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1.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 1-6, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088742

RESUMO

Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a challenging disease in terms of remission rates and treatment approaches. All theoretical approaches are needed for a better understanding. Compared to other theories, it has not been examined sufficiently from the perspective of gestalt theory in the literature. Objective To examine and compare the Gestalt Contact Styles of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the Control Group and to examine the relationship between Gestalt Contact Styles and OCD symptoms. Methods 50 OCD patients were compared with the healthy control group. All patients were evaluated with the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Padua Inventory (PI), and the Gestalt Contact Styles Scale-Revised Form (GCSS-RF). For the control group, GCSS-RF was applied. Results The scores of the OCD patients for GCSS-RF "Retroflection" and "Deflection" subscales were significantly higher than the Control Group. Statistically significant high scores were found between the subscales of Padua Inventory "contamination obsessions and washing compulsions", "obsessional thoughts", "obsessional impulses" and "checking compulsions" subtypes and Gestalt contact styles in the Patient Group in a symptomatological examined manner. With these findings, in terms of Gestalt Contact Styles, it is seen that the difference between Patient and Control Groups is significantly different. There was no significant relationship between the Yale-Brown total score of the Patient Group and the GCSS-RF subscales. Discussion In conclusion, the findings of the study showed significant differences in terms of Gestalt Contact Styles (Retroflection, Contact, Deflection, Desensitization, Confluence) in Patient and Control Groups and OCD symptoms. These results are important to Gestalt Therapists in terms of shedding light on the therapeutic intervention to be done for an OCD patient and contributing to the literature.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Gestalt/métodos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Inventário de Personalidade , Projeção , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Mecanismos de Defesa , Dessensibilização Psicológica/métodos , Introversão Psicológica
2.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 25-29, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088741

RESUMO

Abstract Background The Emotional and Affective Composite Temperament (AFECT) model describes originally six traits of volition, anger, inhibition (fear and caution subordinate factors), control, sensitivity, and coping. However, fear and caution have shown opposite relatioships with criteria-variables, indicating factor independence. Objective The current investigation aimed to advance in the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the emotional trait section of the Emotional and Affective Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS) by examining the suitability of a 7-factor structure and the reliability of each scale using data from a population-based sample. Methods AFECTS was administered via face-to-face assessments in a single-session, population-based cross-sectional survey. Samples was composed of teenagers and adults (14 to 35 years). The latent structure and reliability were analyzed via structural equation modeling: confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the a priori correlated 7-factor model (with fear and caution designed as single-factors) and trait-scores reliability was assessed by the estimation of information curves. Results Findings attested the suitability of the 7-factor model presumed to underline the item set of the traits section of AFECTS and information curve interpretation showed adequate levels of reliability for all trait-scores. Discussion The 7-factor model showed robust indicators of construct validity for the AFECTS.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Psicometria/métodos , Temperamento , Emoções , Modelos Psicológicos , Inventário de Personalidade , Volição , Adaptação Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Afeto , Precaução , Controle Comportamental , Empatia , Medo/psicologia , Ira
3.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(5): 428-432, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039099

RESUMO

Objective: Fibromyalgia (FM) patients have higher rates of depression and anxiety disorders than healthy controls. Affective temperament features are subclinical manifestations of mood disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the affective temperaments of FM patients and investigate their association with depression and anxiety levels and clinical findings. Methods: This cross-sectional study included FM patients and healthy controls. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to determine patient anxiety and depression levels, and the Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego, self-administered version was applied to assess affective temperaments in all subjects. Disease severity was assessed in FM patients with the Fibromyalgia Criteria and Severity Scales and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Differences between groups were evaluated using Student's t-tests. Correlations among parameters were performed. Results: This study involved 38 patients with FM (30 female) and 30 healthy controls (25 female). Depressive, anxious and cyclothymic temperaments were significantly higher in FM patients than healthy controls. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between HADS depression score and all temperaments except hyperthymic, as well as between HADS anxiety score and cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. HADS depression and anxiety scores were correlated with symptom severity. We found a higher risk of depression and anxiety among FM patients with higher FIQ scores. Conclusion: This study is the first to evaluate affective temperament features of FM patients. Evaluating temperamental traits in FM patients may help clinicians determine which patients are at risk for depression and anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Temperamento , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(3): 297-300, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043533

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) to the Brazilian context. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation involved the steps of independent translation of the instrument, synthesis version, and back-translation. Analysis of content validity was conducted by a multidisciplinary expert committee and consisted of quantitative assessment of agreement indicators. The test was then applied to a target population. Results All the steps required for a cross-cultural adaptation were followed and satisfactory agreement values (≥ 4.75) were reached for most of the structures assessed. Most of the changes suggested by the experts were followed; these changes consisted primarily of adjustments to verb tense and agreement and the inclusion of letters and words to allow gender inflection. In the pre-test, no suggestions were made and the instrument was considered comprehensible. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the PID-5 was found to be adequate to the Brazilian context from semantic, idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual perspectives. The Brazilian version assessed here can be freely used, was approved by the publishers who hold the copyright on the instrument, and is considered the official version of the instrument. New studies are underway to determine the validity and reliability of the PID-5.


