Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Mais filtros

Filtros aplicados

Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e00153, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001583


Pyrimidine derivative 3 was afforded through the reaction of compound (1) with 5-ureidohydantion (2). Product 3 underwent a cyclization to produce fused pyrimidine derivative 7, although the latter product 7 was synthesized through one step via the reaction of compound (1) with 5-ureidohydantion (2) using another catalyst. Compound 3 was oriented to react with cyclic ketones 8a,b in the presence of elemental sulfur, salicylaldehyde (10), aryldiazonium chlorides 12a,b and ω-bromo-4-methoxy- acetophenone (14), which afforded, fused thiophene derivatives 9a,b, coumarin derivative 11, arylhdrazono derivatives 13a,b and 4-methoxyphenyl butenyl derivative 15, respectively. The latter product 15 was reacted with either potassium cyanide (16a) or potassium thiocyanide (16b) to form cyano and thiocyano derivatives 17a,b, respectively. Compound 17a underwent further cyclization to afford pyridopyrimidine derivative 19. Compound 15 was reacted with either hydrazine (20a) or phenylhydrazine (20b) to produce hydrazo derivatives 21a,b and these products were cyclize to produce pyrrole derivatives 23a,b. Finally, 5-ureidohydantion (2) was reacted with compounds 24a,b,c to afford pyrimidine derivatives 25a,b,c. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Compounds 11 and 19 have promising as analgesic and antipyretic activities

Piridinas/análise , Pirimidinas/agonistas , Pirróis , Tiofenos/análise , Cumarínicos/análise , Antipiréticos , Analgésicos/classificação
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1328-1331, Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893136


SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to compare the Primary and Secondary stability of immediate implant placement with Alveolar Ridge Augmentation (ARA) and Strontium Ranelate (SR) as aids to enhance the stability using Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA). Fifty eight subjects ideal for immediate implants were assigned to two groups to compare the primary and secondary stability of the implant using Alveolar Ridge Augmentation and oral strontium ranelate. They were tested for primary stability on placement of the implant and after eight weeks of placement for secondary stability. The stability was measured using resonance frequency analysis. Both the procedures showed an improvement in the stability but the Alveolar Ridge Augmentation procedure showed a significantly better primary stability (P< .03) and the secondary stability (P<.00). The means of the implant stability quotient value (ISQ) for the Alveolar ridge augmentation procedure was 74.2 for primary stability, and 83.34 for secondary stability. With the enhancement of stability with both the procedures Alveolar Ridge Augmentation proved to be a better procedure to achieve successful results of an immediately placed implant.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la estabilidad primaria y secundaria de la colocación inmediata del implante con el aumento de reborde alveolar (ARA) y el ranelato de estroncio (SR) como ayudas para mejorar la estabilidad mediante el análisis de frecuencia de resonancia (RFA). Cincuenta y ocho sujetos, ideales para implantes inmediatos, fueron asignados a dos grupos para comparar las estabilidades primaria y secundaria del implante usando el aumento del reborde alveolar y el ranelato de estroncio oral. Se efectuaron pruebas de estabilidad primaria en la colocación del implante, y después de ocho semanas para la estabilidad secundaria. La estabilidad se midió utilizando análisis de frecuencia de resonancia. Ambos procedimientos mostraron una mejora en la estabilidad, sin embargo el procedimiento del aumento del reborde alveolar mostró una estabilidad primaria significativamente mejor (P <0,03) que la estabilidad secundaria (P <0,00). Las medias del valor de cociente de estabilidad del implante (ISQ) para el procedimiento de aumento de reborde alveolar fueron 74,2 para la estabilidad primaria y 83,34 para la estabilidad secundaria. Se observó una mejora de la estabilidad en ambos procedimientos, el aumento del reborde alveolar demostró ser un mejor procedimiento para lograr resultados exitosos del posicionamiento de implante inmediato.

