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1.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(1): 19-31, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-973613

RESUMO

Los piretroides son insecticidas ampliamente usados no sólo en el ámbito agropecuario y doméstico sino también en salud pública. Una vez absorbidos, son rápidamente metabolizados a compuestos polares eliminados por vía renal. Uno de los metabolitos común a un gran número de piretroides es el ácido 3-fenoxibenzoico (3-PBA) el cual es utilizado como marcador de exposición. Se presenta en este trabajo, la validación de una metodología analítica para la determinación del 3-PBA utilizando QuEChERS acoplado a microextracción líquido-líquido dispersiva con tricloroetileno como disolvente extractivo y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución con detector de foto-arreglo de diodos. La validación se realizó con muestras aisladas de orina de voluntarios adultos de ambos sexos sin exposición conocida y orina sintética. El método resultó lineal en el intervalo 9 μg L-1-79 μg L-1; los límites de detección y cuantificación fueron de 3 μg L-1 y 9 μg L-1, respectivamente. No se observaron señales de interferentes a los tiempos de retención del 3-PBA y del ácido 2-fenoxibenzoico (2-PBA), estándar interno, en las muestras de orina blanco. Las señales cromatográficas en las muestras enriquecidas fueron espectralmente homogéneas. Las precisiones intradiarias (RSDr%) (n= 5) para 9 μg L-1 estuvieron comprendidas entre 9,3%-9,9% y para 27 μg L-1 entre 5,9%-10,6%. Las precisiciones interdiarias (RSDint%) (n=15) para los mismos niveles de concentración fueron de 11,8% y 9,1%, respectivamente. El rango de porcentajes de recuperación para 9 μg L-1 fue de 87%-119% y para 27 μg L-1 de 70%-91%. Se evaluó la estabilidad del analito en la muestra y en el extracto. El analito resultó estable a -20 °C durante 7 días en la muestra y durante 1 día en el extracto. Los valores de incertidumbre relativa e incertidumbre expandida fueron evaluados mediante la ecuación de Horwitz, los resultados obtenidos fueron para el nivel 9 μg L-1 de 33% y 65% y para el nivel 27 μg L-1 de 28% y 55%. La aplicabilidad del método validado fue evaluada con muestras reales de personas sin exposición laboral conocida, quienes declararon haber usado insecticidas piretroides. El método resultó sensible y selectivo.


Pyrethroid insecticides are used not only in the agricultural and domestic environment, but also in public health. Once absorbed, they are rapidly metabolized into polar compounds eliminated by the kidneys. One of the metabolites common to many pyrethroids is 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) which are used to evaluate exposure. We present in this paper the validation of an analytical methodology for the determination of 3-PBA using QuEChERS coupled to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with trichloroethylene as an extractive solvent and high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Validation was carried out with isolated samples of urine from adult volunteers of both sexes without exposure and synthetic urine. The method was linear in the interval 9 μg L-1-79 μg L-1; the limit of detection and quantitation were 3 μg L-1 and 9 μg L-1, respectively. Interfering signals were not observed in the blank urine samples and the chromatographic signals in the enriched samples were spectrally homogeneous. The within-run precision (RSDr%) (n = 5) for 9 μg L-1 were between 9.3%-9.9% and for 27 μg L-1 between 5.9%-10.6%. The between-run precision (RSDint%) (n = 15) for the same concentration levels were 11.8% and 9.1%, respectively. The recovery for 9 μg L-1 ranged from 87%-119% and for 27 μg L-1 from 70%-91 %. The stability of the analyte was evaluated in the sample and in the extract. The analyte in the sample was stable at -20 °C for 7 days and in the extract was stable for 1 day. The values of relative uncertainty and expanded uncertainty obtained by the Horwitz equation were 33% and 65% for 9 μg L-1, and 28% and 55% for 27 μg L-1. The applicability of the validated method was evaluated with real samples of people without known occupational exposure, who declared having used pyrethroid insecticides. The method was sensitive and selective.