Resumo Objetivo Apresentar o processo de adaptação transcultural do Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) para o contexto brasileiro. Métodos A adaptação transcultural envolveu as etapas de tradução independente, versão síntese e retrotradução. A validade de conteúdo foi realizada por um comitê multidisciplinar de especialistas, com avaliação quantitativa dos índices de concordância. Por fim, o pré-teste foi conduzido com a população-alvo. Resultados Todos os estágios da adaptação transcultural foram seguidos, e na maioria das estruturas avaliadas, os valores de concordância foram satisfatórios (≥ 4.75). Grande parte das sugestões de modificações feitas pelos especialistas foram acatadas, sendo as principais relacionadas a ajustes no tempo e concordância verbal e a inclusão de letras e palavras para permitir a flexão de gênero. No pré-teste nenhuma sugestão foi apresentada e o instrumento foi considerado compreensível. Conclusão A versão brasileira do PID-5 mostrou-se adequada ao contexto brasileiro sob as perspectivas semântica, idiomática, cultural e conceitual. A versão brasileira avaliada é de uso livre, foi aprovada pelas editoras responsáveis pelos direitos autorais do instrumento e é considerada oficial. Novos estudos estão sendo conduzidos para aprimorar a busca por evidencias de validade e confiabilidade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Traduções , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais
5.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(2): 148-152, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039094

RESUMO

Objective: The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) posits that psychopathology is hierarchically structured. For personality disorder (PD) traits, there are five spectra: internalizing, thought disorder, disinhibited externalizing, antagonistic externalizing, and detachment. Empirical findings suggest a sixth group, compulsivity. In this research, we tried to recover the five HiTOP spectra, plus compulsivity, specifically for PD traits. Methods: The sample was composed of 4,868 Brazilians (54.9% women, age ranging from 18 to 70; mean = 25.7; SD = 9.64). All participants answered the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory 2 (IDCP-2), a self-report inventory for adults, developed in Brazil, for assessment of pathological personality traits. Results: Parallel analysis yielded up to nine factors. On exploratory structural equation modeling (E-SEM), the balance between interpretability and fit index suggested the six-factor solution as the best solution. The fit indexes for the confirmatory factor analysis were slightly less adjusted in comparison to the empirical model. Conclusion: The hypothesis was confirmed, as we did find the groups proposed at the spectrum level of the HiTOP. We also found a compulsivity factor, encompassing the main traits from the conscientiousness dimension of IDCP-2, which is related to obsessive-compulsive PD. Finding the six groupings of traits in the HiTOP model contributes to the validity of this model, and confirms the existence of proposed spectra.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos
6.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(1): 78-82, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043520

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the most widely studied personality disorders (PDs). It recurrently shows traits of emotional lability, anxiety, separation insecurity, depressiveness, impulsiveness, risk exposure, and hostility, mainly affecting the domains of negative affectivity and antagonism. Objectives To investigate the most discriminant dimensions of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade 2 [IDCP-2]) to distinguish people diagnosed with BPD from people without this diagnosis. Methods A total of 305 participants were included in this study: psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with BPD (n = 30), psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with other PDs (n = 75), and a community sample (n = 200). BPD traits were assessed using the dependency, mood instability, and inconsequence dimensions of the IDCP-2. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparisons indicated highest mean measures in the BPD group, and mood instability factors were the most discriminant ones when considering all groups. Applying the multiple regression analysis, we found an adjusted r 2 = 0.50, and hopelessness was the most predictive measure (β = 0.32; t = 6.19; p < 0.001). Conclusions We found discriminatory capacity for factors of all dimensions, although at different levels, and more consistent results to discriminate the BPD group from the community sample.


