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Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 749-756, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974295


ABSTRACT Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation. The experimental design resulted in an efficient pyrene degradation, reducing the experiment time while the PAH concentration applied in the assays was increased. The selected fungus was able to degrade almost 100% of pyrene (0.08 mg mL-1) after 48 h of incubation under saline condition, without generating toxic compounds and with a TOC reduction of 17%. Intermediate metabolites of pyrene degradation were identified, suggesting that the fungus degraded the compound via the cytochrome P450 system and epoxide hydrolases. These results highlight the relevance of marine-derived fungi in the field of PAH bioremediation, adding value to the blue biotechnology.

Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Filogenia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Pirenos/metabolismo , Pirenos/química , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Benzo(a)pireno/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 551-562, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-788953


ABSTRACT The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94 ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R2 = 1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site.

Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Pseudomonas/genética , Pirenos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Crisenos/metabolismo , Naftalenos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/química
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 937-941, July-Sept. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755825


In this study, we evaluated the effect of low and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., Phenanthrene, Pyrene and Benzo[a]pyrene, on the radial growth and morphology of the PAH-degrading fungal strains Aspergillus nomius H7 and Trichoderma asperellum H15. The presence of PAHs in solid medium produced significant detrimental effects on the radial growth of A. nomius H7 at 4,000 and 6,000 mg L−1 and changes in mycelium pigmentation, abundance and sporulation ability at 1,000–6,000 mg L−1. In contrast, the radial growth of T. asperellum H15 was not affected at any of the doses tested, although sporulation was observed only up to 4,000 mg L−1 and as with the H7 strain, some visible changes in sporulation patterns and mycelium pigmentation were observed. Our results suggest that fungal strains exposed to high doses of PAHs significantly vary in their growth rates and sporulation characteristics in response to the physiological and defense mechanisms that affect both pigment production and conidiation processes. This finding is relevant for obtaining a better understanding of fungal adaptation in PAH-polluted environments and for developing and implementing adequate strategies for the remediation of contaminated soils.


Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzo(a)pireno/farmacologia , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Pirenos/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Trichoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichoderma/metabolismo
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 19(12): 4809-4818, 12/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-727740


The study was conducted to evaluate the status of worker exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through the measurement of urinary metabolites such as 1-hydroxypyrene (OHP) and 2-naphthol. A survey using a questionnaire involving 326 workers with measurement of urinary metabolites of 1-OHP and 2-naphthol was conducted. The differences in urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol concentrations, and changes in work, smoking habits and lifestyle were analyzed. The number of male subjects was 314 (96.3%), the largest age group was the fifth decade (170 cases, 52.1%). The urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol concentrations were significantly higher in the production workers. The urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol concentrations were significantly higher in smokers. In a multiple regression model, log (1-OHP) increased in smokers and production workers, while log (2-naphthol) only increased in smokers. Our results suggest that workers in this factory were exposed to PAHs from non-occupational as well as occupational sources. The occupational exposure to PAHs can be reduced through the improvement of the process, but the exposure due to smoking can be prevented only by giving up smoking.

O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar o estado de exposição a hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs) em trabalhadores, por medição de metabólitos urinários, tais como 1-hidroxipireno (OHP) e 2-naftol. Foi realizada uma pesquisa por questionário envolvendo 326 trabalhadores e a mensuração dos metabólitos urinários de 1-OHP e 2-naftol. Foram analisadas as diferenças na urinária 1-OHP e as concentrações de 2-naftol e mudanças pelo trabalho, hábito de fumar e estilo de vida. O número de indivíduos do sexo masculino foi de 314 (96,3%), a maior faixa etária foi a quinta década (170 casos, 52,1 %). Com relação aos metabólitos urinários 1 -OHP e 2-naftol, as concentrações foram significativamente maiores nos trabalhadores produtivos. As concentrações dos metabólitos urinários 1-OHP e 2-naftol foram significativamente maiores nos fumantes. Em um modelo de regressão múltipla, log (1-OHP) aumentou em fumantes e em trabalhadores produtivos, enquanto que log (2-naftol) aumentou apenas em fumantes. Nossos resultados sugerem que os trabalhadores desta fábrica foram expostos tanto a HAPs de fontes não ocupacionais como ocupacionais. A exposição ocupacional a HAPs pode ser diminuída através da melhoria do processo, mas a exposição devido ao fumo só pode ser impedida interrompendo esse hábito.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indústria Química , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/envenenamento , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Dieta , Naftóis/urina , Pirenos/urina , República da Coreia , Fumar/urina
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 606-617, Apr.-June 2012. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-644477