Assuntos
Humanos , Piretrinas/envenenamento , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/urina , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Inseticidas/envenenamento , Inseticidas/toxicidade
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(2): 97-104, fev. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833981

RESUMO

A survey of veterinary drug residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was carried out through a broad scope analysis. Here, 132 raw milk samples were collected at 45 dairy farms in Minas Gerais from August 2009 to February 2010, and analyzed for 42 analytes, comprising pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Within all milk samples, at least one veterinary drug residue was identified in 40 milk samples (30.30%) by confirmatory tests, whereas 16 samples (12.12%) showed the presence of at least two residues. With regard to the Brazilian maximum residue levels, 11 milk samples (8.33%) were non-compliant according to Brazilian Legislation. The veterinary drugs detected in the non-compliant milk samples include penicillin V (one sample), abamectin (one sample) and cypermethrin (nine samples). Furthermore, the antibacterial screening methods failed to identify most of the positive samples that were detected by confirmatory tests, leading to a large discrepancy between the screening and confirmatory antimicrobial tests. Thus, the present study indicated that the veterinary drugs residues still represents a great concern for the milk production chain.(AU)


Avaliou-se a presença de 42 analitos, incluindo piretróides, lactonas macrocíclicas e antimicrobianos em 132 amostras de leite de tanque proveniente de 45 propriedades leiteiras localizadas no Estado de Minas Gerais. Para tal, utilizou-se a cromatografia líquida acoplada a espectrofotometria de massas tandem e cromatografia gasosa com detector com captura de elétrons. Dentre todas as amostras de leite, 40 (30,30%) amostras de leite de tanque apresentaram a presença de pelo menos um analito, enquanto 16 amostras (12,12%) de leite demonstraram a presença de pelo menos dois analitos. Considerando os limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, 11 amostras de leite (8,33%) seriam consideradas como não conforme. Ademais, os testes de triagem para detecção de antimicrobianos no leite não conseguiram identificar a maioria das amostras positivas nos testes confirmatórios, levando a grande discrepância entre estes testes. Desta forma, os resultados do presente estudo indicam que os períodos de descarte do leite, especialmente para piretróides, não foram plenamente respeitados por todos os produtores de leite. Além disto, uma discrepância entre os resultados dos testes confirmatórios e os testes de triagem foi observada.(AU)


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Lactonas/análise , Leite/química , Piretrinas/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Bovinos , Praguicidas , Drogas Veterinárias/análise
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 108-115, Feb. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND New brands of potential long lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and LLIN treatment kits require field evaluation before they are used in a vector control programme. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-efficacy, usage, washing practice and physical integrity of nets treated with LLIN treatment kit, ICON MAXX in a phase III field trial in Odisha state, India. METHODS A total of 300 polyester nets treated with ICON MAXX and 140 polyester nets treated conventionally with lambda-cyhalothrin CS 2.5% ITNs were distributed. The bio-efficacy was evaluated with WHO cone bioassay. The chemical analysis of netting pieces was done at the beginning, after 12 and 36 months of the trial. FINDINGS After one year of distribution of nets, the bioassay showed 100% mortality on both ITNs and ICON MAXX treated nets. At 36 months, the overall pass rate was 58.8% and the mean lambda-cyhalothrin content of LLINs was 34.5 mg ai/m2, showing a loss of 44.4% of the original concentration. CONCLUSION ICON MAXX treated LLIN was found to retain bio-efficacy causing 97% knockdown of Anopheles stephensi up to 30 months and met the WHOPES criteria. However, the desired bio-efficacy was not sustained up to 36 months.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Bioensaio , Índia , Lavanderia/métodos , Malária/prevenção & controle
4.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e18, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-842766

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine the resistance of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets against repeated washing and environmental factors by using bioassay tests. After 5, 15 and 21 washings with detergents and by using bioassay tests, the resistance of 40 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets was compared with that of 40 bed nets conventionally treated with one K-O tablet. To examine the long-term resistance, 31 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets were also distributed among villagers, and were re-collected to perform bioassay tests after 1, 2 and 5 years. In the first phase of this study, the insecticidal effect of the conventionally-treated nets significantly decreased due to repeated washings (P < 0.001); however, it was not significant regarding PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets (P = 0.92 in continuous exposure and P = 0.12 in mortality tests). In the long-term phase of this study, the time required for knockdown of PermaNet® 2.0 increased over the first 2 years and then decreased. In addition, the mortality rate decreased over the first 2 years and then increased. In conclusion, it seems that the technique used by the manufacturer for impregnation of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets has an acceptable efficiency in comparison with conventional techniques.


Assuntos
Animais , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Nitrilos , Piretrinas , Bioensaio , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Lavanderia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(6): 1721-1726, nov.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827955

RESUMO

The present study attempted to identify climate conditions that are associated with the occurrence of pyrethroid residues using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Minas Gerais State - Brazil and analyzed for seven analytes using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Of the 132 milk samples, pyrethroid residues were identified in 14 (10.6%) milk samples, of which 12 (9.1%) and two (1.5%) milk samples had the identification of cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. From those samples, nine (6.8%) milk samples were regarded as non-compliant for cypermethrin with this analyte concentration above the maximum residue limits set by Brazilian legislation. A PCA assessing pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk demonstrated that the average temperature and the Temperature-Humidity Index were associated with pyrethroids residues in bulk milk tank, although the relative humidity was inversely correlated. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the pyrethrid residues associated with some climate conditions can predict the moments with higher risk of occurrence of pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk.(AU)


O presente trabalho objetivou identificar fatores climáticos associados à ocorrência de resíduos de piretroides em amostras de leite de tanque por análise multivariada de componentes principais (ACP). Para o presente trabalho, 132 amostras de leite cru foram coletadas em fazendas leiteiras localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil) e analisadas por sete analitos por cromatografia gasosa com detector por captura de eletróns para detecção de resíduos de piretroides. Das 132 amostras de leite analisadas, a presença de resíduos de piretroides foi detectada em 14 amostras (10,6%), e em 12 (9,1%) e duas (1,5%) foram detectados cipermetrina e deltametrina, respectivamente. Destas amostras, em nove (6,8%) a concentração de cipermetrina encontrada foi maior que a permitida pela legislação brasileira. A ACP demonstrou que a presença de resíduos de piretroides no leite de tanque ocorreu menos frequentemente nos dias com maior umidade relativa, embora a presença desses resíduos estivesse associada a maior temperatura média e a maior índice de temperatura e umidade. Dessa forma, conclui-se que alguns índices climáticos podem predizer períodos com maior risco de ocorrência de resíduos de piretroides no leite de tanque.(AU)


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Leite/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Bovinos
6.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2016. 77 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-943156

RESUMO

A persistência do Triatoma infestans e a transmissão contínua de Trypanosoma cruzinos Vales Inter-Andinos e no Grande Chaco da Bolívia são de grande importância. Na última década, focos silvestres desta espécie foram descritos em amplas áreas, na qual o alcance das estratégias de controle do vetor é limitado, sendo frequentes os relatos de resistência do T. infestans a inseticidas, que incluem populações silvestres e domésticas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o perfil de suscetibilidade (1) e hereditariedade (2) de populações silvestres e domésticas de T. infestans da Bolívia à deltametrina, bem como descrever a área de distribuição das populações resistentes a diferentes piretróides na América do Sul (3). 1) Foram avaliadas nove populações de T. infestans silvestres e domésticas do Grande Chaco e dos Vales Inter-Andinos da Bolívia. Três amostras silvestres de T. infestans(dark morph) do Chaco (Santa Cruz) foram suscetíveis a deltametrina (RR50 de <2), com 100% de mortalidade em resposta a dose diagnóstica (DD). A população doméstica de Villa Montes do Grande Chaco (Tarija) apresentou altos níveis de resistência (RR50 = 129,12 e 0% DD).


Do mesmo modo, as populações domésticas dos Vales Inter-Andinos (Cochabamba) apresentaram RR50 > 9, sendo as populações silvestres menos suscetíveis, com RR50 >5 do que SRL. 2) Cruzamentos experimentais foram realizados entre uma colônia suscetível RR50=0,62 (S), uma resistente RR50=129,12 (R) e com susceptibilidade reduzida RR50=5,04 (SR), em ambas as direções (♀x♂ e ♂x♀). O modo de herança do caráter resistente foi determinado pelo grau de dominância (DO) e dominância efetiva (DML). A hereditariedade (h2) foi estimada a partir da colônia R selecionada durante duas gerações, utilizando a dose diagnóstica (10 ng.i.a./ninfa).