Resumo Introdução O transtorno da personalidade borderline (TPB) tem sido um dos transtornos de personalidade (TPs) mais estudados. O TPB recorrentemente apresenta traços de instabilidade emocional, ansiedade, insegurança de separação, depressividade, impulsividade, exposição ao risco e hostilidade, afetando principalmente os domínios relacionados à afetividade negativa e ao antagonismo. Objetivos Investigar as dimensões mais discriminativas do Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade 2 (IDCP-2) para distinguir pessoas diagnosticadas com TPB de pessoas sem esse diagnóstico. Métodos Foram incluídos no estudo 305 participantes: pacientes psiquiátricos com TPB (n = 30), pacientes psiquiátricos com outros TPs (n = 75) e amostra da população geral (n = 200). Os traços de TPB foram avaliados utilizando as dimensões dependência, instabilidade de humor e inconsequência do IDCP-2. Resultados As comparações com análise de variância (ANOVA) indicaram que o grupo TPB apresentou as maiores médias, e os fatores da dimensão instabilidade de humor foram os mais discriminativos ao se comparar os três grupos. Usando a análise de regressão múltipla, foi encontrado um r 2 ajustado = 0,50, e o fator desesperança foi o mais preditivo (β = 0,32; t = 6,19; p < 0,001). Conclusões Foi encontrada capacidade discriminativa para fatores de todas as dimensões, embora em diferentes níveis, e resultados mais consistentes quanto à discriminação foram observados para a distinção entre o grupo com TPB e a população geral.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/fisiopatologia , Assunção de Riscos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Codependência Psicológica/fisiologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 50(3): 32336, 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026769

RESUMO

O Inventário de Jesness ­ revisado brasileiro (IJ-R-Br) avalia aspectos do funcionamento psicológico de adolescentes em conflito com a lei. O objetivo deste estudo foi obter suas evidências de precisão e de validade de critério de duas de suas medidas. Foram analisadas as respostas de 928 adolescentes escolares do sexo masculino ao IJ-R-Br e ao Questionário de Comportamento Juvenis (QCJ). A precisão foi calculada pelo alfa de Cronbach e coeficiente de Spearman-Brown. A validade de critério, por meio do teste t de Student, de qui-quadrado e análise risco relativo, para verificar associação entre altos escores nas medidas e altos indicadores de engajamento infracional (medidos pelo QCJ). Os resultados de precisão foram insatisfatórios somente para três de 12 escalas do Inventário. Quanto à validade de critério, há mais adolescentes com indicadores altos de engajamento infracional no grupo com escores elevados. É oportuno realizar pesquisas com população de adolescentes infratores.


El Inventario de Jesness - revisado brasileiro (IJ-R-Br) evalua aspectos del funcionamiento de adolescentes en conflicto con la ley. El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener sus evidencias de precisión y de validez de criterio de dos de sus medidas. Se analizaron las respuestas de 928 adolescentes escolares del sexo masculino al IJ-R-Br y al Questionário de Comportamento Juvenis (QCJ). La precisión fue calculada por el alfa de Cronbach y el coeficiente de Spearman-Brown. La validez de criterio, por medio del test t de Student, de chi-cuadrado y análisis de riesgo relativo, para verificar la asociación entre altos escores en las medidas y altos indicadores de compromiso infraccional (medidos por el QCJ). Los resultados de precisión fueron insatisfactorios sólo para tres de 12 escalas del inventario. En cuanto a la validez de criterio, hay más adolescentes con indicadores altos de compromiso infraccional en el grupo con puntuaciones elevadas. Es oportuno realizar investigaciones con población de adolescentes infractores.


The Inventário de Jesness ­ revisado brasileiro (IJ-R-Br) assess psychological aspects of adolescent offenders. The objective of this study was to obtain evidence of reliability and criterion validity of two IJ-R-Br's subscales. The responses of 928 male adolescents to the IJ-R-Br and the Questionário de Comportamento Juvenis (QCJ) were analyzed. Reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha and SpearmanBrown coefficient. The criterion validity, through the Student's t-test, of chi-squared and relative risk analysis, was used to verify the association between high scores on measures and high indicators of infractional engagement (measured by QCJ). The accuracy scores were unsatisfactory only for three of 12 Inventory scales. Regarding the criterion validity, there are more adolescents with high indicators of infractional engagement in the group with high scores. It is opportune to conduct research with a population of teenage offenders.


