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1.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(2): 308-316, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099522

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has become a global health problem causing severe human respiratory infections. Countries have had to establish strategies to avoid the collapse of health systems. There has been reports describing that the human-to-human transmission is through droplet spread and contact routes as through hands and contaminated surfaces. Social distancing, personal protective equipment, hand washing often, and surface disinfection play a fundamental role in disease control. Some procedures and situations aerosolize the SARS-CoV-2, so protection measures must be extreme. Hard work is underway to develop and implement a vaccine that would provide immunity to the population, but it will take some time. Preventive measures must incorporate good epidemiological monitoring that guarantees adequate control of cases and contacts in order to isolate them from the rest of the population, whether hospitalized or at home.


La pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 se ha convertido en un problema global de salud provocando infecciones respiratorias severas en humanos. Los países han tenido que establecer estrategias para evitar el colapso de los sistemas sanitarios. Se ha descrito una transmisión de persona a persona facilitada por propagación de gotitas, manos o superficies contaminadas. El distanciamiento físico, los elementos de protección personal, el lavado de manos frecuente y la desinfección de superficies cumplen un rol fundamental en el control de la enfermedad. Algunos procedimientos y situaciones aerosolizan el SARS-CoV-2 por lo que se deben extremar las medidas de protección. Se trabaja arduamente para lograr una vacuna que otorgue inmunidad a la población, pero su desarrollo va a tomar algún tiempo. Las medidas preventivas deben incorporar una buena vigilancia epidemiológica que garantice el control adecuado de los casos y contactos, con el objeto de aislarlos del resto de la población, ya sea hospitalizados o en sus domicilios.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Vacinas Virais , Desinfecção , Desinfecção das Mãos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias , Máscaras
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 790-794, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974287

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Although the use of vaccines has controlled enteric diseases in dogs in many developed countries, vaccine coverage is still under optimal situation in Brazil. There is a large population of nonimmunized dogs and few studies about the identification of the viruses associated with diarrhea. To address this situation, stool samples from 325 dogs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for the detection of common enteric viruses such as Canine adenovirus (CAdV), Canine coronavirus (CCoV), Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine rotavirus (CRV) and Carnivorous protoparvovirus 1 (canine parvovirus 2; CPV-2). At least one of these species was detected in 56.6% (184/325) of the samples. The viruses detected most frequently in either diarrheic or nondiarrheic dog feces were CPV-2 (54.3% of the positive samples), CDV (45.1%) and CCoV (30.4%), followed by CRV (8.2%) and CAdV (4.9%). Only one agent was detected in the majority of the positive samples (63%), but co-infections were present in 37% of the positive samples and mainly included CDV and CPV-2. The data presented herein can improve the clinical knowledge in regions with low vaccine coverage and highlight the need to improve the methods used to control these infectious diseases in domestic dogs.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/veterinária , Filogenia , Brasil , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia
3.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(4): 293-302, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042618

RESUMO

Desde el descubrimiento del virus respiratorio sincicial (VRS) en 1956, se ha demostrado en todo el mundo su impacto como el principal causante de infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRAB) que requieren hospitalización en el lactante. Posteriormente se ha descrito que una inadecuada respuesta inmune favorece reinfecciones en la infancia. Más recientemente, numerosos trabajos epidemiológicos lo han asociado a IRAB en adultos, especialmente de tercera edad y en ciertos pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Se ha avanzado en el conocimiento de la estructura y función de los diferentes componentes del VRS, lo que ha permitido facilitar su diagnóstico y avanzar en estrategias de desarrollo de antivirales y vacunas. En efecto, el diagnóstico de laboratorio de VRS es muy simple en niños, por su alta excreción viral, pero para demostrar su participación en adultos se requieren técnicas de alta sensibilidad. La patogenia de la infección es muy compleja y muchos aspectos todavía no se han aclarado. Intervienen factores dependientes del virus -cepa, dosis infectiva, capacidad del virus de inhibir la respuesta inmune- y del hospedero humano, como edad, enfermedades concomitantes, integridad del aparato inmune y otros. Se menciona que otros factores como frío, humedad ambiental, contaminación aérea, hacinamiento, también actuarían en combinación con los inicialmente mencionados. Es necesario conocer los mecanismos responsables de la adquisición de inmunidad contra el VRS para entender las estrategias usadas en el intento de desarrollar vacunas, cuyos esfuerzos son todavía infructuosos. Actualmente se conoce bastante del VRS como patógeno de niños. Sin embargo, cada día se documenta más su participación en enfermedades de adultos, por lo que haremos un resumen para promover su consideración como posible patógeno respiratorio.