O resultado para DO e DML (<1) indica que a resistência é um caráter de dominância incompleta e de herança autossômica. A Dose Letal 50% (DL50) para F1 de ♀Sx♂R e ♂Sx♀R foi de 0,74 e 3,97 respectivamente, revelando efeito de diluição da resistência inicialmente observada. Por outro lado, foi observado um incremento da RR50 de 2,25 vezes (F1) e 26,83 vezes (F2) na população selecionada em comparação com a colônia parental. 3) Foi compilado um total de 24 artigos que avaliaram a suscetibilidade a diferentes piretróides em 222 populações de T. infestans coletadas no campo dos países de Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil e Paraguai. A relação entre resistência aos inseticidas (avaliada por critérios diferentes) e diferentes variáveis ambientais foi estudada utilizando modelo linear generalizado. A DL50 mostrou uma forte relação linear com a RR50. Análise estatística descritiva demonstrou que a distribuição de frequência da Log (DL50) é bimodal, sugerindo a existência de dois grupos estatísticos (um grupo de menor e outro com maior Log (DL50). Finalmente, o modelo significativo incluindo 5 variáveis ambientais referentes a temperatura e precipitação, revelou concentração das populações com altas DL50 sobre a região identificada como o centro de dispersão de T. infestans. Os dados obtidos neste estudo contribuem com informações sobre a variabilidade do perfil de resistência, ocorrência e distribuição de populações resistentes na Bolívia


Assuntos
Animais , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Piretrinas/uso terapêutico , Triatoma/patogenicidade , Triatominae/patogenicidade , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitologia
7.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 20(supl.1): 4874-4883, Dec. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-769246

RESUMO

Objective. Due to the importance of controlling ectoparasites, associated with the necessity of technical knowledge on the safety of topical treatment with organophosphates, pyrethroids and piperonyl butoxide to the animal organism, this bioassay was carried out to evaluate the clinical safety of the association of dichlorvos (45%) + cypermethrin (5%) + piperonyl butoxide (25%) administered by spray on the skin of cattle, through the study of clinical parameters, biochemical, haematological and behavioral changes. Materials and methods. Sixteen crossbred animals with a mean age of 18 months, males and females grouped into two treatments with eight animals each: T1 (1:800 v/v) and T2 (1:200 v/v). Were collected blood samples at six different times: before treatment (BT), 24, 48, 72, 96 and 192 hours post treatment (HPT). Results. The antiparasitic association administered by spray on the skin did not result in changes in the enzymatic activity of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP, as well as in serum albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea and creatinine, demonstrating the safety of this antiparasitic compound for maintaining hepatic and renal functionality. The erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet studies showed no changes caused by treatments, and no clinical signs and behavioral changes were observed after treatment. Conclusions. These findings demonstrated good safety margin for spray treatment on the skin with this antiparasitic compound, even when administered at a dilution of 1:200 v/v, which is four times the dose recommended for ectoparasite control.


Objetivo. Debido a la importancia del control de ectoparásitos en bovinos, asociado a la necesidad de conocimientos técnicos sobre la seguridad del tratamiento tópico con organofosforados, piretroides y butóxido de piperonilo, se realizó este bioensayo para la evaluación de la seguridad clínica de la asociación de diclorvos (45%) + cipermetrina (5%) + butóxido de piperonilo (25%), administrado por aspersión en la piel del ganado bovino, a través del estudio de los parámetros clínicos, bioquímicos, hematológicos y comportamentales. Materiales y métodos. Dieciséis animales entre machos y hembras cruzados con edad media de 18 meses, agrupados en dos tratamientos de ocho animales cada uno: T1 (1:800 v/v) y T2 (1:200 v/v). Fueron colectadas muestras de sangre en seis momentos diferentes: antes del tratamiento (BT), 24, 48, 72, 96 y 192 horas post tratamiento (HPT). Resultados. La asociación antiparasitaria administrada por aspersión en la piel no alteró la actividad enzimática de ALT, AST, GGT y FA, así como la albúmina, triglicéridos, colesterol, urea y creatinina, que demuestra la seguridad de este compuesto antiparasitario en la función renal y hepática. El análisis de eritrocitos, leucocitos y plaquetas no mostraron cambios en los tratamientos, tampoco fueron observados signos clínicos y de comportamiento post tratamiento. Conclusiones. Estos resultados demostraron buen margen de seguridad en el tratamiento por aspersión en la piel con este compuesto antiparasitario, incluso cuando se administra en una dilución de 1:200 v/v, que es cuatro veces la dosis recomendada para el control de ectoparásitos.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Organofosfatos , Butóxido de Piperonila , Piretrinas , Rego por Aspersão
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 667-672, July-Sept. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755816

RESUMO

Pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin is a environmental pollutant because of its widespread use, toxicity and persistence. Biodegradation of such chemicals by microorganisms may provide an cost-effective method for their detoxification. We have investigated the degradation of cypermethrin by immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. strain CPN 1 in various matrices such as, polyurethane foam (PUF), polyacrylamide, sodium alginate and agar. The optimum temperature and pH for the degradation of cypermethrin by immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. were found to be 30 °C and 7.0, respectively. The rate of degradation of 10 and 20 mM of cypermethrin by freely suspended cells were compared with that of immobilized cells in batches and semi-continuous with shaken cultures. PUF-immobilized cells showed higher degradation of cypermethrin (10 mM and 20 mM) than freely suspended cells and cells immobilized in other matrices. The PUF-immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. strain CPN 1 were retain their degradation capacity. Thus, they can be reused for more than 32 cycles, without losing their degradation capacity. Hence, the PUF-immobilized cells of Micrococcus sp. could potentially be used in the bioremediation of cypermethrin contaminated water.