Pyrene, a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a priority pollutant present in soil contaminated with crude oil, coal-tar and complex PAHs. Bacterial consortium CON-3 developed from crude oil contaminated soil of Patiala, Punjab (India) cometabolized 50 µg ml-1 pyrene in the presence of glucose (0.5 %; w/v) at 30 °C, as determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bacillus sp. PK-12, Bacillus sp. PK-13 and Bacillus sp. PK-14 from CON-3, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, were able to cometabolize 64 %, 55 % and 53 % of pyrene in 35 days, respectively. With the increase in glucose concentration to 1.0 % (w/v) in growth medium isolates PK-12, PK-13 and PK-14 showed 19 - 46 % uptake of 50 µg ml-1 pyrene in 4 days, respectively. Uptake of pyrene was correlated with growth and biosurfactant activity, which is suggestive of the potential role of members of Bacillus genera in pyrene mobilization and its uptake.

Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Poluição Ambiental , Técnicas In Vitro , Petróleo/análise , Pirenos/análise , Pirenos/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Métodos , Solo
Braz. j. microbiol ; 40(4): 884-892, Oct.-Dec. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-528171


Benzo [a] Pyrene (BaP) is a highly recalcitrant, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with high genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. It is formed and released into the environment due to incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and various anthropogenic activities including cigarette smoke and automobile exhausts. The aim of present study is to isolate bacteria which can degrade BaP as a sole source of carbon and energy. We have isolated a novel strain BMT4i (MTCC 9447) of Bacillus subtilis from automobile contaminated soil using BaP (50 ìg /ml) as the sole source of carbon and energy in basal salt mineral (BSM) medium. The growth kinetics of BMT4i was studied using CFU method which revealed that BMT4i is able to survive in BaP-BSM medium up to 40 days attaining its peak growth (10(29) fold increase in cell number) on 7 days of incubation. The BaP degradation kinetics of BMT4i was studied using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of BaP biodegradation products. BMT4i started degrading BaP after 24 hours and continued up to 28 days achieving maximum degradation of approximately 84.66 percent. The above findings inferred that BMT4i is a very efficient degrader of BaP. To our best of knowledge, this is the first report showing utilization of BaP as a sole source of carbon and energy by bacteria. In addition, BMT4i can degrade a wide range of PAHs including naphthalene, anthracene, and dibenzothiophene therefore, it could serve as a better candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites.

Bacillus subtilis/isolamento & purificação , Genotoxicidade , Pirenos/análise
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(7): 980-985, Nov. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-534162


The in vitro activity of four 2-nitropropene derivatives, 1-(3-benzothienyl)-2-nitropropene (N1), 1-(3-thienyl)-2-nitropropene (N2), 1-(5-bromo-2-thienyl)-2-nitropropene (N3) and 1-(4-bromo-2-thienyl)-2-nitropropene (N4), were tested against cultures of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using Vero cells. The blood trypomastigotes, amastigotes and epimastigotes showed differential degrees of sensitivity towards the four tested compounds; the highest activity against the epimastigotes and blood tripomastigotes was exhibited by N1, followed by N3, N4 and finally N2. In contrast, whereas the compounds N1, N3 and N4 exerted similar magnitudes of activity against amastigotes, N2 was found to be a much less potent compound. According to our results, the compound N1 had the highest level of activity (IC50: 0.6 ìM) against epimastigotes.

Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Variância , Chlorocebus aethiops , Pirenos/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Vero
São Paulo; s.n; 18 set. 2007. 95 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-494807


Os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAS) são uma classe de substâncias químicas que podem ser geradas na combustão de matéria orgânica, e 17 destas substâncias são consideradas como poluentes prioritários pela Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos EUA (US EPA), em função de seu potencial tóxico e carcinogênico. Para identificar e quantificar os HPAS no ambiente de trabalho por cromatografia gasosa / espectrometria de massas, foram realizadas coletas de amostras ambientais em um incinerador de resíduos de serviços de saúde localizado na região da grande São Paulo e em três fundições de metais nas cidades de Loanda e Santa Isabel do Ivaí, no Estado do Paraná. A concentração de HPAs totais nas amostras ambientais coletadas no Incinerador foi de 0,36 – 1, 72 µg/m3, na Fundição 1 de 0,72 – 4,56 µgm3, na Fundição 2 de 2,32 – 6,52 µg/m3, na Fundição 3 de 0,19 – 3,72 µg/m3. Foi realizada também a coleta de amostras biológicas de trabalhadores expostos e não expostos, para a identificação e quantificação do indicador biológico de exposição o 1-hidroxipireno por cromatografia líquida com detector de fluorescência. A concentração de 1-hidroxipireno nas amostrados biológicas dos trabalhadores no Incinerador apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante entre o grupo exposto e o grupo controle; na Fundição 1 houve diferença estatisticamente pouco significante entre os grupos estudados; nas Fundições 2 e 3 não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos estudados.

Biotransformação , Exposição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Exposição Ocupacional , Riscos Ocupacionais , Pirenos , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Saúde do Trabalhador
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 75(1): 33-38, Mar. 2003. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-331142


Bombardment of pyrene-doped n-heneicosane (C21H44) in its orthorhombic solid phase with <1.3> MeV broadband X-rays results in the formation of both mono- and di-heneicosylpyrenes, whereas the same dose in liquid cyclohexane yields only monosubstituted pyrene. In both cases, the reaction efficiency decreases as pyrene concentration is increased from 10-5 to 10-2 M. Qualitatively, the overall attachment efficiency is higher in orthorhombic n-heneicosane than in liquid cyclohexane, but the selectivity of attachment is greater in cyclohexane. Differences between these results and those from irradiations of the same samples with eV range photons are discussed

Alcanos , Cicloexanos , Pirenos , Alcanos , Cicloexanos , Pirenos
São Paulo; s.n; 2003. 162 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-348736


As informações sobre os efeitos adversos dos hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs) na saúde humana são de grande importância científica e social. O seu potencial carcinógeno, especialmente no que se refere ao câncer de pulmão e, em alguns casos, câncer de pele e da bexiga, é demonstrado por meio de diversos estudos epidemiológicos. Tais estudos somados ao fato de que os HAPs possam ser encontrados em diversos ambientes de trabalho, afetando diretamente vários trabalhadores expostos, demonstram a relevância deste trabalho. É preciso considerar ainda que a detecção precoce de uma exposição constitui-se, à luz dos atuais conhecimentos, em um importante fator de prevenção de riscos químicos ocupacionais...

Biotransformação , Carcinógenos Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Exposição Ocupacional , Riscos Ocupacionais , Pirenos , Biomarcadores , Saúde do Trabalhador , Toxicologia
RBCF, Rev. bras. ciênc. farm. (Impr.) ; 37(3): 356-361, set.-dez. 2001. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-314058


The quenchings of pyrene fluorescence by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles and stratum corneum lipids liposomes (SCLLs) were studied in order to verify the capacity of incorporation of 5-ALA in these systems. Static and dynamic quenching constants based on the simultaneous determination of fluorescence intensity quenching and fluorescence decay measurements were determined. 5-ALA was incorporated at crescent concentrations in SDS micelles and SCLLs containing the fluorescent probe (pyrene, 1,15 x '10 POT.menos 5 M') and the rate constants of quenching (kq) of pyrene were determined. 5-ALA was able to quench the fluorescence of the probe in both systems studied. A greater extent...

Ácido Aminolevulínico/análise , Ácido Aminolevulínico/uso terapêutico , Fluorescência , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia , Pirenos , Corantes Fluorescentes , Micelas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência