were found to have significantly higher quantities of acidic mucus (p=0.01), and DEP/HEX caused an increase in mucus extrusion (p=0.007), which was likely due to inorganic enrichment. In the case of BEAS-2B cells, the results obtained from epithelial cells exposted to DEP and DEP/HEX revealed alterations in the cytoplasmic membrane, the mitochondria, and the cytoskeleton. The cells exposed to DEP alone at low concentrations (15 ug/mL) experienced alterations in the genes involved in apoptosis (BCL-2 and Caspase-3; p=0.05 and p=0.01, respectively), as well as oxidative stress [(SOD1, SOD2, and GPx; p=0.01 )], and changes to CYP1A1 (p=0.01).


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Hidrocarbonetos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Metais , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1317-1323, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741282

RESUMO

Oil spill microcosms experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of bioemulsificant exopolysaccharide (EPS2003) on quick stimulation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. Early hours of oil spill, were stimulated using an experimental seawater microcosm, supplemented with crude oil and EPS2003 (SW+OIL+EPS2003); this system was monitored for 2 days and compared to control microcosm (only oil-polluted seawater, SW+OIL). Determination of bacterial abundance, heterotrophic cultivable and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were carried out. Community composition of marine bacterioplankton was determined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Data obtained indicated that bioemulsificant addition stimulated an increase of total bacterial abundance and, in particular, selection of bacteria related to Alcanivorax genus; confirming that EPS2003 could be used for the dispersion of oil slicks and could stimulate the selection of marine hydrocarbon degraders thus increasing bioremediation process.


Assuntos
Alcanivoraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcanivoraceae/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Poluição por Petróleo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Biota , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , /genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(1): 117-125, ene. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-726609

RESUMO

Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser) is native evergreen specie from Chile and Argentina used in traditional medicine. In this study, chemical composition as well as its in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus of essential oil from leaves of this species was determinated. Chemical analysis by GC-MS resulted in the identification of 19 compounds representing 98.8 percent onoterpenes; linalool (32.3 percent) and eucalyptol (37.4 percent) were the main constituents. To evaluate the antibacterial activity disc diffusion method and broth dilution method were used. The essential oil exhibited inhibitory activity against Gram (-) and Gram (+) bacteria, whereas similar activity to essential oil was showed for linalool against E. aerogenes and S. epidermidis whereas linalool alone, achieves an inhibitory effect against E. aerogenes and S. epidermidis comparable to the essential oil.


Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser) es una especie siempre verde nativa de Chile y Argentina usado en medicina tradicional. En este estudio se determinó tanto la composición química del aceite esencial obtenido a partir de hojas de esta especie, así como su actividad antibacterial in vitro contra Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. El análisis químico por GC-MS permitió la identificación de 19 compuestos, representando el 98,8 por ciento de la composición del aceite. Monoterpenos oxigenados, eucaliptol y linalol fueron los mayores constituyentes del aceite con un 37,4 por ciento y 32,3 por ciento respectivamente. Para evaluar la actividad antibacteriana se utilizaron los métodos de difusión en agar y dilución en caldo. El aceite esencial muestra actividad inhibitoria contra las bacterias Gram (-) y Gram (+) evaluadas, mientras que linalol por si solo logra un efecto inhibitorio comparable con el aceite esencial contra E. aerogenes y S. epidermidis mientras que el linalol por si solo, logra un efecto inhibitorio contra E. aerogenes y S. epidermidis comparable al del aceite esencial.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Ésteres/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/análise
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 117-126, 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-709461

RESUMO

Diesel oil biodegradation by different bacteria-yeast-rhamnolipids consortia was tested. Chromatographic analysis of post-biodegradation residue was completed with chemometric tools (ANOVA, and a novel ranking procedure based on the sum of ranking differences). These tools were used in the selection of the most effective systems. The best results of aliphatic fractions of diesel oil biodegradation were observed for a yeast consortia with Aeromonas hydrophila KR4. For these systems the positive effect of rhamnolipids on hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed. However, rhamnolipids addition did not always have a positive influence on the biodegradation process (e.g. in case of yeast consortia with Stenotrophomonas maltophila KR7). Moreover, particular differences in the degradation pattern were observed for lower and higher alkanes than in the case with C22. Normally, the best conditions for "lower" alkanes are Aeromonas hydrophila KR4 + emulsifier independently from yeasts and e.g. Pseudomonas stutzeri KR7 for C24 alkane.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Gasolina , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos , Biotransformação , Cromatografia
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 778-784, set. 2013. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-685498

RESUMO

The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39) represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Hidrocarbonetos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Triatoma/química , Análise de Variância , Alcanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 595-605, 2013. graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688592

RESUMO

In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas putida/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 639-647, 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688595

RESUMO

The petroleum-derived degrading Dietzia cinnamea strain P4 recently had its genome sequenced and annotated. This allowed employing the data on genes that are involved in the degradation of n-alkanes. To examine the physiological behavior of strain P4 in the presence of n-alkanes, the strain was grown under varying conditions of pH and temperature. D. cinnamea P4 was able to grow at pH 7.0-9.0 and at temperatures ranging from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. Experiments of gene expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR throughout the complete growth cycle clearly indicated the induction of the regulatory gene alkU (TetR family) during early growth. During the logarithmic phase, a large increase in transcriptional levels of a lipid transporter gene was noted. Also, the expression of a gene that encodes the protein fused rubredoxin-alkane monooxygenase was enhanced. Both genes are probably under the influence of the AlkU regulator.


Assuntos
Actinomycetales/genética , Actinomycetales/metabolismo , Alcanos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Actinomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biotransformação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Temperatura
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1576-1581, Oct.-Dec. 2012. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-665845

RESUMO

Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida. are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa. to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms.


Assuntos
Biorremediação (Saúde Ambiental)/análise , Ecossistema , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Oligoquetos , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Solo/análise , Toxicidade/análise , Microbiologia Ambiental , Metodologia
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 865-872, July-Sept. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-656646

RESUMO

Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Halobacteriales/isolamento & purificação , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/isolamento & purificação , Petróleo/análise , Solos Salitrosos , Metodologia
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