Since respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was identified in 1956, its impact as the main cause of severe acute lower respiratory infections in infants has been shown. Studies about RSV immunopathogenesis have demonstrated that the host immune response is important in protecting from re-infections. The presence of RSV in exacerbation of chronic diseases as COPD and bronchial asthma in adults and its severity in cases with immunodeficiency has been also related to an inadequate response. The actual knowledge on the molecular structure and functions of the virus has allowed to improve diagnosis and to develop new strategies for vaccines and antiviral drugs. The etiologic diagnosis in children is easier than in adults due to the higher viral shedding; therefore techniques based on antibody reactions (immunofluorescence, immunocromatography, etc) are good enough in this group. By contrast, in adults, highly sensitive molecular techniques are needed. Although the advances in understanding the pathogenesis process in neonates and infants, many pathogenic factors still need to be elucidated. The virus strains, viral loads and immune response have been described as important players; however, the changes on the host immunity to RSV according to age and co-morbidities associated to severity of illness needs to be explored. RSV has been known as a children pathogen, nowadays this agent is being recognized as an important agent in adults, especially in those with chronic diseases, immunodeficiency and in immune-senescence.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/patogenicidade , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/terapia
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(12): 1155-1159, Dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842035

RESUMO

In order to investigate the immune enhancement effects of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide Ophiopogon japonicus (OJPS) on Newcastle disease (ND) live vaccine, chickens vaccinated against ND live vaccine was orally administered with the OJPS at high, medium and low concentrations respectively. In negative control group, chickens were given orally equal volume of physiological saline. On day 14, 21 and 28, the serum antibody titer, erythrocyte-C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR), erythrocyte-C3b immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) and peripheral lymphocyte proliferation were measured. The results showed that at most time points, the antibody titer, peripheral lymphocyte proliferation, E-C3bRR and elimination rate of immune complex of three OJPS administrating groups were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in negative control group. It indicated that OJPS could significantly improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease live vaccine, Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide possessed synergistical immunoenhancement.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Ophiopogon/química , Vacinas Virais/análise , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Anticorpos/sangue , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 861-865, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755806

RESUMO

Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18th(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

.


Assuntos
Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/classificação , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cultura Primária de Células , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(9): 843-851, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-756410

RESUMO

A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) defective in glycoprotein E (gE) was constructed from a Brazilian genital BoHV-1 isolate, by replacing the full gE coding region with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene for selection. Upon co-transfection of MDBK cells with genomic viral DNA plus the GFP-bearing gE-deletion plasmid, three fluorescent recombinant clones were obtained out of approximately 5000 viral plaques. Deletion of the gE gene and the presence of the GFP marker in the genome of recombinant viruses were confirmed by PCR. Despite forming smaller plaques, the BoHV-1△gE recombinants replicated in MDBK cells with similar kinetics and to similar titers to that of the parental virus (SV56/90), demonstrating that the gE deletion had no deleterious effects on replication efficacy in vitro. Thirteen calves inoculated intramuscularly with BoHV-1△gE developed virus neutralizing antibodies at day 42 post-infection (titers from 2 to 16), demonstrating the ability of the recombinant to replicate and to induce a serological response in vivo. Furthermore, the serological response induced by recombinant BoHV-1△gE could be differentiated from that induced by wild-type BoHV-1 by the use of an anti-gE antibody ELISA kit. Taken together, these results indicated the potential application of recombinant BoHV-1 △gE in vaccine formulations to prevent the losses caused by BoHV-1 infections while allowing for differentiation of vaccinated from naturally infected animals.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Deleção de Genes , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/química , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/genética , Immunoblotting , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Recombinação Genética/genética , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/genética , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(4): 303-309, jul.-ago. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-694785