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Delinquência Juvenil
8.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(3): 270-276, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-959243

RESUMO

Objective: Impulsiveness has been the subject of much research, but little is known about the possible relationship between craniofacial anatomy and impulsiveness. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between one aspect of craniofacial structure (the angle of inclination of the forehead) and impulsiveness. Method: Photographs in profile were obtained from 131 volunteers who had been fined for driving at high speed and were undergoing a court-mandated driving license point-recovery course. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P), and Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (V). The angle of the slant of the forehead was measured with a photographic support and a protractor. Results: High positive concordance was found between forehead inclination and 14 out of the 15 impulsiveness factors studied. Conclusions: The angle of inclination of the forehead was significantly associated with self-reported impulsiveness in this sample of traffic violators.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Testa/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Sexuais , Cefalometria/métodos , Face/anatomia & histologia , Autorrelato , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/anatomia & histologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
9.
Cienc. act. fís. (Talca, En línea) ; 19(2): 1-10, jul. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-994778

RESUMO

El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las propiedades psicométricas del Inventario Psicológico de Ejecución Deportiva (IPED) en nadadores federados de Chile. Para ello se evaluaron 99 sujetos de los cuales 41 son damas (41,4%) y 58 son varones (58,6%). Los resultados muestran que las sub-escalas de autoconfianza, control de afrontamiento negativo, control visuo-imaginativo y nivel emocional estaban compuestas por un solo factor que explicaba entre el 37% y 42% de la varianza, en tanto, las sub-escalas de control atencional, control de afrontamiento positivo y control actitudinal estaban compuestas por dos factores que explicaban entre el 57% y 67% de la varianza total. La consistencia interna de cada sub-escala fue aceptable. Los resultados muestran que este inventario es confiable y valido en la muestra utilizada. Son necesarias futuras investigaciones en una muestra más amplia que abarque nadadores de todo el país.


The aim of the present study was to understand the psychometric properties of the Psychological Inventory of Sports Execution (IPED) in national swimmers of Chile. There were 99 subjects evaluated, of which 41 were ladies (41,4%) and 58 were males (58,6%). The results show that the sub-scales of self-confidence, negative confrontation control, visual-imaginative control and emotional level were composed by an alone factor that was explaining between 37% and 42% of the variance, while, the sub-scales of attentional control, positive confrontation control and attitudinal control were composed by them by two factors they were explaining between 57% and 67% of the total variance. The internal consistency of every sub-scale was acceptable. The results show that this inventory is reliable and valid in the used sample. Future investigations are necessary with a bigger sample that includes swimmers from the entire country.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Inventário de Personalidade , Natação , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Análise de Componente Principal
10.
Ter. psicol ; 36(1): 19-25, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-962791

RESUMO

El modelo de los cinco factores es uno de los principales enfoques para el estudio de la personalidad. Tras su surgimiento, entre los aspectos más relevantes a analizar ha sido su relación con la autoestima, en tanto ésta constituye un aspecto central del modelo. Esta relación cuenta con numerosos aportes empíricos pero sigue señalándose la necesidad de realizar estudios que ayuden a comprender su naturaleza teórica. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir a estas investigaciones, analizando las relaciones entre factores de personalidad y la autoestima. La muestra estuvo constituida por 576 estudiantes universitarios de entre 18-35 años de edad. De acuerdo con los resultados, la autoestima se asocia negativamente a neuroticismo y positivamente, a la extraversión, responsabilidad, amabilidad, apertura y a los factores de segundo orden estabilidad y plasticidad. Concluimos la importancia de seguir investigando para comprender mejor el lugar de la autoestima dentro del modelo y la teoría de los cinco factores.


The five factor model has been established as one of the main approaches in the study of personality. After its emergence, one of the most important aspects to be analyzed has been its relationship with self-esteem, considering the central role that the latest has in the model. In spite of the large empirical support existing about this relationship, the need of a deeper understanding of its theoretical nature has been pointed out. The aim of our work joins the previous research, in analyzing the existence of relationships between personality factors and self-esteem. The sample was 576 university students, between 18- 35 years old. The present findings show that self-esteem is negatively associated with neuroticism, and positively associated with extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness, and with second-order factors elasticity and plasticity. We conclude that further research that allow a better understanding of the role of self-esteem within the five factor model and theory should be strongly encouraged.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(2): 298-310, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902291

RESUMO

Introducción: la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples representa una visión innovadora en el campo de la psicología de la educación, pues brinda un marco diferente para el mejor encuadre del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. En esta perspectiva la evaluación de los tipos de inteligencias múltiples adquiere fundamental importancia. Objetivo: identificar las inteligencias múltiples de un grupo de estudiantes de segundo año de la carrera de Medicina en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas. Materiales y métodos: de una población de 410 estudiantes de segundo año de la carrera de Medicina en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas que cursan la asignatura Psicología Médica I, se escogió una muestra de 20 estudiantes mediante un muestreo no probabilístico intencionado a quienes se les aplicó el Inventario de InteligenciasMúltiples para adultos,formulario de setenta preguntas, basado en los postulados originales de la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples de Howard Gardner. Resultados: se reveló que las inteligencias más desarrolladas en los sujetos estudiados fueron la inteligencia interpersonal, la lingüística y la intrapersonal. Conclusiones: en el perfil de inteligencia de cada sujeto, las inteligencias personales y la lingüística muestran el más alto desarrollo, en combinación con la inteligencia lógico-matemática, la espacial, la musical y la cinético-corporal (AU).