Tiofenos/farmacologia , Implantes Dentários , Retenção em Prótese Dentária , Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar/métodos , Osseointegração
Acta cir. bras ; 32(10): 796-806, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886176


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the potential protective effects of erdosteine against the harmful effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the liver in an experimental rat model. Methods: Forty rats were divided into 4 groups. In the sham group, only the hepatic pedicle was mobilized. No other manipulation or treatment was performed. In the other groups, ischemia was achieved by clamping the hepatic pedicle for 60 min. After that, 90 min reperfusion was provided. In the control group, no treatment was given. In the perioperative treatment group, 100 mg/kg erdosteine was administered 2 hours before ischemia induction. In the preoperative treatment group, 100 mg/kg/day erdosteine was administered daily for ten days before the operation. At the end of the procedures, blood and liver samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological assessment. Results: Treatment with erdosteine ameliorated the histopathological abnormalities when compared with the control group. Furthermore, this treatment significantly decreased the serum liver function test values. It was also found that erdosteine ameliorated the oxidative stress parameters in both the perioperative and preoperative treatment groups. Conclusion: The current study is the first to have shown the favorable effects of erdosteine on the harmful effects of experimental hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Tioglicolatos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/patologia
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(9): e6314, 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888989


Strontium ranelate (SrRan) is a drug usually prescribed to treat osteoporosis, with proven effects of decreasing the risk of fractures and an indication of reducing the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to investigate the effects of SrRan as either a prophylactic or a treatment drug, using an OA rat model to assess pain behavior. A monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced knee joint OA model in Wistar rats was used. Thirty Wistar rats (both sexes, 60 days old) were distributed in five groups of 6 rats each: the control group, that received no intervention; a prophylactic group, that received oral administration of 25 mg·kg-1·day-1 of SrRan for 28 days before induction of OA; a group treated with 25 mg·kg-1·day-1 of SrRan for 28 days after OA induction; a group treated with 50 mg·kg-1·day-1 during 28 days after OA induction; and a group that received oral saline for 28 days after induction. The assessment of pain behavior was performed considering articular incapacitation (weight-bearing test), mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall Selitto test) and motor activity (rotarod test), on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. This experiment did not yield a significant difference when comparing the group that received SrRan prophylactically with the groups treated with 25 or 50 mg·kg-1·day-1 and the group that received oral saline. Thus, SrRan did not provide analgesia in either treated rats or as a prophylactic drug with the tested doses. Higher doses should be tested further to achieve possible significant results.

Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ratos Wistar
Braz. dent. j ; 27(5): 502-507, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828046


Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with strontium ranelate (SR) on the repair of bone defects and molecular components of bones in femurs. Adult female rats (n=27) were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or Sham surgery. Thirty days after surgery, a defect was made in the femur and the animals were then divided into three groups: OVX, SHAM and OVX+SR. Euthanasia was performed four weeks after the bone defect surgery. Repair in bone defect was assessed by computed microtomography (μCT) and chemical composition of cortical bone was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the newly formed bone in the OVX+SR group was significantly higher than that for the OVX group. The collagen maturity in the OVX+SR group was smaller than in the other two groups. In this group, a significant increase in the amount of strontium (Sr) and a decrease in the amount of calcium (Ca) embedded to bone tissue were also observed. Systemic treatment with SR improved microarchitecture of the newly formed bone inside the defect, but decreased cross-linking of mature collagen in cortical bone.

Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar os efeitos do tratamento com ranelato de estrôncio (RE) na reparação de defeitos ósseos e componentes moleculares de ossos nos fêmures. Ratas adultas (n = 27) foram submetidas a ovariectomia (OVX) ou cirurgia Sham. Trinta dias após a cirurgia, um defeito foi feito no fêmur e os animais foram então divididos em três grupos: OVX, SHAM e OVX+RE. A eutanásia foi realizada quatro semanas após a cirurgia de preparo do defeito ósseo. A reparação do defeito ósseo foi avaliada por microtomografia computorizada (μCT) e a composição química do osso cortical foi analisada por espectroscopia de infravermelho de transformada de Fourier (FTIR) e espectroscopia por energia dispersiva de raios X (EDS). A espessura do osso trabecular (Tb.Th) recém formado no grupo OVX+SR foi significativamente maior que a do grupo OVX. A maturidade do colágeno no grupo OVX+SR foi menor do que nos outros dois grupos. Neste grupo, observou-se também um aumento significativo na quantidade de estrôncio (Sr) e uma diminuição na quantidade de cálcio (Ca) no tecido ósseo. O tratamento sistêmico com RE melhorou a microarquitetura do osso recém formado dentro do defeito, mas diminuiu a reticulação do colágeno maduro no osso cortical.

Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Ovariectomia , Ratos Wistar , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral/métodos
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(1): 54-59, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-774619


ABSTRACT Objective Vertebral fracture is the most common osteoporotic fracture, affecting quality of life and increasing mortality. Epidemiological data on incidence of vertebral fracture are scarce in Brazil and throughout Latin America. Our aim was to determine vertebral fracture incidence and risk factors in a female Brazilian population. Subjects and methods Postmenopausal women with low bone mass were studied from the Brazilian placebo group of Arzoxifene Generations Trial (n = 974), followed for up to 5 years. The primary endpoint was new vertebral fractures, detected by X-Ray. Experimental design defined two strata: A. Osteoporosis or previous vertebral fracture with osteopenia; B. Osteopenia without previous fracture. Previous fracture, T-score, ionized calcium, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and glucose were analyzed at baseline. Crude and adjusted incidence rates of vertebral fractures were estimated and Poisson regression model was used. Results Incidence rate was 7.7 (95% CI of 5.4 to 10.9) per 1,000 person-years (PY), increasing as a function of age. Women with new vertebral fractures had higher prevalence of previous nonvertebral fracture after menopause, were older and had lower lumbar spine (LS) T-score. Fracture risk increased by 46% for each unit reduction in LS T-score. Variables correlated with new vertebral fracture were age (p = 0.034), LS T-score, stratum A (p = 0.001 for both) and previous nonvertebral fracture after menopause (p = 0.019). In the final model, LS T-score was the strongest predictor. Conclusions Incidence rate of vertebral fracture of 7.7 per 1,000 PY. Age and previous fractures were associated with new vertebral fracture, but LS T-score was the most important predictor.

Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/complicações , Pós-Menopausa , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Incidência , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-758432


O presente trabalho teve por objetivo validar métodos por espectrofotometria UV-Vis e por CLAE para a análise quantitativa de um derivado do tiofeno, o 2-[(3,4-dicloro-benzilideno)-amino]-5,6-diidro-4H-ciclopen-ta[b]tiofeno-3-carbonitrila (5CN05) e aplicá-los no doseamento da molécula contida em microemulsões, Os métodos propostos foram validados conforme a Resolução 899/2003 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA), O comprimento de onda de máxima absorção do fármaco 5CN05 foi detectado em λ max= 387nm, O método espectrofotométrico validado mostrou-se seletivo, apresentando linearidade na faixa de 3 a 16 µg.mL-1, coeficiente de correlação (r) igual a 0,9998 e limites de detecção e quantificação de 0,12 µg.mL-1 e 0,41 µg.mL-1, respectivamente, Para o método CLAE, observou-se linearidade na faixa de 0,1 a 3,0 µg.mL-1, r = 0,99915, limites de detecção e quantificação de 0,07 µg.mL-1 e 0,10 µg.mL-1 respectivamente, Para ambos os métodos, os parâmetros precisão, exatidão e robustez mostraram-se adequados para o uso pretendido, As metodologias propostas podem ser seguramente aplicadas para quantificação do 5CN05 em produtos farmacêuticos como microemulsões...

This study aims to validate methods of Uv-Vis) and HPLC for quantitative determination of a thiophene derivative, 2 - [(3,4-dichloro -benzylidene)-amino] -5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopentyl-ta [b] thiophene-3- carbonitrile referred in this study as 5CN05, and apply them to quantify the 5CN05 in microemulsions. The proposed methods were validated according to the Resolution RE 899/2003 of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The 5CN05 was detected by UV-Vis at λ max= 387nm. The validated UVVis UVVis method proved to be selective, showing linearity in the range of 3-16 µg.mL-1, correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and limits of detection and quantification of 0.12 µg.mL-1 and 0.41 µg.mL-1 respectively. For the CLAE method the linearity was observed in the range 0.1 to 3.0 µg.mL-1, r = 0.99915, limits of detection and quantification of 0.07 µg.mL-1 and 0.10 µg.mL-1 respectively. For both UV-Vis and CLAE methods, the precision parameters, accuracy and robustness were adequate for the intended use. The proposed methodologies can be safely applied to quantify the 5CN05 in pharmaceutical microemulsions products...