RESUMO

La Fiebre Hemorrágica Argentina es una enfermedad producida por el virus Junín. Para la prevención de esta enfermedad se obtuvo una vacuna efectiva denominada Candid#1. Durante un ensayo clínico realizado en el INEVH, dos cepas de virus Junín fueron aisladas de sangre periférica de dos voluntarios mediante co-cultivo de células mononucleares. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar las características fenotípicas de atenuación de esas dos cepas recuperadas de humanos con las de la vacuna Candid#1 utilizando los indicadores de atenuación desarrollados por Contigiani y Sabattini en 1977. A tal fin se midieron los índices de letalidad, infección y protección en cobayos y ratones de diferentes edades. Las tres cepas investigadas resultaron letales para ratones recién nacidos pero no para ratones de 10 a 12 días, ratones adultos ni cobayos, aun a la más baja dilución inoculada. Los cobayos inoculados con las cepas recuperadas de humanos y con la cepa Candid#1 no presentaron síntomas de enfermedad y mostraron estar protegidos cuando fueron desafiados con una cepa patógena. Los índices de infección y de protección hallados indican que estas cepas poseen elevada capacidad infectante y protectora en las especies animales aquí estudiadas. Estos resultados demuestran que las cepas de virus Junín aisladas de voluntarios inmunizados con Candid#1 mantienen el mismo fenotipo atenuado de la vacuna Candid#1 después de un pasaje por humanos.


Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a severe acute disease caused by Junin virus. For prevention of this disease an effective vaccine called Candid#1 has been developed, composed of a live attenuated Junin virus strain. During a clinical trial conducted at Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas (INEVH) in 2005, Junin virus was isolated from two vaccinated volunteers by co-culture of peripheral mononuclear blood cells. The aim of this study was to compare the strains isolated from these human volunteers with Candid#1 strain regarding phenotypic characteristics of attenuation according to the indicators developed by Contigiani and Sabattini in 1977. The three strains were lethal to suckling mice but not to 10-12 days old mice and guinea pigs. Surviving guinea pigs from primary infection were protected when challenged by intra-muscular inoculation with lethal doses of a virulent strain. Infection and protection rates indicate that these strains are highly infective and protective in the hosts studied herein. These results demonstrate that Junin virus strains isolated from volunteers immunized with Candid#1 maintain the same attenuated phenotype of Candid#1 vaccine after one passage in humans.


Assuntos
Animais , Cobaias , Humanos , Camundongos , Marcadores Genéticos , Vírus Junin/isolamento & purificação , Fenótipo , Vacinas Virais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/sangue , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/imunologia , Vírus Junin/imunologia , Vírus Junin/patogenicidade , Testes de Neutralização , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(2): 687-692, jun. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-687125

RESUMO

A trial was conducted to compare the cellular responses in the respiratory tract in intranasal vaccination against caprine Peste des petits ruminant lineage 1 variant virus infection with intramuscular and subcutaneous vaccinations in order to elucidate the mechanism of the protection. Twenty four goats were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 was vaccinated intranasaly, group 2 was vaccinated subcutaneously, and group 3 intramuscularly, while Group 4 was the unvaccinated control group. In each group the vaccinations were carried out once. All goats were challenged intratrachealy with PPR virus at a concentration of 106.5 TCID50 two weeks after vaccination and were euthanised 21 days after the challenge. The bronchoalveolar lavage differential count, bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) responses were measured using standard techniques. Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA was employed and significance was at p < 0.05. The exposure also resulted into significant increase in the number and size of BALT as well as the number of lymphocytes in BALT. This study showed the mechanism of the protective effect of intranasal vaccination of PPR vaccine observed with the strong mucosal and defensive cellular responses in the respiratory tract observed than the subcutaneous and intramuscular routes.


Se realizó un ensayo para comparar las respuestas celulares en las vías respiratorias después de la vacunación intranasal contra la variante caprina de la infección del virus peste de pequeños rumiantes linaje 1 con vacunas intramusculares y subcutáneas con el fin de dilucidar el mecanismo de protección. Veinticuatro cabras fueron divididas en cuatro grupos iguales. El Grupo 1 fue vacunado por vía intranasal, el grupo 2 vía subcutánea, el grupo 3 vía intramuscular y el grupo 4 control no vacunado. En cada grupo se vacunó sólo una vez. Todas las cabras fueron expuestas al virus peste de pequeños rumiantes por vía intratraqueal a una concentración de 106.5 TCID50 2 semanas después de la vacunación, y fueron sometidos a eutanasia 21 días después. Se midieron el recuento diferencial del lavado broncoalveolar y las respuestas de los tejidos linfoides asociados bronquios (BALT) utilizando técnicas estándar. Los resultados se evaluaron por estadística descriptiva y ANOVA, con una significación p<0,05. La exposición también mostró un aumento significativo en el número y tamaño del BALT, así como el número de linfocitos en este. El estudio mostró que el mecanismo del efecto protector de la vacunación intranasal contra el virus peste de pequeños rumiantes posee una respuesta mucosa y celular defensiva en el tracto respiratorio mayor que la observada por vacunación vía subcutánea e intramuscular.


Assuntos
Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Administração Intranasal , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Sistema Respiratório , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Análise de Variância , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1102-1111, Dec. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-659651

RESUMO

Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks.


Assuntos
Humanos , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Biotecnologia
13.
Rev. méd. Costa Rica Centroam ; 69(604): 455-459, oct.-dic. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-762525

RESUMO

El virus del papiloma humano es una de las infecciones de transmisión sexual más comunes, se encuentra asociado con varias enfermedades desde cáncer cervical y anal, hasta verrugas genitales. Sus particulares inmunológicas le permiten subsistir en algunos pacientes y causar enfermedades malignas. Con la aprobación de la vacuna tetravalente contra el VPH los médicos poseemos una nueva arma en la prevención primaria contra el cáncer cervical, las verrugas genitales y el cáncer anal. Este trabajo revisa los conocimientos actuales sobre esta vacuna y sus indicaciones en medicina general.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/patologia , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Imunoterapia Ativa , Papiloma , Vacinas Virais , Costa Rica
15.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2012. xxiii,100 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-695553

