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1.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mayo 6, 2020. 6 p.
Não convencional em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096875

RESUMO

La confirmación etiológica de la infección por el virus que causa la COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) solo puede hacerse mediante ensayos de laboratorio. La interpretación adecuada de los resultados obtenidos en cualquier tipo de ensayo debe ser realizada cuidadosamente y teniendo en cuenta la dinámica de la infección (momento en que se toma una muestra y la calidad de dicha muestra) y el objetivo por el cual se toma una muestra (diagnóstico, seroprevalencia, etc.).


Etiological confirmation of COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) infection can only be made by laboratory tests. In general, the currently available assays for COVID-19 can be classified into two groups: • The first group (virological tests) includes tests that can detect the presence of the components of the virus (genetic material or antigens).


A interpretação adequada dos resultados obtidos em qualquer tipo de ensaio deve ser realizada com cuidado e levar em consideração a dinâmica da infecção (quando a amostra é coletada) e o objetivo para o qual a amostra é coletada (diagnóstico, soroprevalência, etc.).


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviços Laboratoriais de Saúde Pública , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/classificação
2.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 13, 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096694

RESUMO

Ante la situación actual de la pandemia del COVID-19 se aconseja a los países que continúen con la adopción de los algoritmos de diagnóstico de TB recomendados por OPS/OMS. A pesar de las diferencias en los modos de transmisión de TB y COVID-19, ciertas medidas de protección personal son relevantes para ambas enfermedades. Las medidas habituales para protegerse de la TB deben continuar junto con las precauciones adicionales para proteger a los trabajadores de COVID-19.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , DNA Viral/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1236-1242, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038636

RESUMO

Apesar dos bovinos serem considerados os hospedeiros naturais do BoHV-1, estudos sorológicos têm sugerido que búfalos podem ser suscetíveis ao BoHV-1 e a outros alfa-herpesvírus geneticamente relacionados. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de DNA viral de BoHV-1 em 202 amostras de gânglios trigêmeos de búfalos, pela técnica de semi-nested PCR, para detecção de um segmento do gene codificante da glicoproteína D (gD) do BoHV-1. Além disso, 242 amostras de soro foram analisadas pela técnica de soroneutralização (SN) para a detecção de anticorpos neutralizantes contra BoHV-1, BoHV-5 e BuHV. Todas as amostras clínicas foram coletadas em um matadouro na cidade de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. O DNA de BoHV-1 foi detectado em 61 (30,1%) gânglios, e os resultados da SN demonstraram que 27,6% dos animais apresentaram anticorpos contra, pelo menos, um dos vírus testados. O sequenciamento genômico e a análise de 14 amplicons confirmaram a presença do DNA do BoHV-1 nos tecidos analisados. Em resumo, os resultados indicam que o BoHV-1 está distribuído em rebanhos bubalinos provenientes da região Sul do Brasil. Entretanto, são necessárias investigações adicionais, no sentido de elucidar o papel exato dos búfalos na epidemiologia das infecções pelo BoHV-1.(AU)


Although bovines are natural hosts for BoHV-1, serologic studies in several countries have suggested that buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) may be susceptible to BoHV-1 and other genetically related alphaherpesvirus. This study aimed to investigate the presence of BoHV-1 DNA in trigeminal ganglia from 202 buffaloes by a semi-nested PCR to amplify partially the glycoprotein D (gD) gene of BoHV-1. Additionally, 242 serum samples were tested by serum neutralization (SN) for the detection of antibodies against BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and BuHV. All clinical samples were collected in a slaughterhouse located in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. BoHV-1 DNA was detected in 61 (30.1%) of the samples and SN revealed 27.6% of the animals with neutralizing antibodies against at least one of the tested viruses. Nucleotide sequencing of 15 amplicons followed by BLAST analysis confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 DNA in the analyzed tissues. Taken together, these data indicate that BoHV-1 infection is distributed in buffaloes in southern Brazil. However, the role of buffaloes in the BoHV-1 epidemiology needs further investigation.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , DNA Viral/análise , Búfalos/virologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180432, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-984761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemics that affected South America in 2016 raised several research questions and prompted an increase in studies in the field. The transient and low viraemia observed in the course of ZIKV infection is a challenge for viral isolation from patient serum, which leads to many laboratories around the world sharing viral strains for their studies. C6/36 cells derived from Aedes albopictus larvae are commonly used for arbovirus isolation from clinical samples and for the preparation of viral stocks. OBJECTIVES Here, we report the contamination of two widely used ZIKV strains by Brevidensovirus, here designated as mosquito densovirus (MDV). METHODS Molecular and immunological techniques were used to analyse the MDV contamination of ZIKV stocks. Also, virus passages in mammalian cell line and infecting susceptible mice were used to MDV clearance from ZIKV stocks. FINDINGS MDV contamination was confirmed by molecular and immunological techniques and likely originated from C6/36 cultures commonly used to grow viral stocks. We applied two protocols that successfully eliminated MDV contamination from ZIKV stocks, and these protocols can be widely applied in the field. As MDV does not infect vertebrate cells, we performed serial passages of contaminated stocks using a mammalian cell line and infecting susceptible mice prior to re-isolating ZIKV from the animals' blood serum. MDV elimination was confirmed with immunostaining, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and analysis of the mosquitoes that were allowed to feed on the infected mice. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Since the putative impact of viral contaminants in ZIKV strains generally used for research purposes is unknown, researchers working in the field must be aware of potential contaminants and test viral stocks to certify sample purity.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Cultura de Vírus , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Zika virus , DNA Viral , Imunofluorescência , Densovirus/genética , Camundongos
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 83-92, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974337

RESUMO

Abstract Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) have high genetic variability which results in different viral strains around the world. This create a challenge to design sensible primers for molecular diagnosis in different regions. This work proposes a protocol of duplex nested-PCR for the precise diagnosis of SRLV. The technique was designed and tested with the control strains CAEV Co and MVV 1514. Then, field strains were submitted to the same protocol of duplex nested-PCR. Blood samples of sheep and goats were tested with AGID and nested PCR with specific primers for pol, gag and LTR. The AGID results showed low detection capacity of positive animals, while the nested PCR demonstrated a greater capacity of virus detection. Results demonstrated that LTR-PCR was more efficient in detecting positive sheep samples, whereas gag-PCR allowed a good detection of samples of positive goats and positive sheep. In addition, pol-PCR was more efficient with goat samples than for sheep. Duplex nested PCR performed with standard virus samples and field strains demonstrated that the technique is more efficient for the detection of multiple pro-viral DNA sequences. This study demonstrated a successful duplex nested PCR assay allowing a more accurate diagnosis of SRLV.


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , DNA Viral/genética , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Infecções por Lentivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Primers do DNA/genética
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(10): 728-731, Oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-894837

RESUMO

The classification of human papillomavirus (HPV) intratypic lineages by complete genome sequencing is a determinant in understanding biological differences in association with this disease. In this work, we have characterised complete HPV genomes from southern Brazil. Fifteen cervicovaginal Pap smear negative samples previously categorised as HPV-positive were sequenced using ultradeep sequencing, and 18 complete genomes from 13 different HPV types were assembled. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses were performed to classify the HPV genomes into lineages and sublineages. This is the first report describing the distribution of HPV intratype lineages of high and low oncogenic risk in asymptomatic women from southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Papillomaviridae , Papillomaviridae/genética , Esfregaço Vaginal , DNA Viral , Doenças do Colo do Útero/virologia , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(7): 485-491, July 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Many studies have identified mutations in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as important factors limiting the ability of commercial serological assays to detect this viral antigen. However, an association between mutations in the HBsAg gene and the occurrence of occult HBV infection (OBI) in patients has not been established. OBJECTIVES To detect hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in patients with anti-HBc as a unique serological marker, a previously published, cost-effective TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with minor groove binding probes was adapted for use in this study. The current study also aimed to investigate HBsAg mutations and genotypes of HBV in OBI at the Viral Hepatitis Ambulatory Clinic in Rio de Janeiro to determine any possible association. METHODS Intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibility were determined, and the mean coefficient of variation values obtained were 2.07 and 3.5, respectively. Probit analysis indicated that the 95% detection level was 25 IU/mL. The prevalence of OBI was investigated in 35 serum samples with an ‘anti-HBc alone’ profile from individuals who attended our clinic between 2011 and 2013. FINDINGS HBV DNA was detected in only one sample, resulting in an OBI rate of 2.9%. Nucleotide sequencing of the pre-S/S region was performed to genotype and analyse mutations within the HBsAg gene of this HBV DNA. The HBV in the OBI case was classified as sub-genotype A1, and a sequence analysis of the small S gene revealed 12 mutations in the major hydrophilic region compared to the consensus A1 sequence. Most of these mutations occurred in amino acid residues that have been reported as clinically relevant because they have been implicated in vaccine escape and/or inability to detect HBsAg by commercial serological assays. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests the importance of specific HBsAg mutations, different from those in D, B, and C genotypes, in sub-genotype A1 HBV associated with OBI.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/genética , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(7): 492-498, July 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Increasing evidence suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV) intratype variants (specific lineages and sublineages) are associated with pathogenesis and progression from HPV infection to persistence and the development of cervical cancer. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to verify the prevalence of HPV infection and distribution of HPV types and HPV16 variants in southern Brazil in women with normal cytology or intraepithelial lesions. METHODS HPV typing was determined by L1 gene sequencing. To identify HPV16 variants, the LCR and E6 regions were sequenced, and characteristic single nucleotide variants were identified. FINDINGS A total of 445 samples were studied, with 355 from cervical scrapes and 90 from cervical biopsies. HPV was detected in 24% and 91% of these samples, respectively. The most prevalent HPV types observed were 16 (cervical, 24%; biopsies, 57%) and 58 (cervical, 12%; biopsies, 12%). Seventy-five percent of the HPV16-positive samples were classified into lineages, with 88% defined as lineage A, 10% as lineage D, and 2% as lineage B. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study identified a high frequency of European and North American HPV16 lineages, consistent with the genetic background of the human population in southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Variação Genética/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Brasil , Displasia do Colo do Útero , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Transversais
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 220-223, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841773

RESUMO

The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for herpesvirus detection has improved the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, as it is able to detect shedding episodes in the absence of clinical lesions and diagnose clinical specimens that have low viral loads. With an aim to improve the detection and quantification of herpesvirus by qPCR, synthetic standard curves for human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2) targeting regions gD and gG, respectively, were designed and evaluated. The results show that synthetic curves can replace DNA standard curves in diagnostic herpes qPCR.


Assuntos
Humanos , Herpesvirus Humano 2/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpes Simples/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Herpes Simples/diagnóstico
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 175-181, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Two novel viruses named circo-like virus-Brazil (CLV-BR) hs1 and hs2 were previously discovered in a Brazilian human fecal sample through metagenomics. CLV-BR hs1 and hs2 possess a small circular DNA genome encoding a replication initiator protein (Rep), and the two genomes exhibit 92% nucleotide identity with each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep protein showed that CLV-BRs do not cluster with circoviruses, nanoviruses, geminiviruses or cycloviruses. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to search for CLV-BR genomes in sewage and reclaimed water samples from the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, to verify whether the first detection of these viruses was an isolated finding. METHODS Sewage and reclaimed water samples collected concomitantly during the years 2005-2006 were purified and concentrated using methodologies designed for the study of viruses. A total of 177 treated reclaimed water samples were grouped into five pools, as were 177 treated raw sewage samples. Nucleic acid extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing were then performed.e FINDINGS CLV-BR genomes were detected in two pools of sewage samples, p6 and p9. Approximately 28% and 51% of the CLV-BR genome was amplified from p6 and p9, respectively, including 76% of the Rep gene. The detected genomes are most likely related to CLV-BR hs1. Comparative analysis showed several synonymous substitutions within Rep-encoding sequences, suggesting purifying selection for this gene, as has been observed for other eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses. MAIN CONCLUSION The results therefore indicated that CLV-BR has continued to circulate in Brazil two and three years after first being detected.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esgotos/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Circovirus/genética , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , Análise de Sequência
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 69-74, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841168