Humanos , Antifúngicos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tiofenos/análise , Espectrofotometria/métodos
Clinics ; 70(5): 333-338, 05/2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-748272


OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the acute hemodynamic responses to multiple sets of passive stretching exercises performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. METHODS: Fifteen healthy men aged 21 to 29 years with poor flexibility performed stretching protocols comprising 10 sets of maximal passive unilateral hip flexion, sustained for 30 seconds with equal intervals between sets. Protocols without and with the Valsalva maneuver were applied in a random counterbalanced order, separated by 48-hour intervals. Hemodynamic responses were measured by photoplethysmography pre-exercise, during the stretching sets, and post-exercise. RESULTS: The effects of stretching sets on systolic and diastolic blood pressure were cumulative until the fourth set in protocols performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. The heart rate and rate pressure product increased in both protocols, but no additive effect was observed due to the number of sets. Hemodynamic responses were always higher when stretching was performed with the Valsalva maneuver, causing an additional elevation in the rate pressure product. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sets of unilateral hip flexion stretching significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product values. A cumulative effect of the number of sets occurred only for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, at least in the initial sets of the stretching protocols. The performance of the Valsalva maneuver intensified all hemodynamic responses, which resulted in significant increases in cardiac work during stretching exercises. .

Humanos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/farmacologia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ureia/farmacologia
Clinics ; 69(6): 438-446, 6/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-712695


Osteogenesis and bone remodeling are complex biological processes that are essential for the formation of new bone tissue and its correct functioning. When the balance between bone resorption and formation is disrupted, bone diseases and disorders such as Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, osteoporosis and fragility fractures may result. Recent advances in bone cell biology have revealed new specific targets for the treatment of bone loss that are based on the inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts or the stimulation of bone formation by osteoblasts. Bisphosphonates, antiresorptive agents that reduce bone resorption, are usually recommended as first-line therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Numerous studies have shown that bisphosphonates are able to significantly reduce the risk of femoral and vertebral fractures. Other antiresorptive agents indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis include selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody, is another antiresorptive agent that has been approved in Europe and the USA. This agent blocks the RANK/RANKL/OPG system, which is responsible for osteoclastic activation, thus reducing bone resorption. Other approved agents include bone anabolic agents, such as teriparatide, a recombinant parathyroid hormone that improves bone microarchitecture and strength, and strontium ranelate, considered to be a dual-action drug that acts by both osteoclastic inhibition and osteoblastic stimulation. Currently, anti-catabolic drugs that act through the Wnt-β catenin signaling pathway, serving as Dickkopf-related protein 1 inhibitors and sclerostin antagonists, are also in development. This concise review provides an overview of the drugs most commonly used for the control of osteogenesis in bone diseases.

Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/uso terapêutico , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 545-550, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723119


Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05) embedded in a microemulsion (ME). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05) showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270-540 µg.mL-1) and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 µg.mL-1). Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70-140 µg.mL-1), but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 µg.mL-1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans.

Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Emulsões/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 76(5): 282-287, set.-out. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-690605


OBJETIVO: determinar a prevalência de sinais e sintomas de doença da superfície ocular (OSD) em pacientes em uso crônico de hipotensores oculares tópicos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo transversal, foram recrutados 40 pacientes consecutivos, provenientes do ambulatório de glaucoma de um hospital público localizado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os mesmos deveriam apresentar: idade maior ou igual a 18 anos, diagnóstico de hipertensão ocular ou glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e deveriam estar em uso da mesma terapia hipotensora ocular há pelo menos seis meses. Foram considerados: sexo, idade, medicação utilizada e duração do tratamento. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação da superfície ocular que incluiu: entrevista por meio do questionário Ocular Surface Disease Index® (OSDI®), tempo de rotura do filme lacrimal, biomicroscopia, avaliação da superfície ocular com fluoresceína e com rosa Bengala. RESULTADOS: A média de pontuação do OSDI® foi 24,6 ± 20,7. A maioria dos pacientes (67,5%) apresentou uma pontuação anormal no questionário do OSDI®. Em 25% dos pacientes, a pontuação foi compatível com sintomas leves, em 12,5% com sintomas moderados e em 30% com sintomas graves. Blefarite e ceratite ponteada foram diagnosticadas em 42,5% e 20% dos pacientes respectivamente. Instabilidade do filme lacrimal foi observada em 75% dos pacientes, enquanto que alteração da superfície ocular foi evidenciada pelo teste de rosa bengala em 35% dos pacientes. Foi encontrada correlação positiva (r=0,4) estatisticamente significativa (p=0,01) entre a pontuação do OSDI® e o tempo de duração do tratamento com hipotensores oculares tópicos. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes em uso crônico de hipotensores oculares tópicos apresentam alta prevalência de sinais e sintomas de OSD. Existe correlação significativa entre a duração do tratamento e a gravidade dos sintomas de OSD.