RESUMO

O desenvolvimento e a produção de vacinas virais, de uma forma geral, envolvem diversas etapas que necessitam do monitoramento da carga viral ao longo de todo processo. Essas etapas vão desde a produção do antígeno, purificação, inativação, liofilização, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos e uma vez o produto licenciado, um processo de farmacovigilância contínuo se faz necessário. Atualmente em Biomanguinhos essas etapas são monitoradas pelo ensaio de titulação em placa de lise que leva em torno de sete a dez dias. Com o recente desenvolvimento do qRT-PCR em tempo real (qRT-PCR), temos disponível uma abordagem mais rápida para este monitoramento, que pode ser feito em poucas horas. Dentro deste contexto, desenvolver, padronizar e validar uma técnica que permita quantificar o vírus da febre amarela de forma rápida e eficaz em todas as etapas acima descritas é de extrema importância na otimização deste processo. Para tal foi construída uma curva padrão plasmidial e parâmetros como linearidade, precisão intermediária e especificidade foram avaliados. Além disso, foi definido o limite de detecção e quantificação do teste. Para garantir a qualidade do teste foram estabelecidos controles exógenos e endógenos, a fim de evitar resultados falso negativos. A análise estatística dos dados de quantificação viral, nos revelam uma excelente correlação entre os resultados obtidos em cópias de RNA/mL quantificados por qRT-PCR e o título viral calculados em ensaios de plaque (R = 0.96), além da obteção de um fator de correlação, para conversão dos valores de PCR em tempo real para plaque. A análise dos resultados demonstrou que os experimentos da validação atendem a todos os parâmetros definidos pelo setor de qualidade. Esta técnica se mostrou eficiente para determinação da carga viral do vírus da febre amarela tanto em amostra in vivo quanto in vitro, tornando-se assim uma ferramenta muito importante em todos os projetos desenvolvidos no LATEV e podendo inclusive, no futuro ser adotada como padrão ouro nas análises laboratoriais e de controle de qualidade dos lotes vacinais.


Assuntos
Aedes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vacinas Virais , Febre Amarela , Vírus da Febre Amarela
16.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 34(4): 275-279, 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-648526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses) and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Vacinas Virais , Leucemia Linfoide , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Criança , Imunização
17.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 74(4): 159-162, dic. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-659192

RESUMO

Actualmente la Administración de drogas y Alimentos (FdA) de estados unidos aprobó dos vacunas para prevenir la infección por vPh (virus de Papiloma humano): Gardasil® (vacuna tetravalente) y cervarix ® (vacuna bivalente). Ambas vacunas son muy efectivas en la prevención de infecciones persistentes por los tipos 16 y 18 de vPh, dos de los vPh de “alto riesgo” que causan la mayoría (70%) delos cánceres de cuello uterino y en menor porcentaje de cáncer de ano y pene. Gardasil® impide también la infección por los tipos 6 y 11 de vPh, los cuales causan prácticamente todas (90%) las verrugas genitales. se presenta un resumen de la inmunogenicidad, eficacia, indicaciones, modo de empleo y presentaciones comerciales de estas dos vacunas


the Food and drug Administration (FdA) of usA licensed two vaccines for the prevention of vPh (human Papillomavirus) infection: Gardasil® (quadrivalent vaccine) and cervarix® (bivalent vaccine). Both vaccines are very effective in the prevention of persistent infection by serotypes 16 and 18 of vPh, two of the “high risk” vPh, which cause 70% of cervical cancers and in low percentages anal and penile cancers. Gardasil® prevents infection by serotytpes 6 and 11, which cause almost all (90%) of genital warts.this review presents the immunogenicity, efficacy, recommendations, doses, administration and commercial presentation of bothvaccines


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Papiloma/virologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Verrugas/etiologia , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/terapia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Farmacologia
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(6): 829-833, Sept. 2010. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-560671

RESUMO

As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV). No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7 percent for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4 percent for WEEV and 47.7 percent for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis , Encefalomielite Equina/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos , Vacinas Virais , Brasil , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/imunologia , Encefalomielite Equina , Encefalomielite Equina , Encefalomielite Equina , Cavalos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Testes de Neutralização/veterinária , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 70(3): 215-222, mayo-jun. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-633744

