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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(4): 146-148, dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099838

RESUMO

Los anticuerpos monoclonales que inhiben los puntos de control PD-1 y CTLA-4 se usan actualmente en el tratamiento del melanoma y cáncer metastásico de pulmón de células no pequeñas, entre otros. Se refiere el caso de una paciente con cáncer de pulmón en tratamiento con pembrolizumab. La paciente se presentó con edema facial y parálisis facial periférica. En el laboratorio se observó la hormona tirotrofina (TSH) elevada y se llegó al diagnóstico de hipotiroidismo por pembrolizumab. Inició tratamiento con levotiroxina con mejoría clínica. Se presenta este caso por el importante papel del dermatólogo en el manejo multidisciplinario del paciente oncológico. (AU)


Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit PD-1 and CTLA-4 control points are currently used in the treatment of melanoma and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, among others. The case of a patient, with lung cancer being treated with Pembrolizumab. The patient was presented with facial edema and peripheral facial paralysis and in the laboratory the elevated hormone Tyrotrophin (TSH) was observed, the diagnosis of pembrolizumab hypothyroidism was reached. She started treatment with levothyroxine with clinical improvement. This case is presented by the important role of the dermatologist in the multidisciplinary management of the cancer patient. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Tireotropina/análise , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/complicações , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatologia , Traumatismos Faciais , Paralisia Facial , Antígeno CTLA-4/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno CTLA-4/fisiologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/fisiologia , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/complicações , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Campinas; s.n; 2018. 162 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-912068

RESUMO

Resumo: Introdução: endometriose é uma doença benigna, capaz de progredir extensamente e gerar clones atípicos. Considerada precursora dos carcinomas de células claras (CCOC) e endometrióide (EOC) de ovário, atualmente chamados carcinomas de ovário associados à endometriose (EAOC). Objetivos: comparar o perfil epidemiológico, a associação com endometriose e a expressão de marcadores imuno-histoquímicos para ARID1A, VEGF, PD-L1 e PARP-1 em mulheres com CCOC e EOC, e sua correlação com a sobrevida livre de progressão (SLP) e sobrevida global (SG). Métodos: estudo de coorte reconstituída, com 50 casos incluídos de CCOC e EOC tratados no CAISM-UNICAMP entre 1995 até 2016, acompanhados até 02/2017. Microarranjos de tecido com amostras de CCOC, EOC e endometriose foram corados com anticorpos monoclonais contra ARID1A, e para os biomarcadores proteicos VEGF, PD-L1, PARP-1 através de imuno-histoquímica. A expressão de ARID1A foi classificada (0 a 100) conforme a porcentagem de células não coradas. A expressão de VEGF, PD-L1 e PARP-1 foi classificada (0 a 300) conforme a multiplicação da porcentagem de células coradas por um fator da intensidade de expressão (ausente=0; fraco=1; moderado=2; forte=3). Idade ao diagnóstico; menopausa; índice de massa corpórea (IMC); CA-125; diagnóstico de endometriose; datas do diagnóstico, da progressão, do óbito e da última consulta foram recuperados dos prontuários. Comparação entre grupos foi realizada através de testes T e de ?2. A SLP (diferença de tempo entre o diagnóstico e a data de progressão) e a SG (diferença de tempo entre o diagnóstico e o óbito ou data da última data de consulta) foi avaliada através de curvas de Kaplan-Meyer e teste de Log-Rank ou regressão de COX. Resultados: 23 mulheres com CCOC (46%), e 27 com EOC (54%) foram incluídas; 80% tinham endometriose associada, 42% eram nulíparas, 42% eram pré-menopausa e CA125 foi elevado em todos estádios (FIGO I-II= média 614.7Ui/mL; FIGO III-IV= media 2361.2Ui/mL). A média de idade ao diagnóstico foi 7 anos menor em mulheres com EOC do que naquelas com CCOC. O CCOC foi mais diagnosticado em estágios iniciais quando associado à endometriose (p=0,03). O prognóstico dos EOC e CCOC em estádios iniciais foi semelhante (p=0,96). Os CCOC não associado à endometriose tiveram menor SG (p=0,04). A expressão de todos os biomarcadores esteve presente nos EAOC e na endometriose. O aumento da expressão de VEGF entre endometriose e câncer foi significativo (p=0,0002). A hiperexpressão de PARP-1 correlacionou-se negativamente com a SLP (p=0,03) e SG (p=0,01) em estádios iniciais. Conclusão: Os CCOC e EOC são comumente diagnosticados em estádios iniciais (FIGO I-II= 68%) e estão frequentemente associados à endometriose (80% dos casos). Quando associados à endometriose, os CCOC foram mais diagnosticados em estádios iniciais e tiveram SG maior. Houve elevada porcentagem de células com ARID1A mutado nos EAOC (>40%). VEGF se expressou mais intensamente nos CCOC e EOC que na endometriose, já a expressão de PD-L1 e de PARP-1 foi similar. Apenas a hiperexpressão de PARP-1 reduziu significativamente a SLP e a SG nos CCOC e EOC nos estádios iniciais(AU)


