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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(4): 337-350, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-779804

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The analysis of intrathecal IgG, IgA and IgM synthesis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and evaluation in combined quotient diagrams provides disease-related patterns. The compilation with complementary parameters (barrier function, i.e., CSF flow rate, cytology, lactate, antibodies) in a cumulative CSF data report allows a knowledge-based interpretation and provides analytical and medical plausibility for the quality assessment in CSF laboratories. The diagnostic relevance is described for neurological and psychiatric diseases, for which CSF analysis can’t be replaced by other diagnostic methods without loss of information. Dominance of intrathecal IgM, IgA or three class immune responses give a systematic approach for Facial nerve palsy, Neurotrypanosomiasis, Opportunistic diseases, lymphoma, Neurotuberculosis, Adrenoleucodystrophy or tumor metastases. Particular applications consider the diagnostic power of the polyspecific antibody response (MRZ-antibodies) in multiple sclerosis, a CSF-related systematic view on differential diagnostic of psychiatric diseases and the dynamics of brain- derived compared to blood-derived molecules in CSF for localization of paracytes.


RESUMO A análise da síntese intratecal de IgG, IgA e IgM no liquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e a avaliação destas em diagramas com quocientes sugere padrões de diversas doenças. Estes dados, juntamente com outros parâmetros como a função de barreira, o fluxo liquórico, a citologia, o lactato e a pesquisa de anticorpos, integrados em uma ficha de paciente, permite uma interpretação baseada em conhecimento e permite também uma aferição da qualidade em laboratórios de LCR. A relevância diagnóstica é descrita para doenças neurológicas e psiquiátricas pois a análise do LCR não pode ser substituída por outros metódos diagnósticos sem perda de informação para o diagnóstico do paciente. O aumento da síntese intratecal de IgM, IgA ou das 3 classes de imunoglobulinas sugerem um diagnóstico sistemático de paralisia facial periférica, neurotripanosomiase, doenças oportunísticas, linfoma, neurotuberculose, adrenoleucodistrofia ou metástases de tumores cerebrais. A resposta poliespecífica de anticorpos contra sarampo, rubéola e varicela zoster (MRZ reação) é sugestiva de esclerose múltipla. Uma visão sistemática considera o diagnóstico diferencial de doenças psiquiátricas e doenças chrônicas. A dinâmica de moléculas derivadas do cérebro comparadas com aqueles derivadas do sangue é importante para a localização de parasitos em doenças parasitárias do sistema nervoso.


Assuntos
Humanos , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/sangue
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(4): 311-314, ago. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-734391

RESUMO

El síndrome de hiper IgE también denominado síndrome de Job, es una inmunodeficiencia primaria poco frecuente, cuyo modo de herencia puede ser autosómico recesivo o dominante. Se caracteriza por altos niveles de IgE, eosinofilia, abscesos cutáneos, eccema, candidiasis mucocutánea crónica e infecciones pulmonares recidivantes que contribuyen al desarrollo de neumatoceles y bronquiectasias. El germen más frecuentemente aislado es el Staphylococcus aureus. En la actualidad, ante la mayor supervivencia de los pacientes se han comunicado infecciones oportunistas y linfomas. Existen escasas publicaciones de pacientes con enfermedad por Mycobacterium tuberculosis asociada a síndrome de hiper IgE, por lo que consideramos relevante comunicar el caso de un paciente con antecedentes de una tuberculosis pulmonar, que presentó una tuberculosis miliar con grave compromiso respiratorio, con buena respuesta al tratamiento estándar con drogas de primera línea.


The hyper Immunoglobulin E syndrome, also known as Job´s syndrome, is a rare primary immunodeficiency, its mechanisms of inheritance maybe recessive or dominant autosomal. It is characterized by high levels of IgE, eosinophilia, skin abscesses, eczema, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and recurrent pulmonary infections all of which contribute to the development of pneumatoceles and bronchiectasis. The most frequently isolated bacteria is Staphylococcus aureus. Currently, despite the highest survival of patients, lymphomas and other opportunistic infections have been reported. There are few reports of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection associated with hyper IgE syndrome. Therefore it is relevant that we report a case history of a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis, presenting miliary tuberculosis and severe respiratory compromise, who responded positively to standard anti-tuberculous treatment with first line drugs.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Tuberculose Miliar/complicações , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , /genética , Tuberculose Miliar/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(supl.1): 124-131, Dec. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-659750