RESUMO

Abstract The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral carcinogenesis is still controversial as detection rates of the virus in oral cavity reported in the literature varies greatly. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection and its genotypes in patients with oral lesions at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Material and Methods We conducted a molecular study with 21 patients (15 females) aged from two to 83 years with clinically detectable oral lesions. Samples were collected through exfoliation of lesions and HPV-DNA was identified using MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers. Genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR. Results Benign, premalignant and malignant lesions were diagnosed by histopathology. HPV was detected in 17 samples. Of these, HPV-6 was detected in 10 samples, HPV-18 in four and HPV-16 in one sample. When samples were categorized by lesion types, HPV was detected in two papilloma cases (2/3), five carcinomas (5/6), one hyperplasia (1/1) and nine dysplasia cases (9/11). Conclusion Unlike other studies in the literature, we reported high occurrence of HPV in oral lesions. Further studies are required to enhance the comprehension of natural history of oral lesions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Doenças da Boca/virologia , Mucosa Bucal/virologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Biópsia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Viral , Sequência de Bases , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Doenças da Boca/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia
12.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 30(3): 109-112, 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-904928

RESUMO

In this work, we established an in vivo murine model of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) infection involving inoculation by scarification of the oral mucosain order to study its dissemination towards the trigeminal ganglion (TG). Both viral DNA and infectious virions were detected on the third day postinfection (p.i.). Viral proteins revealed by immunohistochemistry were mainly found at seven days p.i., when the latencyassociated transcript (LAT) was also detected. This model simulated the dissemination process of HSV1, which could be used to study herpes pathogenesis starting in the oral mucosa (AU)


Con el propósito de estudiar la dispersión de del Herpes Simplex Virus tipo 1 (HSV1) desde la mucosa oral hasta los ganglios trigeminales, en el presente trabajo se estableció un modelo de infección en ratones, haciendo inoculación por escarificación en la mucosa oral. Tanto ADN viral como viriones infecciosos se detectaron en los ganglios trigeminales al dia 3 postinfección (p.i.). Las proteínas virales se detectaron principalmente al día 7 p.i. cuando los transcritos asociados a latencia también fueron encontrados. El modelo de infección simula adecuadamente el proceso de dispersión del HSV1 y puede ser usado para el estudio de la patogénesis por herpes después de la infección primaria en la mucosa oral (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Mucosa Bucal , Gânglio Trigeminal , Colômbia , DNA Viral , Latência Viral
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 987-992, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828211

RESUMO

Abstract The quantification of viral nucleic acids in serum by real-time PCR plays an important role in diagnosing hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. In this study, we developed an assay using specific primers and probes to quantify hepatitis B virus DNA or hepatitis C virus RNA in serum from infected patients. For standardization and validation of the assay, an international panel of hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus and standard plasmids was used. A correlation coefficient of 0.983 and 0.963 for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, respectively, was obtained based on cycle threshold values and concentrations of DNA or RNA. The standard curve showed a linear relationship from 19 IU/mL to 1.9 × 109 IU/mL of serum, with a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.99. In sera from patients infected with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus viral loads (19 IU/mL and 1.9 × 109 IU/mL), we quantified viral loads with a detection limit of 1.9 × 102 IU/mL. The real-time quantitative PCR assay developed in this study provides an ideal system for routine diagnosis and confirmation of indeterminate serological results, especially in immunosuppressed patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Carga Viral , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/virologia , DNA Viral , RNA Viral , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 949-954, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828194