Abstract: Introduction: Endometriosis is a benign disease, able to progress widely and generate atypical clones. It is a precursor of clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCOC) and endometrioid ovarian carcinomas (EOCs), now called endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinomas (EAOC). Objectives: To compare the epidemiological profile, association with endometriosis and the expression of immunohistochemical markers for ARID1A, VEGF, PD-L1 and PARP-1 in women with CCOC and EOC, and its correlation with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods: A reconstituted cohort study with 50 cases of CCOC and EOC included. Cases were treated at CAISM-UNICAMP between 1995 and 2016, followed up until 02/2017. Tissue microarrays with CCOC, EOC and endometriosis samples were stained with monoclonal antibodies against ARID1A, and for VEGF, PD-L1, PARP-1 biomarkers by immunohistochemistry. The expression of ARID1A was classified (0 to 100) according to the percentage of unstained cells. The expression of VEGF, PD-L1 and PARP-1 was classified (0 to 300) multiplying the percentage of stained cells by an intensity of expression factor (absent=0, weak=1, moderate=2, strong=3). Age at diagnosis; menopause; BMI (body mass index); CA-125 levels; diagnosis of endometriosis; date of diagnosis, date of progression, date of death and date of last consultation were retrieved from the medical records. Comparison between groups was performed through T and ?2 tests. The PFS (difference in time between diagnosis and progression date) and OS (difference in time between diagnosis and death or the last date of consultation) was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer curves and Log-Rank test or COX multivariate models. Results: twenty-three women with CCOC (46%), and 27 with EOC (54%) were included; 80% had associated endometriosis, 42% were nulliparous, 42% were premenopausal, and CA125 was elevated at all stages (FIGO I-II = mean 614.7Ui / mL; FIGO III-IV = mean 2361.2Ui / mL). The mean age at diagnosis was 7 years lower in women with EOC than in those with CCOC. CCOC when associated with endometriosis were more diagnosed at early stages (p=0.03). The prognosis of EOC and CCOC at early stages was similar (p=0.96). CCOCs not associated with endometriosis had shorter OS (p=0.04). Expression of all biomarkers was present in the EAOC and endometriosis. The increase in VEGF expression between endometriosis and cancer was significant (p=0.0002). The overexpression of PARP-1 correlated negatively with PFS (p=0.03) and OS (p=0.01) at FIGO I-II stages. Conclusion: The diagnosis of women with EOC was made earlier than in those with CCOC. CCOC and EOC are commonly diagnosed in early stages (FIGO I-II - 68%) and were associated with endometriosis (80% of cases). When associated with endometriosis, clear cell carcinomas are more likely diagnosed at early stages, and the association of endometriosis with CCOC improves OS. There was a high percentage of cells with mutated ARID1A gene in EAOC (> 40%). VEGF was expressed more intensely in CCOC and EOC than in endometriosis, whereas expression of PD-L1 and PARP-1 was similar. Only the overexpression of PARP-1 significantly reduced PFS and OS in CCOC and EOC at early stages(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Prognóstico , Carcinoma Endometrioide , Endometriose , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 830-835, Nov.-Dec. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-887132