RESUMO

The diagnosis of leprosy continues to be based on clinical symptoms and early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing disability and transmission. Sensitive and specific laboratory tests are not available for diagnosing leprosy. Despite the limited applicability of anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) serology for diagnosis, it has been suggested as an additional tool to classify leprosy patients (LPs) for treatment purposes. Two formats of rapid tests to detect anti-PGL-I antibodies [ML immunochromatography assay (ICA) and ML Flow] were compared in different groups, multibacillary patients, paucibacillary patients, household contacts and healthy controls in Brazil and Nepal. High ML Flow intra-test concordance was observed and low to moderate agreement between the results of ML ICA and ML Flow tests on the serum of LPs was observed. LPs were "seroclassified" according to the results of these tests and the seroclassification was compared to other currently used classification systems: the World Health Organization operational classification, the bacilloscopic index and the Ridley-Jopling classification. When analysing the usefulness of these tests in the operational classification of PB and MB leprosy for treatment and follow-up purposes, the ML Flow test was the best point-of-care test for subjects in Nepal and despite the need for sample dilution, the ML ICA test yielded better performance among Brazilian subjects. Our results identified possible ways to improve the performance of both tests.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Glicolipídeos/sangue , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Imunoensaio/métodos , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Hanseníase/imunologia , Nepal , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Clinics ; 67(11): 1275-1280, Nov. 2012. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-656717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the IgE serum levels in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate possible associations with clinical and laboratory features, disease activity and tissue damage. METHODS: The IgE serum concentrations in 69 consecutive juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients were determined by nephelometry. IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetry. All patients were negative for intestinal parasites. Statistical analysis methods included the Mann-Whitney, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, as well as the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Increased IgE concentrations above 100 IU/mL were observed in 31/69 (45%) juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients. The mean IgE concentration was 442.0 ± 163.4 IU/ml (range 3.5-9936.0 IU/ml). Fifteen of the 69 patients had atopic disease, nine patients had severe sepsis and 56 patients presented with nephritis. The mean IgE level in 54 juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients without atopic manifestations was 271.6 ± 699.5 IU/ml, and only nine of the 31 (29%) patients with high IgE levels had atopic disease. The IgE levels did not statistically differ with respect to the presence of atopic disease, severe sepsis, nephritis, disease activity, or tissue damage. Interestingly, IgE concentrations were inversely correlated with C4 levels (r = -0.25, p = 0.03) and with the SLICC/ACR-DI score (r = -0.34, p = 0.005). The IgE concentration was also found to be directly correlated with IgA levels (r = 0.52, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated for the first time that juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients have increased IgE serum levels. This increase in IgE levels was not related to allergic or parasitic diseases. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that high IgE levels can be considered a marker of immune dysregulation.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Hipersensibilidade/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Doenças Parasitárias/sangue , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Imunofluorescência , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria , Doenças Parasitárias/imunologia , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(5): 521-526, oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-660025

RESUMO

Background: Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is hampered by the lack of rapid and accurate diagnostic tools. We evaluated the immunological response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis anti-A60 antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in comparison to adenosine deaminase (ADA) determination, for the diagnosis of TBM. Methods: A total of 63 CSF samples were analyzed by indirect ELISA for the detection of anti- A60 IgG, IgM and IgA. These include samples from 17 patients with confirmed TBM and 46 control patients with other infections. Results: The mean individual anti-A60 IgM, IgG and IgA CSF antibody titers were significantly higher in TBM in comparison with control groups (p < 0.01). The best discriminatory CSF antibody for confirming TBM diagnosis was IgM, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.928 (95%CI 0.834-0.978), compared to 0.863 (95% CI: 0.752-0.936) for ADA testing (p = NS). The sensitivity of anti- A60 IgM CSF antibody titers (cutoff > 0.06 U/ml) was 94.1% compared to 88.2% for ADA (cutoff > 6.2 U/ml), p = NS. Both anti A60 IgM and ADA showed the same moderate specificity (80.4%). Two cases of TBM were correctly identified by anti-A60 IgM but missed by ADA. Conclusion: The ELISA test for anti-antigen A60 antibodies (IgM) is a rapid and sensitive tool for the rapid diagnosis of TBM that can be a complement to ALDA determination. The specificity of both tests is still a limitation in TBM diagnosis.


Antecedentes: El diagnóstico de meningitis tuberculosa (MTBC) se ve limitado por la ausencia de técnicas diagnósticas rápidas y precisas en líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR). En este estudio evaluamos la respuesta inmunoló-gica de anticuerpos anti-antígeno A60 de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en LCR en comparación a la determinación de adenosina deaminasa (ADA). Métodos: Un total de 63 muestras de LCR fueron estudiadas mediante ELISA indirecto para detección de IgG, IgM e IgA anti-A60. Estas muestras incluyeron 17 casos de MTBC confirmada y 46 controles con otras infecciones. Resultados: Los títulos de IgG, IgM e IgA anti A-60 resultaron significativamente superiores en casos de MTBC versus controles (p > 0,01). El anticuerpo con mej or poder discriminatorio resultó IgM, con un área bajo la curva ROC de 0,928 (95%IC 0,8340,978), comparado a 0,863 (95% IC: 0,752-0,936) para ADA (p = NS). La sensibilidad de IgM anti-A60 (nivel de corte > 0,06 U/ml) fue de 94,1% versus 88,2% para ADA (nivel de corte > 6,2 U/ml), p = NS. Ambos IgM anti-A60 y ADA presentaron la misma especificidad baja-moderada (80,4%). Dos casos de MMTBC fueron correctamente identificados por IgM anti-A60 pero no por ALDA. Conclusión: La detección de anticuerpos anti-A60 (IgM) puede ser de ayuda en el diagnostico de MTBC en forma complementaria a la determinación de ALDA. La baja especificidad de ambos tests constituye su principal limitante.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adenosina Desaminase/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Antígenos de Bactérias/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Meníngea/líquido cefalorraquidiano
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(1): 55-59, Jan.-Feb. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-614909