RESUMO

Abstract In this study a natural culture medium that mimics the synthetic yeast peptone glucose medium used for yeast fermentations was designed to screen and select yeasts capable of producing high levels of diacetyl and acetaldehyde. The presence of whey powder and sodium citrate in the medium along with manganese and magnesium sulfate enhanced both biomass and aroma development. A total of 52 yeasts strains were cultivated in two different culture media, namely, yeast peptone glucose medium and yeast acetaldehyde-diacetyl medium. The initial screening of the strains was based on the qualitative reaction of the acetaldehyde with Schiff's reagent (violet color) and diacetyl with Brady's reagent (yellow precipitate). The fermented culture media of 10 yeast strains were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify the concentration of acetaldehyde and diacetyl synthesized. Total titratable acidity values indicated that a total titratable acidity of 5.5 °SH, implying culture medium at basic pH, was more favorable for the acetaldehyde biosynthesis using strain D15 (Candida lipolytica; 96.05 mg L-1 acetaldehyde) while a total titratable acidity value of 7 °SH facilitated diacetyl flavor synthesis by strain D38 (Candida globosa; 3.58 mg L-1 diacetyl). Importantly, the results presented here suggest that this can be potentially used in the baking industry.


Assuntos
Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Carga Viral , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/virologia , DNA Viral , RNA Viral , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(6): 738-741, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-837975

RESUMO

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Angiosarcoma is an aggressive, malignant neoplasm of vascular or lymphatic origin. Herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is a member of the herpes family with a tropism for endothelial cells and it has been proven to induce vascular neoplasms, such as Kaposi's sarcoma. The role of HHV-8 in the pathogenesis of angiosarcoma has not been well defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the presence of HHV-8 and angiosarcoma. METHODS: In this study, the team investigated the relationship between the presence of HHV-8, as determined by polymerase chain reaction, and angiosarcoma, using samples from patients with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma as controls. RESULTS: While all control cases with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma were positive for HHV-8, none of the angiosarcoma cases was. CONCLUSION: These findings support most previous studies that found no association between HHV-8 and angiosarcoma.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sarcoma de Kaposi/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Soronegatividade para HIV , Herpesvirus Humano 8/isolamento & purificação , Hemangiossarcoma/virologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Brasil , DNA Viral , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/patologia , Globinas beta/análise , Hemangiossarcoma/patologia
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(12): 731-736, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-829255

RESUMO

The association between colorectal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is still unproven. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA in colorectal tissues from Cuban patients. A total of 63 colorectal formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were studied (24 adenocarcinoma, 18 adenoma, and 21 colorectal tissues classified as benign colitis). DNA from colorectal samples was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the most clinically relevant high HR-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58). Associations between histologic findings and other risk factors were also analysed. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in 23.8% (15/63) of the samples studied. Viral infections were detected in 41.7% of adenocarcinoma (10/24) and 27.7% of adenoma cases (5/18). HPV DNA was not found in any of the negative cases. An association between histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and HPV infection was observed (odd ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-16.80, p = 0.009). The only genotypes identified were HPV 16 and 33. Viral loads were higher in adenocarcinoma, and these cases were associated with HPV 16. This study provides molecular evidence of HR-HPV infection in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues from Cuban patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adenocarcinoma/virologia , Adenoma/virologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Cuba , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Carga Viral
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(11): 663-669, Nov. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-829247

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are strongly associated with the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and invasive cervical cancer. Polymorphisms in cytokine-encoding genes and behavioural cofactors could play an important role in protecting an individual against viral infections and cancer. Here, we investigated whether IL-6 -174 G>C, IL-8 +396 G>T, and TGF-β1 +869 G>C and +915 G>C polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to HPV infection in women from north-east (Pernambuco) Brazil. We analysed 108 healthy uninfected women (HC) and 108 HPV-positive women with cervical lesions. Genetic polymorphisms were assessed using Sanger sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Comparison of the distribution of the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the IL-18 +396 T>G polymorphism between HPV infected woman an uninfected controls showed that the GG genotype and G allele were both more frequent in the HC group, and were associated with protection from HPV infection (p = 0.0015; OR = 0.29 CI95% = 0.13-0.61; p = 0.0005; OR = 0.45 CI95% 0.29-0.7, respectively). Individuals from the control group could have previously had HPV infection that was spontaneously eliminated; however, it was undetectable at the time of sample collection. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the IL-8 +396 G>T polymorphism could interfere with susceptibility to HPV infection, by modulating the ability of immune system to fight the virus.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-8/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Brasil , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/análise , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(4): 397-403, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-792601