.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Células Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Micrococcus/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Alginatos , Ácido Glucurônico , Ácidos Hexurônicos , Micrococcus/classificação , Poliuretanos
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(4): 417-421, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755968

RESUMO

AbstractINTRODUCTION:

Despite chemical and physical vector control strategies, persistent infestations of Triatoma sordida have been reported in a large part of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the cause for this is little investigated. We aimed to characterize the deltamethrin toxicological profile in peridomestic T. sordidapopulations from Triângulo Mineiro area of Minas Gerais.

METHODS:

Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in seventeen peridomestic T. sordida populations. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2µL) were topically applied on the first instar nymphs (F1; five days old; fasting weight, 1.2 ± 0.2mg). Dose response results were analyzed using Probit software, and the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios were determined. Qualitative tests were also performed.

RESULTS:

The deltamethrin susceptibility profile of T. sordida populations revealed resistance ratios ranging from 0.84 to 2.8. The percentage mortality in response to a diagnostic dose was 100.0% in all populations.

CONCLUSIONS:

From our results, the lack of resistance to insecticides but persistent T. sordida infestations in the Triângulo Mineiro area may be because of: 1) environmental degradation facilitating dispersion of T. sordida , allowing colonization in artificial ecotopes; 2) operational failures; and 3) complexity of the peridomicile in the study area.These variables are being investigated.

.


Assuntos
Animais , Inseticidas , Nitrilos , Piretrinas , Triatoma , Bioensaio , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(4): 422-426, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755973

RESUMO

Abstract:INTRODUCTION:

Despite the recommendations by interpretation of resistance ratios obtained in laboratory bioassays, little is known about the actual impact of these results in the effectiveness of vector control activities in the field. In this context, our objective was to determine the mean value of different resistance ratios obtained by laboratory bioassays performed as part of the chemical control strategies of Triatoma sordida in the field.

METHODS:

Field bioassays were developed in Monte Azul and Coração de Jesus (Southeast, Brazil). In each location, samples were formed with three domestic units treated with alpha-cypermethrin 20.0% (Alfatek (r) 200 SC). One day after spraying, 10 fifth-instar nymphs remained in contact with the surfaces treated (adobe with plaster, adobe without plaster, or wood) with insecticide in plastic cones for 72h. Three cones were exposed inside the intradomicile and the peridomicile. The insects in the control group were exposed to an insecticide-free piece of cardboard. Mortality was measured 72h after removal of the insects from the treated surfaces. The tests were realized in triplicate.

RESULTS:

Mortality was 100.0% in all locations, except for Monte Azul; Landinho (96.6%) and Coração de Jesus; Barriguda (96.6%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Although the resistant populations in laboratory tests proved to be susceptible in the field, this observation is not sufficient to suggest that the cut-off points used to justify the resistance ratio should be changed. In this sense, we recommend that laboratory and field bioassays are carried out with a greater number of Triatominae populations to allow more in-depth consideration of the subject.

.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Insetos Vetores , Piretrinas , Triatoma , Bioensaio , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Resistência a Inseticidas
12.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 36(1): 79-92, jan.-jun. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-785281