Introduction: the theory of the multiple intelligence is an innovating vision in the field of the educational psychology, because it gives a different framework for better approaching the teaching-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation of the kinds of multiple intelligences gets main importance. Objective: to identify the multiple intelligences of a group of second-year students of Medicine in the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Matanzas. Materials and methods: a sample of 20 students was chosen from the population of 410 second-year students of Medicine who study Medical Psychology I in the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Matanzas using an intentioned non-probabilistic sampling. They applied the Inventory of Multiple Intelligence for adults, a formulary of 60 questions based in the original postulates of Howard Garner´s theory of multiple intelligences. Results: it showed that the most developed intelligences in the studied subjects were the interpersonal, linguistic and intrapersonal ones. Conclusions: in the intelligence profile of each subject, the personal and linguistic intelligences show the highest development, combined with the logical-mathematical, spatial, musical and bodily-kinesthetic ones (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Educacional , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Inventário de Personalidade , Universidades , Medidas, Métodos e Teorias , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Observação/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Docentes de Medicina , Pessoal de Educação
12.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(2): 93-103, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-963091

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To investigate the clinical functioning of the criticism avoidance dimension from the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory 2 (Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade 2 [IDCP-2]), establishing a clinically relevant cut-off for the typical traits of avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) for screening purposes. Methods: We administered the IDCP-2 to a sample of 2,276 subjects aged 18 to 90 years (mean = 26.95, standard deviation = 9.71). Of the total sample, 1,650 were women (67%) and most were college students (72.7%). The sample was divided into psychiatric patients diagnosed with other personality disorders (PDs) (n = 53), patients diagnosed with AvPD without comorbidities (n = 10), patients with AvPD with comorbidities (n=42) and those without a known diagnosis of PD (nonpsychiatric patients; n=2,171). Results: We checked for psychometric properties, assessed the adequacy of psychometric assumptions, and proceeded to focus analyses. The Wright item-person map showed the predominance of patients with AvPD in high levels of the scale. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) post hoc comparisons pointed to significant and expressive differences for almost all the comparisons; in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, we observed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 87%. Conclusion: We found a suitable cut-off for the dimension, and results suggest that the dimension may help clinicians discriminate between patients with and without high levels in the symptoms of AvPD.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar o funcionamento clínico da dimensão evitação a críticas do Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade 2 (IDCP-2), estabelecendo um ponto de corte relevante para traços típicos do transtorno da personalidade evitativa (avoidant personality disorder - AvPD), para finalidade de triagem. Métodos: Nós aplicamos o IDCP-2 em uma amostra de 2.276 pessoas com idade entre 18 e 90 anos (média=26,95; desvio padrão=9,71). Dessa amostra, 1.650 eram mulheres (67%) e a maioria era de universitários (72,7%). A amostra foi dividida em pacientes psiquiátricos com outros transtornos de personalidade (PD; n = 53), pacientes com AvPD sem comorbidades (n = 10), pacientes com AvPD com comorbidades (n=42) e aqueles sem diagnóstico conhecido de PD (pacientes não psiquiátricos; n=2.171). Resultados: Foram verificadas as propriedades psicométricas, investigando a adequação dos pressupostos psicométricos, e então procedemos às análises principais. O mapa Wright de itens-pessoas mostrou a predominância de pacientes com AvPD nos níveis mais altos da escala. Análises post hoc, pela análise de variância (ANOVA), apontou para diferenças significativas e expressivas para quase todas as comparações; na curva ROC, nós observamos sensibilidade de 79% e especificidade de 87%. Conclusão: Foi encontrado um ponto de corte adequado para a dimensão, e os resultados sugerem que a dimensão pode auxiliar clínicos a discriminar pacientes com elevação nos traços do AvPD de pacientes sem elevação nesses traços.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos da Personalidade/complicações , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicometria , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Comorbidade , Curva ROC , Análise de Variância , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Summa psicol. UST ; 15(1): 52-61, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094931