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of pregnant women and children treated at a reference outpatient clinic for congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: Pregnant women potentially exposed to Toxoplasma gondii were observed. Diagnoses were made using serologic tests compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Children presenting with: Toxoplasma-specific antibodies (IgM or IgA or ascending IgG titers higher than maternal titers in the first 3 months of life) coupled with toxoplasmosis symptoms; intracranial calcifications (by transfontanelar ultrasound or cephalic segment tomography); or retinochoroiditis (by fundoscopy examination) in the first 8 months of life were also included in the study. RESULTS: Fifty-eight mother-child pairs were observed (mean age of the mothers was 22.1 years). Most patients lived in urban areas (86.2 percent) and had attended less than 8 years of school (51.7 percent). Diagnosis was made after birth in 19 (32.8 percent) children. Thirty-four (58.6 percent) women received some type of treatment during pregnancy. Most (72.4 percent) of the children did not present with clinical alterations at birth. The main findings were ophthalmological: 20 (34.5 percent) children with retinochoroiditis, 17 (29.3 percent) with strabismus, and 7 (12.1 percent) with nystagmus. Of the children with retinochoroiditis, 9 presented with subnormal vision. Ten (32.3 percent) out of 31 children presented with intracranial calcifications by cephalic segment congenital toxoplasmosis, and 9 (42.9 percent) children presented with delayed psychomotor development. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight a critical situation. Protocols for follow-up of pregnant women and their children must be created to improve medical care and minimize sequelae.


INTRODUÇÃO: Descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico de gestantes e crianças atendidas em um centro de referência para toxoplasmose congênita. MÉTODOS: Gestantes potencialmente expostas ao Toxoplasma gondii foram estudadas. Os diagnósticos foram feitos através de testes sorológicos compatíveis com toxoplasmose aguda. Crianças que apresentaram anticorpos específicos (IgM e IgA ou títulos ascendentes de IgG, superiores aos títulos maternos nos primeiros três meses de vida), juntamente com os sintomas da toxoplasmose, calcificações intracranianas (ultrassom transfontanela ou tomografia do segmento cefálico), ou retinocoroidite (fundoscopia) nos primeiros oito meses de vida, também foram estudadas. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 58 pares mãe-filho (a média de idade das mães foi de 22,1 anos). A maioria (86,2 por cento) das mães residia em áreas urbanas e tinham até 8 anos de escolaridade (51,7 por cento). O diagnóstico foi feito após o nascimento para 19 (32,8 por cento) crianças; 34 (58,6 por cento) mulheres receberam algum tipo de tratamento durante a gravidez. A maioria (72,4 por cento) das crianças não apresentou alterações clínicas ao nascimento. Os principais achados foram oftalmológicos: 20 (34,5 por cento) crianças com retinocoroidite, 17 (29,3 por cento) com estrabismo e 7 (12,1 por cento) com nistagmo. Das crianças com retinocoroidite, 9 apresentaram visão subnormal. Calcificações intracranianas estiveram presentes em 10 (32,3 por cento) das 31 crianças que realizaram toxoplasmose congênita de segmento cefálico e 9 (42,9 por cento) crianças apresentaram atraso do desenvolvimento psicomotor. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram uma situação crítica. Protocolos para acompanhamento de gestantes e seus filhos devem ser criados para melhorar o atendimento médico e minimizar sequelas.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Escolaridade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose Congênita/complicações , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 52(4): 225-227, July-Aug. 2010. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-557413

RESUMO

We report a primary response to Toxoplasma gondii following a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with multiple myeloma. The primary response to T. gondii was supported by IgM, IgG and IgA seroconversion. The patient was promptly treated and there were no complications related to toxoplasmosis in the subsequent months.