RESUMO

Esse trabalho descreve a utilização doméstica de inseticidas pela população de Picos (Piauí, Brasil),identifica quais são os tipos de inseticidas mais utilizados e descreve a incidência de intoxicação e a consciência ambiental da população. Após visitas domiciliares (n=700), notou-se que a maioria dos entrevistados foi representada por mulheres (75%), com idade entre 31-55 anos (49%), ensino fundamental incompleto (38,1%) e renda familiar entre 1-2 salários mínimos (64%). A maioria das residências tem entre 1-3 moradores (48%), 85% dos entrevistados usam inseticidas escolhidos principalmente em propagandas de TV e radio e apenas 54% leem o rótulo antes de aplicar o produto. A forma de apresentação mais usada é o aerossol (70,7%). A maioria (79%) reconhece que inseticidas são maléficos à saúde, mas 74% não usam nenhum Equipamento de Proteção Individual (EPI). Sintomas de toxicidade foram relatados por 27%dos entrevistados. Duas mulheres relataram irritação, tonturas e problemas respiratórios e necessidade de intervenção médica e internação hospitalar. Todos os entrevistados descartam as embalagens como lixo comum, uma vez que em Picos não há coleta seletiva. Em conclusão, a maioria das pessoas usam inseticidas, conhecem sobre os riscos individuais e coletivos aos quais estão expostos mas não usam EPI mesmo acreditando que sejam tóxicos. Notou-se que aquisição de conhecimentos não resulta,necessariamente, em mudanças de comportamento, uma vez que o conhecimento não se traduz em atitudes e práticas preventivas adequadas, ressaltando-se a necessidade de campanhas de conscientização quanto à toxicidade e aos riscos ambientais, capacitação de profissionais e política fiscalizatória contra a venda indiscriminada.


This study described the use of household insecticides in Picos (Piauí, Brazil), identify which are the mostused types of insecticides and describes the incidence of poisoning and environmental awareness of the population. After home visits (n = 700), it was seen that the majority of respondents was represented by women (75%), with 31-55 years-old (49%), incomplete primary education (38.1%) and income between 1-2 earnings (64%). Most homes have between 1-3 residents (48%), 85% of the persons use insecticides mainly chosen in TV and radio and only 54% of them read the label before employing the product. The most used form of presentation is the aerosol (70.7%). Majority (79%) recognizes that insecticides are harmful to health, but 74% do not use any Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Symptoms of toxicity were reported by 27% of people interviewed. Two women reported irritation, dizziness and respiratory problems and need for medical intervention and hospitalization. All interviewed discard the package as regular trash, since Picos does not has selective collection. In conclusion, most people use insecticides, know about the individual and collective risks to which they are exposed but do not use PPE, though they believe insecticides are toxic. It was noted that acquisition of knowledge does not necessarily result in behavioral changes, since learning does not translate into appropriate preventive attitudes and practices, emphasizing the requirement for awareness campaigns about toxicity and environmental risks, preparation of professionals and surveillance policy against indiscriminate sale.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Piretrinas , Toxicidade
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 310-318, 05/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-745973

RESUMO

House re-invasion by native triatomines after insecticide-based control campaigns represents a major threat for Chagas disease vector control. We conducted a longitudinal intervention study in a rural section (Area III, 407 houses) of Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, and used wing geometric morphometry to compare pre-spray and post-spray (re-infestant bugs) Triatoma infestans populations. The community-wide spraying with pyrethroids reduced the prevalence of house infestation by T. infestans from 31.9% to < 1% during a four-year follow-up, unlike our previous studies in the neighbouring Area I. Two groups of bug collection sites differing in wing shape variables before interventions (including 221 adults from 11 domiciles) were used as a reference for assigning 44 post-spray adults. Wing shape variables from post-spray, high-density bug colonies and pre-spray groups were significantly different, suggesting that re-infestant insects had an external origin. Insects from one house differed strongly in wing shape variables from all other specimens. A further comparison between insects from both areas supported the existence of independent re-infestation processes within the same district. These results point to local heterogeneities in house re-infestation dynamics and emphasise the need to expand the geographic coverage of vector surveillance and control operations to the affected region.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Triatoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Argentina , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Longitudinais , População Rural , Triatoma/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(2): 157-161, mar-apr/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-746229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite years of efforts towards the elimination of Triatoma infestans in Brazil, residual foci still persist in some areas of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. The persistence of these T. infestans populations in the country has two different origins of equal concern: operational failures or insecticide resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility profile of the residual Brazilian populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage was derived from Cipein/Argentina. The populations studied were manually collected using a dislodging agent in peridomiciles in the States of Bahia (Novo Horizonte) and of Rio Grande do Sul (Santa Rosa and Doutor Maurício Cardoso). Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied at the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed the mortality of a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (2.76ng a.i./nymph) determined for the susceptibility reference lineage. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. infestans populations revealed an RR50 ranging from 1.73 to 3.26. The mortality percentage in response to a diagnostic dose was 100%. The results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays corresponded for all populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance. .