RESUMO

Se realizó un estudio clínico en 946 voluntarios humanos sanos, donde se comparó la vacuna Candid#1 producida en Argentina con la elaborada en EE.UU., que había sido utilizada en estudios previos. Como objetivo primario se evaluó la equivalencia en la eficacia utilizando como marcador subrogante a la inmunogenicidad medida por detección de anticuerpos neutralizantes. Como objetivo secundario se evaluó la equivalencia en inocuidad comparando las tasas de reacciones adversas. Ambas vacunas mostraron una tasa equivalente de inmunogenicidad ligeramente superior al 95.5%, que es la eficacia estimada para Candid #1 en estudios previos. No se observaron eventos adversos graves relacionados con la vacuna. Los eventos adversos generales considerados relacionados fueron de escasa significación clínica y de resolución espontánea o con tratamiento sintomático; se presentaron en los receptores de ambas vacunas en tasas equivalentes (29.9% para la vacuna fabricada en la Argentina y 35.0% para la fabricada en EE.UU.), e incluyeron: cefalea, decaimiento, mialgias, plaquetopenia leve (< 150 000 plaquetas/mm³), náuseas y/o vómitos, leucopenia leve (< 4 000 blancos/mm³), fiebre, dolor retroocular, mareos, microhematuria, lumbalgia y exantema. Estos resultados indican que la vacuna Candid #1 elaborada en la Argentina es equivalente a la elaborada en los EE.UU. Este estudio permitió el registro del biológico producido en la Argentina ante la autoridad regulatoria del país (ANMAT).


A clinical study in 946 human volunteers was done to compare Candid #1 vaccine manufactured in Argentina with the vaccine produced in USA that had been previously used. The efficacy was evaluated using immunogenicity measured by the detection of neutralizing antibodies as a subrogate marker. Safety was evaluated comparing the rate of adverse events. Both vaccines showed a comparable rate of seroconversion, slighty higher than the efficacy estimated from previous studies (95.5%). There were no severe adverse events related to the vaccines. The general events considered related to the vaccines were not clinically relevant and disappeared either spontaneously or with symptomatic treatment. Similar rates of adverse events (29.9% for the Argentine vaccine and 35.0% for the USA vaccine) were found for both vaccines. These included: headache, weakness, myalgias, mild low blood cell (< 4 000/mm³) and platelet (< 150 000/mm³) counts, nausea and/or vomiting, fever, retroocular pain, dizziness, microhematuria, low backache and exantema. These results indicate that the vaccine Candid#1 manufactured in Argentina is equivalent to the manufactured in USA. These results allowed the National Institute of Human Viral Diseases (INEVH) to register the vaccine produced locally under the National Regulatory Authority (ANMAT).


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/prevenção & controle , Vírus Junin/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Argentina , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(2): 217-224, Feb. 2010. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-538233

RESUMO

Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is an important pathogen of cattle in South America. We describe here the construction and characterization of deletion mutants defective in the glycoprotein E (gE) or thymidine kinase (TK) gene or both (gE/TK) from a highly neurovirulent and well-characterized Brazilian BoHV-5 strain (SV507/99). A gE-deleted recombinant virus (BoHV-5 gE∆) was first generated in which the entire gE open reading frame was replaced with a chimeric green fluorescent protein gene. A TK-deleted recombinant virus (BoHV-5 TK∆) was then generated in which most of the TK open reading frame sequences were deleted and replaced with a chimeric â-galactosidase gene. Subsequently, using the BoHV-5 gE∆ virus as backbone, a double gene-deleted (TK plus gE) BoHV-5 recombinant (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆) was generated. The deletion of the gE and TK genes was confirmed by immunoblotting and PCR, respectively. In Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, the mutants lacking gE (BoHV-5 gE∆) and TK + gE (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆) produced small plaques while the TK-deleted BoHV-5 produced wild-type-sized plaques. The growth kinetics and virus yields in MDBK cells for all three recombinants (BoHV-5 gE∆, BoHV-5 TK∆ and BoHV-5 gE/TK∆) were similar to those of the parental virus. It is our belief that the dual gene-deleted recombinant (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆) produced on the background of a highly neurovirulent Brazilian BoHV-5 strain may have potential application in a vaccine against BoHV-5.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Deleção de Genes , /genética , Timidina Quinase/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Vírus Defeituosos/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , /imunologia , /patogenicidade , Immunoblotting , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Recombinação Genética/genética , Timidina Quinase/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Virulência/genética
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