RESUMO

Abstract: The stimulation of the immune system, in order to generate an attack against cancer cells, similarly to that which occurs in infectious disease, has long been matter of interest in oncology; however, only limited success has been achieved, with different treatment strategies tested in recent years. The development of new immune checkpoint inhibitors is currently changing this scenario, and immunotherapy is becoming a real choice among traditional cytotoxic treatments to fight cancer. Recent reports have shown efficacy and safety with the use of pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and ipilimumab for the treatment of different neoplasms, especially melanoma. In this article, we propose a review of the mechanisms of action involved in cancer immunology, the response evaluation of immunotherapies, and its toxicity profile, as well as a summary of the main clinical trials that led to the adoption of these new drugs for melanoma treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Resultado do Tratamento , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico
4.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 56(6): 483-489, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-830067

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to analyze the relationship of programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene polymorphism (PD1.3G/A - rs11568821) with features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Southern Brazilian population. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed in 95 SLE and 87 RA patients and 128 control group individuals from Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test, and odds ratio (OR) were analyzed, considering CI 95% and p ≤ 0.05. Results: The PD1.3A allele frequencies were 0.095 (SLE), 0.115 (RA) and 0.078 (controls). The genotypes of the control group were in HWE, while those of SLE and RA patients were not. However, we found no association between PD1.3 polymorphism and the SLE or RA susceptibility, nor clinical or epidemiological data. Conclusion: There was no significant association between PD1.3 polymorphism and SLE or RA susceptibility in this Southern Brazilian population.


RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a relação entre o polimorfismo do gene PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1) (PD1.3G/A - rs11568821) com características do lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) e da artrite reumatoide (AR) em uma população do sul do Brasil. Métodos: A técnica de PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Lenght Polymorphism) foi utilizada para analisar amostras de 95 pacientes com LES e 87 com AR, assim como em 128 indivíduos do grupo controle de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Foi analisada a probabilidade de equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg (EHW) e a odds ratio (OR), considerando um IC 95% e p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: As frequências alélicas PD1.3 A foram de 0,095 (LES), 0,115 (AR) e 0,078 (controles). Os genótipos do grupo controle estavam em EHW, enquanto aqueles dos pacientes com LES e AR não estavam. No entanto, não foi encontrada associação entre o polimorfismo PD1.3 e a suscetibilidade ao LES ou à AR, nem com dados clínicos ou epidemiológicos. Conclusão: Não foi encontrada associação significativa entre o polimorfismo PD1.3 e a susceptibilidade ao LES ou à AR nessa população do sul do Brasil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Frequência do Gene
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(3): 202-209, 06/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-751312

RESUMO

Objective Acarbose and trans-chalcone are glucosidase inhibitors whose beneficial effects have been demonstrated in diabetes. The present study aimed at investigating their potential effects in obesity.Materials and methods NMRI male mice (n = 48) were subjected to a high fat diet for four weeks, which induced an initial state of obesity. One control group was given normal rodent diet. Obese animals were then switched to normal rodent diet, and divided to four groups (n = 12 in each): untreated, sham (receiving grape seed oil), and experimental groups receiving acarbose and trans-chalcone (12 mg/kg) during eight weeks. Body weight, blood glucose and other biochemical parameters including triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, HDL, AST, and ALT were measured, as well as leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Histological studies were performed on adipose cells and liver tissue samples.Results All factors were affected in a positive manner by acarbose, save for body weight, blood sugar and leptin levels, on which acarbose effects, although observable, were not statistically significant. Grape seed oil, used as a solvent for trans-chalcone was found to possess significant effect on TG and TAC, and had beneficial effects on other factors including liver enzymes and cholesterol. Trans-chalcone effects were significant on HDL, leptin and ALT. All compounds seemed to be able to affect fat deposition in liver tissue, and decrease the size of adipose tissue cells to some extent.Conclusion In conclusion, the tested compounds were able to affect lipid accumulation in tissues and influence adipokines, which may result in an enhanced state with regard to inflammation and oxidative stress. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):202-9.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , /metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral , /genética , Linhagem Celular , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ativação Linfocitária , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Oncogenes , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(8): 662-669, 08/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-716275