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD) in patients using topical intraocular pressure-lowering therapy. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients were consecutively recruited from the glaucoma clinic of a public hospital located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Eligible patients were 18 years of age or older, with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and on the same topical ocular therapy for at least 6 months. The following data were considered: sex, age, medication history and number of years on topical intraocular pressure-lowering therapy. All patients underwent an evaluation of the ocular surface which included: an interview using the Ocular Surface Disease Index® (OSDI®) questionnaire, break-up time, biomicroscopy, fluorescein corneal staining and rose Bengal ocular surface staining. RESULTS: The mean OSDI® score was 24.6 ± 20.7. Most patients (67.5%) had an abnormal score on the OSDI® questionnaire. In 25% of patients, the score was consistent with mild symptoms, 12.5% ​​with moderate symptoms and 30% with severe symptoms. Blepharitis and punctate keratitis were diagnosed in 42.5% and 20% of patients respectively. Tear film instability was observed in 75% of patients and ocular surface staining with rose Bengal in 35%. A positive statistically significant correlation (r=0.4; p=0.01) was found between OSDI® scores and the duration of topical intraocular pressure-lowering therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension on topical intraocular pressure-lowering therapy have high prevalence of OSD. Longer duration since diagnosis is significantly correlated with worsening of OSD symptoms.

Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Timolol/uso terapêutico , Blefarite/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoresceína , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/prevenção & controle , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Doenças do Aparelho Lacrimal/diagnóstico , Microscopia Acústica/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(3): 277-282, set. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-686535


As plaquetas estão envolvidas em vários processos biológicos, desde o combate a agentes infecciosos até a coordenação do controle da permeabilidade vascular e angiogênese. Entretanto, o seu principal foco de ação consiste na modulação da cascata de coagulação. A intervenção coronariana percutânea é um procedimento com alto risco trombogênico, que induz a ativação plaquetária e de monócitos, devido à lesão direta do endotélio e pelo contato de estruturas trombogênicas com o sangue, levando ao aumento da atividade inflamatória, tanto no local do dano vascular coronariano como de forma sistêmica. Os receptores plaquetários P2Y12 desempenham papel central na amplificação da agregação induzida por todos os agonistas plaquetários, como a adenosina difosfato, o colágeno, tromboxano A2, adrenalina e serotonina. Por esse motivo, têm sido o principal alvo das drogas antiplaquetárias. Apesar de atuarem no mesmo receptor, características farmacocinéticas e farmacodinâmicas distintas conferem peculiaridades a cada agente.

Apart from their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are involved in many other biological processes such as wound healing and angiogenesis. Percutaneous coronary intervention is a highly thrombogenic procedure inducing platelets and monocytes activation through endothelial trauma and contact activation by intravascular devices. Platelet P2Y12 receptor activation by adenosine diphosphate facilitates non-ADP agonist-mediated platelet aggregation, dense granule secretion, procoagulant activity, and the phosphorylation of several intraplatelet proteins, making it an ideal drug target. However, not all compounds that target the P2Y12 receptor have similar efficacy and safety profiles. Despite targeting the same receptor, the unique pharmacologic properties of each of these P2Y12 receptor-directed compounds can lead to very different clinical effects.

Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , /farmacologia , /efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Tienopiridinas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(3): 263-269, 15/mar. 2013. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-670895


The N-acylhydrazone (NAH) analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785) and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786) were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294). The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip) reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control) to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05) or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05), respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05) or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01) or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip) prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv), providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10) increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO) to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05) or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05), respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD50) following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia.

Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de GABA/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Hidrazinas/química , Hidrazonas/química , Receptores de GABA/fisiologia , Tiofenos/química
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 10(1): 110-115, jan.-mar. 2012. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-621521


Oral anticoagulants are among the drugs with the greatest number of drug interactions. The concomitant use of several medications is a common practice in patients with cardiovascular problems, who often also present with depression; therefore, the probability of an interaction occurring between warfarin and the antidepressants is high, and may result in increased or decreased anticoagulant activity. Since the possible interactions between these two classes of drugs have been poorly explored in literature, with a risk to the patients who use them, we reviewed the pharmacology of warfarin and its possible interactions with antidepressants. Of the antidepressants analyzed, those that showed relevant effects on the interaction with warfarin were, in decreasing order: paroxetine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, and duloxetine.

Os anticoagulantes orais estão entre as drogas com maior número de interações medicamentosas. O uso concomitante de vários medicamentos é uma prática comum em pacientes com problemas cardiovasculares, os quais frequentemente também apresentam depressão; assim, a probabilidade de ocorrer alguma interação entre a varfarina e os antidepressivos é bem expressiva, podendo resultar em um aumento ou uma diminuição da atividade anticoagulante. Como as possíveis interações entre essas duas classes de medicamentos se mostraram pouco exploradas na literatura, com risco aos pacientes que fazem uso delas, revisamos a farmacologia da varfarina e suas possíveis interações com antidepressivos. Dos antidepressivos analisados, os que apresentaram efeitos relevantes na interação com a varfarina foram, em ordem decrescente: paroxetina, venlafaxina, fluoxetina e duloxetina.

Humanos , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Varfarina/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexanóis/farmacologia , /metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Paroxetina/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/farmacocinética , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 75(1): 11-15, jan.-fev. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-622538


PURPOSE: Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) has emerged as a viable option in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma. Our aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness of NPDS and to compare it to maximum medical treatment in a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: A decision analysis model was built. Surgical (NPDS) arm of the decision tree was observational (consecutive retrospective case series) and maximum medical treatment arm was hypothetical. Maximum medical therapy was considered a three-drug regimen (association of a fixed combination of timolol/dorzolamide [FCTD] and a prostaglandin analogue [bimatoprost, latanoprost or travoprost]). Cost-effectiveness ratio was defined as direct cost (US dollars) for each percentage of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Horizon was 5 years and perspective is from the public health care service in Brazil (SUS). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. RESULTS: Direct cost for each percentage of IOP reduction in 5 years (cost-effectiveness ratio) was US$ 10.19 for NPDS; US$ 37.45 for the association of a FCTD and bimatoprost; US$ 39.33 for FCTD and travoprost; and US$ 41.42 for FCTD and latanoprost. NPDS demonstrated a better cost-effectiveness ratio, compared to maximum medical therapy. The ICER was negative for all medical treatment options; therefore NPDS was dominant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, NPDS was both less costly and more effective than maximum medical therapy. From the Brazilian public health perspective, it was the most cost-effective treatment option when compared to maximum medical therapy (FCTD and prostaglandin).