RESUMO

La infidelidad es un incumplimiento de un convenio donde se infringen los acuerdos de exclusividad relacional. Es uno de los motivos más frecuentes del deterioro en las relaciones y en muchos casos quebranta la calidad de vida, la integridad y la salud. Frente a sus implicaciones es necesario contar con instrumentos capaces de evaluar las diferentes manifestaciones y consecuencias. El objetivo de la investigación fue realizar una exploración de las propiedades psicométricas del Inventario Multidimensional de Infidelidad de Romero, Rivera y Díaz. Con un diseño descriptivo instrumental. La muestra de 500 individuos, con media 20.3 años y 73.2% de sexo femenino, se realizó análisis factorial exploratorio con rotación varimax. Se determinaron factores con autovalores mayores a 1 y que la varianza total explicara más del 50%. Los índices de consistencia interna con la fórmula Alfa de Cronbach se ubicaron entre 0.818 y 0.978. Los resultados indican que el instrumento posee la capacidad de medir diferentes categorías de la infidelidad, a través de 4 subescalas; Conducta Infiel, Motivos de Infidelidad, Conceptos de Infidelidad y Consecuencias de infidelidad. El inventario presentado tiene propiedades satisfactorias de validez y confiabilidad que lo hacen útil en la evaluación de la infidelidad en el contexto.


Infidelity is a breach in an agreement where the exclusivity arrangements are violated. It is one of the most frequent reasons for deterioration in relationships and in many cases violates the quality of life, integrity and health. Facing its implications, it is necessary to have instruments capable of evaluating the different manifestations and consequences. The objective of this research was to carry out an exploration of the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Infidelity Inventory of Romero, Rivera and Diaz, with a descriptive instrumental design. We carried out an exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation in a sample of 500 individuals, with a mean of 20.3 years and a 73.2% of females. We determined factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 and the total variance explained more than 50%. The internal consistency indices with Cronbach's Alpha formula were between 0.818 and 0.978. The results indicated that the instrument is able to measure different categories of infidelity through 4 subscales: unfaithful behavior, reasons for infidelity, infidelity concepts and infidelity consequences. The presented inventory has satisfactory validity and reliability properties that make it useful in the evaluation of infidelity in context.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Inventário de Personalidade , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Relações Extramatrimoniais , Psicometria/métodos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Valores Sociais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial , Colômbia , Relações Interpessoais
14.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(2): 126-132, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-844198

RESUMO

Objective: It is unclear why some individuals reporting psychotic experiences have balanced lives while others go on to develop mental health problems. The objective of this study was to test if the personality traits of harm avoidance, self-directedness, and self-transcendence can be used as criteria to differentiate healthy from unhealthy schizotypal individuals. Methods: We interviewed 115 participants who reported a high frequency of psychotic experiences. The instruments used were the Temperament and Character Inventory (140), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences. Results: Harm avoidance predicted cognitive disorganization (β = 0.319; t = 2.94), while novelty seeking predicted bipolar disorder (β = 0.136, Exp [β] = 1.146) and impulsive non-conformity (β = 0.322; t = 3.55). Self-directedness predicted an overall decrease in schizotypy, most of all in cognitive disorganization (β = -0.356; t = -2.95) and in impulsive non-conformity (β = -0.313; t = -2.83). Finally, self-transcendence predicted unusual experiences (β = 0.256; t = 2.32). Conclusion: Personality features are important criteria to distinguish between pathology and mental health in individuals presenting high levels of anomalous experiences (AEs). While self-directedness is a protective factor, both harm avoidance and novelty seeking were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. We suggest that the impact of AEs on mental health is moderated by personality factors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Religião e Psicologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Brasil , Caráter , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Etários , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
15.
Ter. psicol ; 35(1): 23-33, Apr. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-846329

RESUMO

El Lausanne Trialogue Play (LTP), instrumento que permite la evaluación estandarizada de la alianza familiar, releva la importancia del padre en los estudios de procesos e interacciones familiares, así como la existencia de un efecto familiar tríadico desde etapas tempranas. El presente estudio pretende aportar al conocimiento de la alianza familiar en familias con hijos(as) en edad preescolar, analizando su relación con la salud mental de los padres. 50 parejas parentales y sus hijos(as) fueron evaluadas en sus hogares con una batería de instrumentos que incluían el LTP, BDI-I, PSI-SF y un Cuestionario Sociodemográfico. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de las familias evaluadas presentan alianzas familiares disfuncionales, sin evidenciarse una relación estadísticamente significativa con las variables de salud mental estudiadas. Sin embargo, se observa una tendencia a que familias con alianzas conflictivas presenten mayores niveles de sintomatología depresiva y estrés parental, sobre todo en el rol paterno.