RESUMO

Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25+/highCD127Ø/lowFoxP3+, and effector T cells were defined as CD25+CD127+FoxP3Ø. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4+TREG and CD28+TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L+TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR+, HLA-DR+, OX40+, and CD45RO+ cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L+ cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L+TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Análise de Variância , /análise , /análise , /análise , /análise , /análise , Citometria de Fluxo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/análise , Proteína Relacionada a TNFR Induzida por Glucocorticoide/análise , Antígenos HLA-DR/análise , /análise , /análise , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/análise , /análise , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 6(2): 55-58, abr. 2013. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-726575

RESUMO

Background: The programmed cell death 1 (PDCD-1) immune-receptor is a key element in the negative regulation of peripheral tolerance in T cells. The gene has several polymorphisms and can be associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Aim: To analyze the frequency and distribution of PD-1.3 polymorphism of PDCD-1 gene and explore its possible contribution as a susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Patients and Methods: We analyzed 248 cases with T1D with recent diagnosis and 160 control children under 15 years of Santiago. Genetic polymorphism in PD-1 gene variant for PD-1.3 (rs 11568821) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Comparison of genotype, allele frequency and consistency with respect to Hardy-Weinberg were analyzed using X2 tests and Fisher exact test. Results: There was a very low frequency of the genotype A/A, both in T1D patients and in controls (< 2 percent). The A/G genotype was more common in diabetic patients than in controls (41.6 and 18.8 percent respectively, p < 0.04). G/G genotype was more common in controls than in patients (79.4 and 56.8 percent respectively, p < 0.02). T1D patients carrying genotype G/G had a higher frequency of anti-GAD65 and anti-A-2 antibodies (81 and 67 percent respectively). Conclusions: The distribution of PD-1.3 genotype frequencies are similar to that reported elsewhere. Possibly, this genetic variant (rs 11568821) does not have an important marker role in Chilean T1D patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Autoimunidade , Anticorpos/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(supl.1): 167-173, Dec. 2012. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-659755

RESUMO

Leprosy is a spectral disease exhibiting two polar sides, namely, lepromatous leprosy (LL) characterised by impaired T-cell responses and tuberculoid leprosy in which T-cell responses are strong. Proper T-cell activation requires signalling through costimulatory molecules expressed by antigen presenting cells and their ligands on T-cells. We studied the influence of costimulatory molecules on the immune responses of subjects along the leprosy spectrum. The expression of the costimulatory molecules was evaluated in in vitro-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of lepromatous and tuberculoid patients and healthy exposed individuals (contacts). We show that LL patients have defective monocyte CD86 expression, which likely contributes to the impairment of the antigen presentation process and to patients anergy. Accordingly, CD86 but not CD80 blockade inhibited the lymphoproliferative response to Mycobacterium leprae. Consistent with the LL anergy, there was reduced expression of the positive signalling costimulatory molecules CD28 and CD86 on the T-cells in these patients. In contrast, tuberculoid leprosy patients displayed increased expression of the negative signalling molecules CD152 and programmed death-1 (PD-1), which represents a probable means of modulating an exacerbated immune response and avoiding immunopathology. Notably, the contacts exhibited proper CD86 and CD28 expression but not exacerbated CD152 or PD-1 expression, suggesting that they tend to develop a balanced immunity without requiring immunosuppressive costimulatory signalling.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , /imunologia , /imunologia , /imunologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , /metabolismo , /metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , /metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo
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