OBJETIVO: A esclerectomia profunda não penetrante (EPNP) é uma opção viável para o tratamento cirúrgico do glaucoma de ângulo aberto. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a relação custo-efetividade da EPNP e compará-la com terapia clínica máxima (TCM) em um acompanhamento de 5 anos. MÉTODOS: Um modelo de análise de decisão foi proposto comparando-se o tratamento cirúrgico (EPNP) versus a TCM. A avaliação da EPNP foi observacional retrospectiva de uma série consecutiva de casos e da TCM foi hipotética. A TCM foi considerada como o uso de três drogas (associação de uma combinação fixa de timolol/dorzolamida [CFTD] e um análogo de prostaglandina [bimatoprosta, latanoprosta ou travoprosta]). A relação custo-efetividade foi definida com o custo direto (em dólares) para cada porcentual de redução da pressão intraocular (PIO). A razão de custo-efetividade incremental (ICER) foi calculada. O seguimento foi de 5 anos e a perspectiva dos custos é do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). RESULTADOS: O custo direto para cada porcentual de redução da PIO ao final de 5 anos (relação custo-efetividade) foi de US$ 10,19 para a EPNP; US$ 37,45 para a CFTD + bimatoprosta; US$ 39,33 para CFTD + travoprosta; e US$ 41,42 para CFTD + latanoprosta. A EPNP apresentou uma melhor relação custo-efetividade, quando comparada com a TCM. O índice ICER foi negativo, portanto a EPNP foi a opção terapêutica dominante. CONCLUSÃO: A EPNP foi menos custosa e mais efetiva que a TCM. Do ponto de vista do SUS, ela foi a opção mais custo-efetiva, quando comparada com a TCM.

Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/economia , Esclerostomia/economia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/terapia , Prostaglandinas Sintéticas/economia , Prostaglandinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esclerostomia/métodos , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/economia , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Timolol/economia , Timolol/uso terapêutico
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(2): 244-249, Mar. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-546270


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the responses of serum β-CTX and osteocalcin in patients who were undergoing treatment with teriparatide or strontium ranelate (SR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 14 patients (12 women and 2 men; mean age of 71 years) taking teriparatide, and 13 female patients (mean age of 70 years) taking SR; all the patients having previously been on bisphosphonates. Serum β-CTX and osteocalcin levels were determined before and after the first and third months of teriparatide treatment and up to the fourth month of treatment with SR. RESULTS: We observed an initial significant increase in osteocalcin levels during the first month (165 percent, p = 0.01) followed by a peak of β-CTX (180 percent, p = 0.02) after the third month of treatment with teriparatide. An increase in these markers was also observed with SR: 49 percent in osteocalcin (p = 0.002) and 80 percent in β-CTX (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: SR had a predominantly short-term bone-forming effect in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis previously treated with bisphosphonates in a lesser degree than with teriparatide.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar as respostas do β-CTX e osteocalcina séricos em pacientes que foram submetidas a tratamento com teriparatida ou ranelato de estrôncio (RE). SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se 14 pacientes (12 mulheres e 2 homens; idade média 71 anos) tomando teriparatida, e 13 mulheres (idade média 70 anos) tomando RE; todos os pacientes haviam previamente tomado bisfosfonatos. Níveis séricos de β-CTX e osteocalcina foram determinados antes e após o primeiro e terceiro meses de tratamento com teriparatida e no quarto mês de tratamento com RE. RESULTADOS: Observou-se um aumento inicial significativo nos níveis de osteocalcina no primeiro mês (165 por cento, p = 0,01), seguido por um pico do β-CTX (180 por cento, p = 0,02) após o terceiro mês de tratamento com teriparatida. Aumento nesses marcadores também foi observado com RE: 49 por cento na osteocalcina (p = 0,002) e 80 por cento no β-CTX (p = 0,008). CONCLUSÃO: RE teve um efeito predominantemente na formação óssea a curto prazo em mulheres na pós-menopausa com osteoporose tratadas previamente com bisfosfonatos em menor grau que a teriparatida.

Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Osteocalcina/sangue , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea , Biomarcadores/sangue , Osteoporose/sangue , Peptídeos/sangue
West Indian med. j ; 59(1): 102-105, Jan. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-672576


Antibiotic and non-antibiotic sulphonamides are often prescribed. Although chemical differences make cross-reactivity rare, reactions may be severe in patients allergic to sulphur. Adverse reactions are common with sulphonamides but low platelets and skin changes are rarely associated with eye-drops for glaucoma. A woman treated with dorzolamide and timolol presented with disseminated eruption. On admission, her physical examination was unremarkable except for the skin changes and severe thrombocytopaenia was detected. Skin biopsy showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, perivascular and periadnexal infiltrates with no vasculitis. After discontinuation of eye-drops, the eruption improved but low platelets persisted. Skin changes reappeared with use of dapsone which suggested sulphonamide cross-reactivity.