The Lausanne Trialogue Play (LTP) is an instrument that allows the standardized assessment of the family alliance, highlighting the importance of the father in studies of family process and interactions, as also the existence of a triadic family effect since early stages. The present study pretends to contribute to extend the knowledge in family alliances in families with preschool aged children, analyzing it's relation with the parental mental health variables. 50 parental couples and their children were evaluated at their homes with the following instruments: LTP, BDI-I, PSI-SF and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results show that most of the families have dysfunctional alliances, without proving a statistically significant relation with the parental studied variables. Nevertheless, families with conflictive alliances tend to show higher levels of depressive symptoms and parental stress, especially in fathers.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Adulto , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Relações Pais-Filho , Inventário de Personalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Paidéia (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 26(65): 369-376, Sept.-Dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-794747

RESUMO

Relational maturity is an important aspect to be considered in the evaluation of children. Its development in children is considered related to sex and chronological age. The present study aimed to seek evidence of validity for the Zulliger test (Comprehensive System - CS) in the evaluation of maturity for interpersonal relationships in children. A total of 566 children, both sexes, of which 52.8% were girls, were submitted to the Zulliger test (CS). For comparison according to age, a subsample was extracted, composed of two groups of six and 12-year-olds, totaling 115 children. The analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the variables H, (H), A, Ad, (A), M, FC and AG. Results show findings in favor of using the Zulliger test (CS) in the evaluation of maturity for interpersonal relationships in children.


A maturidade relacional é um aspecto importante a ser considerado na avaliação infantil. Acredita-se que o seu desenvolvimento em crianças esteja atrelado às variáveis sexo e idade cronológica. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo buscar evidências de validade para o teste de Zulliger (Sistema Compreensivo - SC) na avaliação da maturidade para o relacionamento interpessoal em crianças. Um total de 566 crianças, ambos os sexos, sendo 52,8% meninas, foi submetido ao teste de Zulliger (SC). Para comparação em função da idade, extraiu-se uma subamostra composta por dois grupos com seis e 12 anos, totalizando 115 crianças. As análises revelaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas para as variáveis H, (H), A, Ad, (A), M, FC e AG. Os resultados evidenciam achados em favor da utilização do teste de Zulliger (SC) na avaliação da maturidade para o relacionamento interpessoal em crianças.


La madurez relacional es un aspecto importante a considerar en la evaluación de los niños. Se cree que su desarrollo en niños esté relacionado con el sexo y la edad cronológica. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo buscar evidencias de validez para la prueba Zulliger (Sistema Integral - SI) en la evaluación de la madurez a la relación interpersonal en los niños. Un total de 566 niños, de ambos sexos, siendo 52,8% niñas, se sometieron a la prueba Zulliger (SI). Para la comparación de acuerdo a la edad, una sub-muestra de 115 niños se extrajo, que consiste en dos grupos, de seis y 12 años. El análisis reveló diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las variables H, (H), A, AD, (A), M, FC y AG. Las conclusiones muestran los resultados a favor de la utilización de la prueba Zulliger (SI) en la evaluación de la madurez a la relación interpersonal en los niños.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Técnicas Projetivas
17.
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 13(2): 19-26, ju.-dic. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-833547

RESUMO

La Facultad de Ciencias Médicas realiza evaluaciones a los médicos que aspiran a ingresar a las especialidades clínicas, con el fin de seleccionar los candidatos idóneos a los programas de especialidades. Objetivo: describir los rasgos de personalidad, asertividad y conocimientos médicos en el área básica y clínica de los aspirantes al posgrado de Medicina Interna de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Material y Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, la población de estudio fue 39 aspirantes a la especialidad de Medicina Interna en el año 2015. Se obtuvo los resultados de las pruebas de conocimientos médicos de las áreas básicas y clínicas de los aspirantes; se les aplicó el Inventario Multifásico de la Personalidad de Minnesota y la Escala Multidimensional de Asertividad para elaborar un perfil básico de rasgos de personalidad. Resultados: la población incluyó 21(53.8%) hombres y 18(46.2%) mujeres, la edad promedio de los aspirantes fue de 28 años; el perfil de personalidad de los 39 aspirantes se encuentra dentro de los parámetros de normalidad; 19(48.7%) presentaron características favorables: Sensible, responsable, afable, amistoso, perceptivo y social; expresan sentimientos sin dificultad, autoconfianza, habilidad social y buena comunicación; 18(46.2%) mostraron características menos favorables como ser: intolerancia, falta de comprensión a sus propios problemas, dificultad para aceptar las normas sociales, actitud defensiva, testarudez, egoísmo, represión de emociones y pobre capacidad de entendimiento. Dos aspirantes mostraron características de personalidad no favorables: timidez, pesimismo y depresión leve. No hubo diferencia significativa en los resultados de los aspirantes en las pruebas de conocimientos. Conclusión: La mayoría de aspirantes al posgrado poseen rasgos de estabilidad emocional, dos mostraron rasgos depresivos. No se demostró diferencia en los resultados de las pruebas de conocimientos en las áreas clínica y básica...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Conhecimento Psicológico de Resultados , Inventário de Personalidade , Testes Psicológicos
18.
Ter. psicol ; 34(3): 191-198, dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-846323