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to clarify differences regarding HPV16 infection and gene amplification between the oral cavity and oropharynx in healthy individuals. Material and Methods The subjects were 94 healthy asymptomatic individuals (41 males, 53 females; mean age 58.6 years, range 16-97 years) who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery of the Hiroshima University Hospital from 2014 to 2015. Oral epithelial cells were collected from oral rinse and pharynx gargle samples and placed in saline. The human endogenous retrovirus gene ERV3-1 was used as a reference to estimate the number of human cells in each sample. DNA samples were extracted from approximately 10,000 human cells and tested for HPV16 DNA by PCR using a type-specific primer. Similarly, we analyzed the HPV16 viral copy number in HPV16-positive cases using real-time PCR to examine genomic amplification. Results The percentage of HPV16-positive cases was higher in the gargle (28.7%) as compared to the rinse (16.0%) samples. In the oral rinse samples, males (26.8%) showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 than females (7.5%) (P=0.021). Importantly, in older subjects (aged 60-89 years), gargle samples showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 (33.3%) than oral rinse samples (13.7%) (P=0.034). The average number of viral copies was approximately 8 times higher in the gargle than in the oral rinse samples (0.16±0.27 vs. 1.35±1.26 copy numbers per cell), a significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the oropharynx is more susceptible to HPV16 infection as compared to the oral cavity, while HPV16 gene amplification is also more commonly found in the oropharynx.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Amplificação de Genes/fisiologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Boca/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Células , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Viral , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 513-517, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-780838

RESUMO

Abstract Ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (UTV2) , formerly known as porcine hokovirus due to its discovery in Hong Kong, is closely related to a Primate tetraparvovirus (human PARV-4) and Ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 (bovine hokovirus). Until now, UTV2 was detected in European, Asian and North American countries, but its occurrence in Latin America is still unknown. This study describes the first report of UTV2 in Brazil, as well as its phylogenetic characterization. Tissue samples (lymph node, lung, liver, spleen and kidney) of 240 piglets from eight different herds (30 animals each herd) were processed for DNA extraction. UTV2 DNA was detected by PCR and the entire VP1/VP2 gene was sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. All pigs from this study displayed postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). UTV2 was detected in 55.3% of the samples distributed in the variety of porcine tissues investigated, as well as detected in almost all herds, with one exception. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Brazilian UTV2 sequences were more closely related to sequences from Europe and United States.


Assuntos
Animais , Filogenia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Parvovirinae/classificação , Suínos , Brasil , DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirinae/genética
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(4): 252-257, Apr. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-778998

RESUMO

There are about 350 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide and chronic HBV is considered a major public health problem. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the nucleos(t)ide analogues tenofovir (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) in the treatment of chronic HBV. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March-December 2013, including all patients with chronic HBV, over 18 years of age, undergoing therapy through the public health system in southern Brazil. Only the data relating to the first treatments performed with TDF or ETV were considered. Retreatment, co-infection, transplanted or immunosuppressed patients were excluded. Six hundred and forty patients were evaluated, of which 336 (52.5%) received TDF and 165 (25.8%) ETV. The other 139 (21.7%) used various combinations of nucleos(t)ide analogues and were excluded. The negativation of viral load was observed in 87.3% and 78.8% and the negativation of hepatitis B e antigen was achieved in 79% and 72% of those treated with ETV or TDF, respectively. Negativation of hepatitis B surface antigen was not observed. There was no occurrence of adverse effects. This is a real-life study demonstrating that long-term treatment with ETV and TDF is both safe and effective.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Saúde Pública , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
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