Esse relato de caso descreve uma resposta primária ao Toxoplasma gondii após transplante de células progenitoras hematopoiéticas em paciente com mieloma múltiplo. A resposta primária para o T. gondii foi evidenciada pela soroconversão observada na resposta de anticorpos IgM, IgG e IgA. O paciente foi prontamente tratado e complicações relacionadas à toxoplasmose não foram observadas nos meses subseqüentes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mieloma Múltiplo/cirurgia , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(3): 293-298, May 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-547299

RESUMO

Changes in immune system functions are one of the most important consequences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Studies have reported a higher prevalence of disease mediated by immunological hypersensitivity mechanisms in HIV-positive patients. This study aims to observe how immunological changes in HIV-infected children interfere in atopy determinants. Fifty-seven HIV-positive children were studied between June 2004-August 2005 to evaluate the possible modifications in atopy diagnosis from prick test environmental allergen reactivity. Patients were subjected to two evaluations: on both occasions, atopic and non-atopic groups were correlated with immunological (CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte concentrations and serum levels of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE) and viral parameters (HIV viral load). The percent atopy was 20.05 in the first and 29.82 in the second evaluation and atopy was diagnosed in patients without immunosuppression or with moderate immunosuppression. Six patients changed from a negative to a positive atopy profile. One patient with a decreased CD4+ T lymphocyte concentration failed to demonstrate prick test positivity between evaluations. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables associated with atopy diagnosis included a personal history of allergic diseases as well as elevated IgE for age and elevated IgE levels. Atopy development in HIV-infected children seems to be modulated by genetic and environmental factors as well as immunological condition.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/sangue , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes Cutâneos , Carga Viral
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 14(1): 35-40, Jan.-Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-545005

RESUMO

Dot-ELISA using the outer membrane complex antigens of Neisseria meningitidis as a target was standardized for rapid detection of meningococcal-specific antibodies in human serum. We investigated the level of meningococcal-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM in serum using dot-ELISA with outer membrane antigens prepared from Neisseria meningitidis serotype B:4.19:P1.15,3,7,9 (a strain isolated from a Brazilian epidemic). The dot-ELISA is based on the same principles as the standard ELISA and is useful for detection of anti-N. meningitidis B antibodies in serum of patients with meningococcal infections. For the assay, outer membrane complexes (OMCs) were absorbed by nitrocellulose membrane and blocked with a 5 percent skim milk solution. Serum samples were drawn upon hospital admission and during convalescence from patients with meningococcal septicemia, and single samples were drawn from uninfected controls. We retrospectively examined a total of 57 serum samples: 35 from patients infected with N. meningitidis B, 12 from patients infected with Haemophilus influenzae b, and 10 from health individuals. When performed at room temperature, dot-ELISA took approximately four hours to perform, and the optimum antigen concentration was 0.42 µg per dot. The specificity of IgG, IgM, and IgA demonstrates that dot-ELISA using OMCs from N. meningitidis B as a target is suitable for serologic verification of clinically suspected meningococcal disease in patients and for titer determination of antibodies produced during different phases of natural infection. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dot-ELISA was comparable to that of standard ELISA. Overall, dot-ELISA is simple to perform, rapid, and low cost. Further validation of the test as a screening tool is required.


Assuntos
Humanos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Meningite Meningocócica/diagnóstico , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 51(5): 241-246, Sept.-Oct. 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-530128

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. During active disease in humans, high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α detected in blood serum, and high expression of IFN-γ mRNA in samples of the lymphoid organs suggest that the immune system is highly activated. However, studies using peripheral blood mononuclear cells have found immunosuppression specific to Leishmania antigens; this poor immune response probably results from Leishmania antigen-engaged lymphocytes being trapped in the lymphoid organs. To allow the parasites to multiply, deactivating cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β may be acting on macrophages as well as anti-Leishmania antibodies that opsonize amastigotes and induce IL-10 production in macrophages. These high activation and deactivation processes are likely to occur mainly in the spleen and liver and can be confirmed through the examination of organ samples. However, an analysis of sequential data from studies of visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters suggests that factors outside of the immune system are responsible for the early inactivation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, which occurs before the expression of deactivating cytokines. In active visceral leishmaniasis, the immune system actively participates in non-lymphoid organ lesioning. While current views only consider immunocomplex deposition, macrophages, T cells, cytokines, and immunoglobulins by diverse mechanism also play important roles in the pathogenesis.


A leishmaniose visceral é causada por protozoários do gênero do complexo Leishmania donovani. Durante a doença ativa no homem são detectados altos níveis de IFN-γ e de TNF-α no soro, e elevada expressão de mRNA de IFN-γ em amostras de órgãos linfóides sugerindo um estado intensamente ativado do sistema imunológico. A visão atual, no entanto, refere-se à imunossupressão específica aos antígenos de Leishmania com base em estudos utilizando células mononucleares do sangue periférico; a explicação para sua resposta deficiente seria provavelmente porque os linfócitos compometidos com antígeno de Leishmania são sequestrados nos órgãos linfóides. Para permitir a proliferação do parasito, citocinas desativadoras IL-10 e TGF-β atuariam nos macrófagos, bem como os anticorpos anti-Leishmania opsonizando amastigotas e induzindo a produção IL-10 pelos macrófagos. Estes processos de intensa ativação e desativação provavelmente ocorreriam no baço e fígado, principalmente, e confirmados com amostras de órgãos. No entanto, analisando dados seqüenciais obtidos na leishmaniose visceral no hamster, sugere-se provável presença de fatores fora do sistema imunológico como responsável pela inativação inicial de sintase induzível do óxido nítrico que ocorre antes da expressão de citocinas desativadoras. Na leishmaniose visceral ativa o sistema imunológico participa ativamente na lesão de órgãos não linfóides. Contrária à visão existente que considera somente mecanismos de deposição de imunocomplexos, observa-se na patogenia a participação de macrófagos, células T, citocinas e imunoglobulinas por mecanismo alternativo.