RESUMO

El Inventario de Conductas Infantiles 1.5-5 años (CBCL/1.5-5 por su acrónimo en inglés) y el informe del cuidador/educador (C-TRF por su acrónimo en inglés), son de los instrumentos más ampliamente reconocidos internacionalmente para evaluar conductas desadaptativas que pueden afectan el desarrollo presente y futuro de niños y niñas preescolares. Se evaluó el comportamiento psicométrico de ambos instrumentos en una muestra diversa socioeconómicamente de 550 preescolares chilenos. En general, ambos mostraron un comportamiento psicométrico análogo al obtenido con estudios en otras sociedades. Los análisis factoriales confirmatorios mostraron un ajuste adecuado del modelo bifactorial original. Sin embargo, en el CBCL/1.5-5 los puntajes obtenidos son más altos que en la mayoría de los países y, comparativamente, en ambos instrumentos, se observó un mayor efecto de género. Se analizan los hallazgos obtenidos, y se dan sugerencias normativas y conceptuales para el empleo de ambos instrumentos en niños y niñas preescolares en nuestro país.


The child Behavior checklist/1.5-5 and the caregiver/teacher report Form are one of the most widely internationally recognized instruments to evaluate desadaptative behaviors which may affect the current and future development of preschool children. The psychometric behavior of both instruments was evaluated in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 550 chilean preschool children. In general, it was observed an analog behavior of both compared to the one obtained with studies in other societies. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a suitable adjustment of the original bifactor model. However, in the CBCL, the scores obtained are higher than in most of the countries and, comparatively, in both instruments, a greater effect of gender was observed. The findings obtained are analyzed and, normative and conceptual suggestions are given for the use of both instruments in preschool children in our country.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Lista de Checagem , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Chile , Análise Fatorial , Controle Interno-Externo , Psicometria
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(4): 318-324, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-798087

RESUMO

Objective: To examine association of sociodemographic characteristics, personality traits, social skills, and work variables with anxiety, depression, and alcohol dependence in medical residents. Methods: A total of 270 medical residents completed the following self-report instruments: sociodemographic and work questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-3 (AUDIT-3), Revised NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI-R), and Social Skills Inventory (SSI-Del-Prette). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed an association of neuroticism (odds ratio [OR] 2.60, p < 0.001), social skills (OR 0.41, p < 0.01), and number of shifts (OR 1.91, p = 0.03) with anxiety or depression, and of male sex (OR 3.14, p = 0.01), surgical residency (OR 4.40, p = 0.001), extraversion (OR 1.80, p < 0.01), and number of shifts (OR 2.32, p = 0.04) with alcohol dependence. Conclusion: The findings support a multidetermined nature of mental health problems in medical residents, in addition to providing data that may assist in the design of preventive measures to protect the mental health of this group.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia
20.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(4): 325-328, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-798091

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), with affective temperaments and schizotypy. Methods: The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD) and 54 healthy control (HC) subjects. Results: The TEMPS-A cyclothymic temperament correlated positively and the hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with BRIAN scores in both the BD and HC groups, although the correlation was stronger in BD subjects. Depressive temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in BD but not in HC; conversely, the irritable temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in HC, but not in BD. Several positive correlations between BRIAN scores and the schizotypal dimensions of the O-LIFE were observed in both BD and HC subjects, especially with cognitive disorganization and less so with unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. A correlation with introversion/anhedonia was found only in BD subjects. Conclusion: Cyclothymic and depressive temperaments predispose to disturbances of biological rhythms in BD, while a hyperthymic temperament can be protective. Similar predispositions were also found for all schizotypal dimensions, mostly for cognitive disorganization.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Periodicidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/reabilitação , Temperamento , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico
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