Assuntos
Animais , Insetos Vetores , Resistência a Inseticidas , Nitrilos , Piretrinas , Triatoma , Bioensaio , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão
15.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. xvii,110 p. ilus, tab, graf, mapas.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-774291

RESUMO

No Brasil, diversas populações de Aedes aegypti são resistentes aos inseticidas mais utilizados, como o organofosforado temephos e o piretróide deltametrina. [...] O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar a eficácia despinosad em laboratório e em simulado de campo, bem como o efeito deste inseticida sobrepopulações brasileiras de Ae. aegypti após pressão de seleção. Em laboratório, após padronização de ensaio tipo dose-resposta, foram avaliados: (i) a eficácia do spinosad sobre sete populações brasileiras de Ae. aegypti com diferentes níveis de resistência aos inseticidas temephos e deltametrina através de ensaio tipo dose resposta; (ii) efeito da pressão de seleção com CL80 de spinosad por seis gerações sobre parâmentros biológicos(longevidade, repasto sanguíneo, proporção entre machos e fêmeas, cópula e oviposição),de populações de campo e da linhagem Rockefeller...


In Brazil, several populations of Aedes aegypti are resistant to commonly used insecticidessuch as the pyrethroid deltamethrin and the organophosphate temephos. [...] The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of spinosad in laboratory and simulatedfield and the effect of this insecticide on Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti after selectionpressure. In the laboratory, after standardization of dose-response assay, we evaluated (i)the efficacy of spinosad on seven populations with different levels of resistance to temephosand deltamethrin insecticides, and (ii) the effect of selection pressure with CL80 of spinosadon biological parameter settings (longevity, blood ingestion, ratio of males and females,copulation and oviposition) after six generations for two field populations and Rockefellerstrain...


Assuntos
Aedes , Carbamatos , Inseticidas Organoclorados , Piretrinas , Vírus Chikungunya , Dengue , Febre Amarela
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 905-911, 11/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-728805

RESUMO

The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i) the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii) feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.


Assuntos
Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Culex/fisiologia , Mosquiteiros , Malária/prevenção & controle , Culicidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inseticidas , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Nitrilos , Permetrina , Piretrinas
17.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(3): 473-482, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-726792

RESUMO

Introducción. El dengue es una enfermedad viral de transmisión vectorial de importancia en salud pública. La ausencia de una vacuna ha llevado a que las acciones de control se enfoquen principalmente en la disminución del mosquito vector. Sin embargo, estas estrategias tienen costos elevados. Las ovitrampas letales podrían contribuir de forma práctica en estrategias costo-efectivas para el control vectorial. Objetivo. Determinar el tipo de ovitrampas letales más eficiente para el control vectorial de Aedes aegypti , combinando diferentes tipos de insecticidas, sustrato de ovipostura e infusión atrayente. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se llevó a cabo en dos etapas. En la primera, se evaluaron en el laboratorio 18 ovitrampas diferentes provenientes de la combinación de insecticidas (deltametrina y permetrina), sustratos de ovipostura (toalla, dacrón y franela) e infusiones atrayentes (infusión de heno al 10 y 20 % y agua declorada). Para esta evaluación, las ovitrampas se colocaron en el interior de una jaula de evaluación y se liberaron 100 hembras grávidas de A. aegypti . Se seleccionaron las seis mejores ovitrampas con base en la mayor cantidad de oviposturas y en la menor emergencia larvaria. La segunda etapa consistió en evaluar las seis mejores ovitrampas en condiciones de campo. Resultados. Se observó una diferencia estadística entre las 18 ovitrampas en el laboratorio. Las que tenían deltametrina fueron las que presentaron los mejores resultados. En campo se observó que la ovitrampa más eficiente fue la compuesta por deltametrina, toalla e infusión de heno al 10 %. Conclusiones. La combinación de deltametrina, toalla y solución de heno al 10 % fue la más eficiente para la reducción vectorial de A. aegypti .