Assuntos
Animais , Cricetinae , Cães , Humanos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Leishmania donovani/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 69(5): 502-506, sep.-oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-633671

RESUMO

La técnica de elección para el screening de anticuerpos antinucleares (ANA) es la inmunofluorescencia indirecta que utiliza como sustrato una línea de células epiteliales de carcinoma de laringe humano (IFI-HEp2), y como antisuero, anti-IgG o anti-Ig totales. Los ANA-IgG son los más importantes para el diagnóstico y monitoreo de las enfermedades del tejido conectivo (ETC), mientras los ANA-IgM son de menor relevancia clínica en estos pacientes. Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los ANA-IgA ya que estos Ac han sido menos investigados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la prevalencia de los diferentes isotipos de inmunoglobulinas de anticuerpos antinucleares en los pacientes con ETC y evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar conjugados monovalentes o polivalentes. Se procesaron 100 sueros de pacientes con diversas ETC empleando IFI-HEp2, en los cuales se detectó 38% de ANA-IgA (títulos ≥ 1:80) y 12% de ANA-IgM (títulos ≤ 1:160). En 29 casos se detectó IgA en ausencia de IgM, en 3 casos IgM en ausencia de IgA. En todos los casos los ANA-IgG estuvieron presentes. En 6 sueros se observó un cambio de imagen con conjugado anti-IgA y en 3 con conjugado anti-IgM. Debido a la alta prevalencia de ANA-IgA detectada por IFI-HEp2, se destaca la conveniencia de utilizar conjugado anti-Ig totales en lugar de anti-IgG, mientras se desconozca la relevancia de los ANA-IgA en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y seguimiento de las enfermedades reumáticas sistémicas.


The indirect immunofluorescence with epitelial cell line from human laryngeal carcinoma as substrate (IIF-HEp2) and anti-IgG or anti-total Ig as antisera, is the technique currently used for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. The most important antibodies for the diagnosis and follow-up of connective tissue diseases (CTD) are the IgG-ANA, while the IgM-ANA have no clinical relevance. However the IgA-ANA have not been thoroughly investigated so far. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of different ANA isotypes of Ig antibodies in CTD patients and to evaluate the convenience of the use of monovalent or polyvalent conjugate. We examined the sera of 100 patients with different CTD by IIF-HEp2 and detected a prevalence of 38% IgA-ANA (titles ≥ 1:80) and 12% IgM-ANA (titles ≤ 1:160). In twenty nine cases we detected IgA-ANA in absence of IgM-ANA, and in 3 cases IgM-ANA in absence of IgA-ANA. In all the cases IgG-ANA were present. In 6 sera a change in the immunofluorescence pattern was observed while using anti-IgA conjugate, whereas in 3 the change was observed with the use of anti-IgM conjugate. Because of the high prevalence of ANA-IgA detected by IIF-HEp2, we emphasize the convenience of employing anti-total Ig in spite of anti-IgG conjugated until the role of ANA-IgA is dilucidated in CTD patients, in order to establish its relevance in the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of systemic rheumatic diseases.


Assuntos
Humanos , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/métodos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(4): 381-385, July-Aug. 2009. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-527177

RESUMO

Lagochilascaris minor is the etiological agent of lagochilascariosis, a disease that affects the neck region and causes exudative abscesses, with eggs, adult parasites and L3/L4 larvae in the purulent exudates. Mice are now considered to be intermediate hosts for the parasite. To determine the pattern of infection in B1 cell-deficient mice, experimental lagochilascariosis was studied in BALB/c and X-chromosome-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice. BALB.xid-infected mice showed lower numbers of larvae. Third-stage larvae, fourth-stage larvae and adult parasites were found in both strains. BALB/c mice produced IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE against the crude extract and secreted/excreted antigens of the parasite. On the other hand, BALB.xid mice did not produce IgM and produced lower levels of IgG and IgA, and similar quantities of IgE.