A menudo se prescriben sulfonamidas antibióticas y no-antibióticas. Aunque las diferencias químicas hacen que la reactividad cruzada sea algo raro, las reacciones pueden ser severas en los pacientes alérgicos al azufre. Las reacciones adversas son comunes con las sulfonamidas pero las plaquetas bajas y los cambios en la piel raramente se asocian con las gotas oculares para el glaucoma. A una mujer a quien se le hizo un tratamiento con dorzolamida y timolol, se le presentó una erupción diseminada. En el momento del ingreso, su examen físico fue común y corriente excepto por los cambios en la piel. Además se le detectó una trombocitopenia severa. La biopsia de la piel reveló hiperqueratosis, acanthosis, infiltrados perivasculares y periadnexales sin vasculitis. Tras descontinuar las gotas oculares, la erupción mejoró pero las plaquetas bajas persistieron. Los cambios de la piel reaparecieron con el uso de dapsona, lo que hizo pensar en una reactividad cruzada de la sulfonamida.

Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Erupção por Droga , Dapsona/efeitos adversos , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Oftálmicas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Timolol/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Dapsona/administração & dosagem , Testes de Função Hepática , Contagem de Plaquetas , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Timolol/administração & dosagem
Acta cir. bras ; 23(5): 447-450, Sept.-Oct. 2008. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-491911


PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the antidepressant drugs duloxetine and amitriptyline on depressive behaviors in rats. METHODS: Fifteen male Wistar rats were given systemic injections of duloxetine, amitriptyline or saline prior to a Forced Swimming Test (FST). Immobility and number of stops were measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis. RESULTS: Rats given injections of duloxetine displayed fewer stops than the amitriptyline and control group (p< 0.05). The control group and Amitriptyline showed no difference (p=0.8). CONCLUSION: Duloxetine reduced depressive behaviors in the Forced Swimming Test been more effective than amitriptyline.

OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito antidepressivo da droga cloridrato de duloxetina com a amitriptilina. MÉTODOS: O teste do nado forçado, teste comportamental que avalia a atividade antidepressiva em ratos, foi utilizado em 15 ratos Wistar, machos adultos, divididos em três grupos iguais: duloxetina, amitriptilina e controle. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste One-way ANOVA e Kruskall-Wallis. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa entre o número de paradas (p <0,05) entre os grupos duloxetina e amitriptilina e o grupo controle. Grupo amitriptilina e controle não apresentaram diferença (p=0,8). CONCLUSÃO: A duloxetina reduziu o comportamento depressivo sendo mais efetiva do que a amitriptilina.

Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Amitriptilina/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Natação/psicologia , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Depressão/psicologia , Ratos Wistar
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 71(2): 286-290, mar.-abr. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-483044


X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a recessively inherited vitreoretinal degeneration characterized by macular pathology and splitting of the neuroretinal layers that is associated with alterations in the XLRS1 gene. There have been no therapeutic interventions known to be effective for patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, but some studies are trying to determine the importance of dorzolamide for the treatment of foveal lesions in this disease. The authors, using optical coherence tomography, describe findings in a patient with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, before and after a topical use of dorzolamide. Besides the improvement in his visual acuity, further studies are required to elucidate the real prevalence of nonresponse to dorzolamide and the frequency with which there may be a recurrence of foveal cystic changes during continued treatment.

A retinosquise juvenil ligada ao X (XLRS) é uma degeneração vítreo-retiniana hereditária e recessiva caracterizada por lesão macular e delaminação das camadas de fibras nervosas da retina, que está associada com alterações no gene XLRS1. Nenhuma intervenção terapêutica tem se mostrado efetiva em pacientes com retinosquise juvenil ligada ao X, mas alguns estudos estão tentando determinar a importância da dorzola mida no tratamento das lesões foveais desta doença. Os autores, usando a tomografia de coerência óptica, descrevem os achados em um paciente com retinosquise juvenil ligada ao X, antes e após o uso de dorzolamida tópica. Apesar da melhora na acuidade visual do paciente estudado, outros estudos são necessários para uma melhor elucidação da real prevalência dos pacientes não responsivos ao tratamento com dorzolamida, bem com a recorrência das lesões císticas a longo prazo.

Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Retinosquise/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Retinosquise , Fatores de Tempo