Introduction: Dengue fever is a vector-borne viral disease of major public health importance. In the absence of a vaccine, control measures are primarily focused on reducing the mosquito vector. However, these strategies are very expensive, and the use of lethal ovitraps could contribute, in a practical manner, to the design of cost-effective strategies for vector control. Objective: To determine the most efficient type of lethal ovitrap for Ae. aegypti vector control by combining different types of insecticides, oviposition substrates and attractant infusions. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in two stages. In the first, 18 different ovitraps resulting from the combination of insecticides (deltamethrin and permethrin), oviposition substrates (towel, dacron and flannel), and attractant infusion (10 and 20% hay infusion, and dechlorinated water) were evaluated in the laboratory. For this evaluation, ovitraps were placed into a mosquito holding cage, and 100 gravid Ae. aegypti females were released. The top six ovitraps were selected based on the higher number of registered eggs, and the lower hatched eggs percentage. In the second, the top six ovitraps were evaluated in field conditions. Results: In laboratory conditions, statistical differences were observed between the 18 ovitraps. The ovitraps with deltamethrin were the most efficient showing the best results. In field conditions, the ovitraps with the highest vector reduction were those combining deltamethrin/towel/10% hay infusion. Conclusions: The ovitrap combining deltamethrin, towel as oviposition substrate, and 10% hay infusion as attractant was the most efficient Ae. aegypti vector control.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Insetos Vetores , Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/virologia , Colômbia , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Desenho de Equipamento , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Larva , Nitrilos , Óvulo , Permetrina , Poaceae , Piretrinas , Fatores de Tempo , Saúde da População Urbana , Água
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 761-766, 09/09/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723987

RESUMO

The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level.


Assuntos
Animais , Insetos Vetores , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Triatoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Argentina , Bolívia , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Columbidae/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Resistência a Inseticidas , Imidazóis/química , Insetos Vetores/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Nitrocompostos/química , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Triatoma/classificação , Triatoma/metabolismo
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(4): 426-429, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-722301

RESUMO

Introduction Triatoma sordida is the most captured Triatomine species in the Brazilian artificial environment. In 2008, the discovery of three Triatomine populations with altered susceptibilities to deltamethrin highlighted the importance of investigating the genetic potential for resistance in triatomines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of peridomestic T. sordida populations in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods A susceptibility reference lineage derived from Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil was used. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 of the susceptibility reference lineage. Results Susceptibility profile characterization of T. sordida populations revealed resistance ratios (RR50s) ranging from 0.42 to 3.94. The percentage mortality in response to the diagnostic dose varied from 70% to 100%. A comparison of the results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays demonstrated a lack of correspondence for some populations. Conclusions We demonstrated that only T. sordida populations that present a RR50>1.0 have altered susceptibility, and the execution of simultaneous field and laboratory tests is required to understand the actual effect of vector control. A possible cause of the observed resistance ratios might be the continuous use of pyrethroids in Brazil since the 1980s. .


Assuntos
Animais , Insetos Vetores , Inseticidas , Nitrilos , Piretrinas , Triatoma , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 697-704, 06/2014.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-718080

RESUMO

The acute intoxication of Cypermethrin in Silver Catfish (Rhamdia quelen) was evaluated. Animals weighing 56.67±4.43g and measuring 18.92±1.16cm were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin for the species in hydrological conditions during 96 hours. A total of 52 fish divided into three groups were used and received the following concentrations of Cypermethrin: 0 (n=12); 1.5 (n=20) and 2.5 (n=20)mg/L. The intoxicated animals suffered behavioral changes such as loss of balance, swimming alteration, dyspnea, upright swimming and sudden spiral swimming movements. As soon as the 96-hour period was over, a blood collection for hematological and biochemical analyses was performed. A complete haemogram test, plasmatic protein test, albumin, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were studied. The values of erythrocytes, hematocrits, haemoglobin, total number of leukocytes, thrombocyte, ALT, AST and ALP changed according to the groups. The results have shown that the environmental contamination by Cypermethrin is toxic to the species...


Avaliou-se a intoxicação aguda da cipermetrina em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen). Jundiás que pesavam 56,67±4.43g e mediam 18,92±1,16cm foram expostos a concentrações subletais de cipermetrina para a espécie em 96 horas, via hídrica, utilizando-se 52 peixes, distribuídos em três grupos, segundo a concentração de cipermetrina: 0 (n = 12); 1,5 (n = 20) e 2,5 (n = 20)mg/L. Os animais intoxicados apresentaram alterações comportamentais, como perda de equilíbrio, dispneia, natação na posição vertical e movimentos bruscos de natação em espiral. Após 96 horas de exposição, foi coletado sangue para análises de hemograma completo, proteína plasmática, albumina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e gamaglutamiltransferase. Os valores de eritrócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina, número total de leucócitos, número total de plaquetas, ALT, AST e ALP diferiram entre os grupos. Os resultados demonstraram que a contaminação ambiental por cipermetrina é tóxica para a espécie...


Assuntos
Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Piretrinas/envenenamento , Sintomas Toxicológicos , Inseticidas/envenenamento
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