Lagochilascaris minor é o agente etiológico da lagochilascariose, uma doença que afeta a região de pescoço provocando abscessos exudativos contendo ovos, parasitas adultos e larvas L3/L4 nos exudates purulentos. Atualmente, camundongos são considerados hospedeiros intermediários do parasita. Para determinar o padrão de infecção em camundongos deficientes de células B1, a lagochilascariose experimental foi estudada em camundongos BALB/c e em camundongos com imunodeficiência ligada ao cromossomo X (xid). Camundongos BALB.xid infectados mostraram menor número de larvas. Larvas L3, L4 e parasitas adultos foram encontrados em ambas as linhagens. Camundongos BALB/c produziram IgM, IgG, IgA e IgE contra o extrato bruto e antígenos secretados/excretados do parasita; por outro lado, camundongos BALB.xid não produziram IgM, produziram baixos níveis de IgG e IgA, e quantidades semelhantes de IgE.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/imunologia , Ascaridoidea/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 66(3a): 504-508, set. 2008. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-492571

RESUMO

The intercellular adhesion molecule is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) from normal control children as well as from children with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), with Coxsackie A9 virus meningoencephalitis and with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were studied. sICAM-1 was quantified using an immunoenzimatic assay and albumin using the immunodiffusion technique in both biological fluids. Increased sICAM-1 values in CSF in patients with GBS correspond to an increase of the albumin CSF/serum quotient. In contrast, in inflammatory diseases like S. pneumoniae and Coxsackie A9 virus meningoencephalitis an increased brain-derived fraction was observed. In particular cases these values are 60-65 percent and 70-75 percent respectively. The results indicate an additional synthesis of sICAM-1 in subarachnoidal space during central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory process. An important role of sICAM-1 in the transmigration of different cell types into CSF during CNS inflammation in children with S. pneumoniae and Coxsackie A9 meningoencephalitis may be suggested.


La molécula de adhesión intercelular es una glicoproteína que pertenece a la superfamilia de las inmunoglobulinas. Se estudiaron los niveles de molécula de adhesión intercelular tipo 1 soluble (sICAM-1) en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) de niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae y por Coxsackie A9 al igual que en niños con sindrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB). sICAM-1 fue cuantificado por ensayo inmunoenzimático y la albúmina por inmunodifusión en ambos líquidos biológicos. Los valores incrementados de sICAM-1 en LCR en los pacientes con GBS corresponden a valores aumentados de razón LCR/suero de albúmina. En contraste, en las enfermedades inflamatorias como las meningoencefalitis por S. pneumoniae y por Coxsackie A9 se observa un incremento en la fracción derivada del cerebro. En casos particulares los valores se incrementan hasta un 60-65 por ciento y 70-75 por ciento respectivamente. Los resultados indican una síntesis adicional de sICAM-1 en el espacio subaracnoideo durante el proceso inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central (SNC). Esto puede sugerir un importante papel del sICAM-1 en la transmigración de diferentes tipos celulares en el LCR durante la inflamación del SNC en niños con meningoencefalitis por S pneumoniae y coxsackie A9.


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Enterovirus Humano B , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningoencefalite/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções Pneumocócicas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/imunologia , Imunodifusão , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/biossíntese , Meningoencefalite/imunologia , Meningoencefalite/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Albumina Sérica/líquido cefalorraquidiano
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(4): 325-329, jul.-ago. 2008. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-494483

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the profile of anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunoglobulin isotypes in serum from patients with the acute and chronic forms of paracoccidioidomycosis, using the whole Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen and the antigen treated with sodium metaperiodate. All the immunoglobulin isotypes present in the serum from patients with the acute and chronic forms of paracoccidioidomycosis presented higher reactivity towards the whole antigen than to the antigen treated with metaperiodate (P < 0.05). The reactivity of IgG and IgM to the antigen treated with metaperiodate was greater in serum from patients with the acute form of the disease (P < 0.05), while IgA was more reactive in serum from patients with the chronic form (P < 0.05). There was greater reactivity of IgG1 and IgG2 to the whole antigen and the antigen treated with metaperiodate in the serum from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis than there was in serum from patients with other parasitic infections (P < 0.05). Furthermore, IgG1 from patients with the acute form recognized the 19kDa, 27kDa and 31kDa antigens in the western blot test. Thus, the results suggest that modifications to the epitopes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigens may help to improve the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis.


Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o perfil de isotipos de imunoglobulinas anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em soros de pacientes com formas crônica e aguda de paracoccidiodomicoses usando antígeno total e tratado com meta-periodato. Todos os tipos de imunoglobulinas presentes nos soros de pacientes com formas aguda e crônica apresentaram alta reatividade ao antígeno total quando comparado ao tratado com meta-periodato (P < 0,05). Houve maior reatividade de IgG e IgM anti-antígeno tratado com meta-periodato em soros de pacientes com forma aguda da doença (P < 0,05), enquanto IgA foi mais reativa em soros da forma crônica (P < 0,05). Houve maior reatividade de IgG1 e IgG2 com antígeno total e tratado com meta-periodato em soros de pacientes comparados aos com outras parasitoses (P < 0,05). Além disso, IgG1 de pacientes com a forma aguda reconhecem antígenos de 19kDa, 27kDa e 31kDa por western blot. Assim, os resultados sugerem que alterações nos epitopos de antígenos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis podem auxiliar no aprimoramento do imunodiagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose.


Assuntos
Humanos , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/imunologia , Antígenos de Fungos/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Paracoccidioides/imunologia , Paracoccidioidomicose/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Antígenos de Fungos/sangue , Antígenos de Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Epitopos/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitopos/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitógenos/uso terapêutico , Paracoccidioides/efeitos dos fármacos , Paracoccidioidomicose/sangue , Paracoccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Periódico/uso terapêutico
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(6): 489-492, June 2008. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-485853

RESUMO

Hepatitis C, a worldwide viral infection, is an important health problem in Brazil. The virus causes chronic infection, provoking B lymphocyte dysfunction, as represented by cryoglobulinemia, non-organ-specific autoantibody production, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The aim of this research was to screen for the presence of antiphospholipid autoantibodies in 109 Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers without clinical history of antiphospholipid syndrome. Forty healthy individuals were used as the control group. IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies against cardiolipin and ß2-glycoprotein I were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using a cut-off point of either 20 UPL or 20 SBU. While 24 (22.0 percent) hepatitis C carriers had moderate titers of IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 22.5 MPL; 95 percentCI: 21.5-25.4 MPL), only three carriers (<3 percent) had IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 23 GPL; 95 percentCI: 20.5-25.5 GPL). Furthermore, IgA anticardiolipin antibodies were not detected in these individuals. Male gender and IgM anticardiolipin seropositivity were associated in the hepatitis C group (P = 0.0004). IgA anti-ß2-glycoprotein-I antibodies were detected in 29 of 109 (27.0 percent) hepatitis C carriers (median, 41 SAU; 95 percentCI: 52.7-103.9 SAU). Twenty patients (18.0 percent) had IgM anti-ß2-glycoprotein I antibodies (median, 27.6 SMU; 95 percentCI: 23.3-70.3 SMU), while two patients had IgG antibodies against this protein (titers, 33 and 78 SGU). Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in only one healthy individual, who was seropositive for IgM anticardiolipin. We concluded that Brazilian individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus present a significant production of antiphospholipid antibodies, mainly IgA anti-ß2-glycoprotein I antibodies, which are not associated with clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Anticorpos Anticardiolipina/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , /imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Portador Sadio , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 74(3): 331-336, maio-jun. 2008. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-487047

RESUMO

A estomatite aftóide recorrente é doença caracterizada por aparecimento periódico de aftas na mucosa oral, cuja etiologia e fisiopatologia não estão bem explicadas. Estudos recentes com imunofluorescência direta mostram resultados controversos. Alguns revelam que o distúrbio básico está relacionado à imunidade humoral, enquanto outros apontam alterações da imunidade celular. Formas atípicas de estomatite aftóide podem fazer diagnóstico diferencial com doenças vésico-bolhosas como pênfigo vulgar. OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença de imunecomplexos na mucosa de pacientes com estomatite aftóide e utilidade do método no diagnóstico diferencial com dermatopatias bolhosas. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: 23 pacientes portadores de estomatite aftóide, de modo prospectivo, foram incluídos no estudo. Todos foram submetidos à biópsia de mucosa sob anestesia local para retirada de dois fragmentos. Um deles foi enviado para exame histológico e, outro, para ser realizada a imunofluorescência direta. RESULTADOS: As 23 amostras no exame histológico revelaram processo inflamatório inespecífico ulcerado. As amostras enviadas para imunofluorescência resultaram negativas e apenas uma revelou presença de complemento em membrana basal. CONCLUSÃO: Baseado em nossos resultados, concluímos que pacientes portadores de EAR não apresentam depósitos de imunecomplexos na mucosa da cavidade bucal e a imunofluorescência é útil no diagnóstico diferencial entre a doença e dermatopatias bolhosas.


Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a disease characterized by the periodic appearance of aphthous lesions on the oral mucosa, of which etiology and physiopathology are not well explained. Recent studies with direct immunofluorescence show controversial results. Some reveal that the basic disorder is associated with humoral immunity, while others point to changes in cellular immunity. Atypical forms of aphthous stomatitis may have its differential diagnosis carried out with vesicobullous diseases, such as pemphigus vulgaris. AIM: Check the presence of immunocomplexes in the mucosa of patients with aphthous stomatitis and the usefulness of the differential diagnosis method with bullous skin diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 23 patients with aphthous stomatitis were prospectively included in the study. There were all submitted to mucosa biopsy under local anesthesia for the removal of two fragments. One of these was sent to histology and, the other to direct immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The 23 samples from the histology exam revealed an ulcerated inflammatory process. The samples referred to immunofluorescence resulted negative and only one showed the presence of complement in the basal membrane. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we conclude that the patients with RAS do not show deposits of immunocomplexes in their oral cavity mucosa and immunofluorescence is useful in the differential diagnosis between this disease and bullous skin diseases.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/diagnóstico , Estomatite Aftosa/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Recidiva , Estomatite Aftosa/imunologia
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 12(1): 38-43, Feb. 2008. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-484416

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to identify maternal and fetal characteristics as prognostic markers of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This is a descriptive study of 13 cases of congenital CMV infection referred to Institute de Puericulture et Perinatologie de Paris (IPP) from January 2005 to October 2006. Amniotic fluid puncture was performed to research CMV polimerase chain reaction (PCR). Cordocentesis and cord blood samples at delivery were also analyzed to determinate fetal platelets count, GGT, ASAT, ALAT, CMV-DNA and IgM antibody. Variables of symptomatic and asymptomatic infants were then compared. Data were analyzed by SPSS - 15.0. Mean gestational age of amniocentesis was 24.6 weeks and there was no difference of mean viral load in amniotic fluid considering infant features. Mean gestational age of cordocentesis was 26.1 weeks. There were no statistical differences of fetal viral load, IgM, platelets, GGT, ASAT and ALAT analyzed at cordocentesis samples, but at delivery, mean values of IgM and ASAT of fetal blood were increased in symptomatic ones (p= 0.03 for both parameters). When considering groups with normal and abnormal parameters, ASAT of cordon samples was also increased in symptomatic infants (p= 0.02). Sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of fetal ultrasound anomalies to detect symptomatic infants were, respectively, 80 percent, 62.5 percent, 57.1 percent and 83.3 percent. Thus, identification of markers of CMV symptomatic infants should be aimed. Prenatal diagnosis, identification and follow up of congenital CMV infected infants are important to consider treatment for symptomatic infants, trying to avoid or reducing some possible sequels.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Transaminases/sangue , Amniocentese , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cordocentese , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/sangue , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 11(2): 215-219, Apr. 2007. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-454722

RESUMO

The present work proposed to correlate serum antibody avidity and salivary antibody titers as parameters for time of infection and antigen exposure in a co-hort study evaluating leprosy patients in different periods of treatment. Colorimetric enzyme-immunoassays for salivary antibodies, serum antibody IgG titers and avidities were performed in the samples. Anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM salivary antibodies were significantly higher in multibacillar (MB-L) patients compared to normal controls (p<0.05), but not when compared to borderline tuberculoid (BT) or to paucibacillar (PB-L) patients (p>0.05). A good correlation was found between salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM levels in MB-L patients (r=0.41, p<0.01). Two out of 33 tested saliva samples from patients who had completed the drug regimen treatment presented positive salivary antibodies. Among non-treated patients, samples with low, medium or high serum IgG antibody avidity were found in similar frequencies. In patients under treatment, most of the serum samples showed low or medium IgG antibody avidity. The treated MB-L patients showed medium or high antibody avidity, except for two, who showed very low antibody avidity results. We suggest that salivary anti-PGL antibodies and serum IgG avidity could be useful for the indication of recent exposure or re-exposure to bacteria after chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/análise , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(12): 1581-1586, Dec. 2006. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-439688

RESUMO

Most contacts with food protein and microbiota antigens occur at the level of the gut mucosa. In animal models where this natural stimulation is absent, such as germ-free and antigen-free mice, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and systemic immunological activities are underdeveloped. We have shown that food proteins play a critical role in the full development of the immune system. C57BL/6 mice weaned to a diet in which intact proteins are replaced by equivalent amounts of amino acids (Aa diet) have a poorly developed GALT as well as low levels of serum immunoglobulins (total Ig, IgG, and IgA, but not IgM). In the present study, we evaluated whether the introduction of a protein-containing diet in 10 adult Aa-fed C57BL/6 mice could restore their immunoglobulin levels and whether this recovery was dependent on the amount of dietary protein. After the introduction of a casein-containing diet, Aa-fed mice presented a fast recovery (after 7 days) of secretory IgA (from 0.33 to 0.75 mg/mL, while in casein-fed mice this value was 0.81 mg/mL) and serum immunoglobulin levels (from 5.39 to 10.25 mg/mL of total Ig). Five percent dietary casein was enough to promote the restoration of secretory IgA and serum immunoglobulin levels to a normal range after 30 days feeding casein diet (as in casein-fed mice - 15 percent by weight of diet). These data suggest that the defect detected in the immunoglobulin levels was a reversible result of the absence of food proteins as an antigenic stimulus. They also indicate that the deleterious consequences of malnutrition at an early age for some immune functions may be restored by therapeutic intervention later in life.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas na Dieta/imunologia , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
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