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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 723-730, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974310

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The soil represents the main source of novel biocatalysts and biomolecules of industrial relevance. We searched for hydrolases in silico in four shotgun metagenomes (4,079,223 sequences) obtained in a 13-year field trial carried out in southern Brazil, under the no-tillage (NT), or conventional tillage (CT) managements, with crop succession (CS, soybean/wheat), or crop rotation (CR, soybean/maize/wheat/lupine/oat). We identified 42,631 hydrolases belonging to five classes by comparing with the KEGG database, and 44,928 sequences by comparing with the NCBI-NR database. The abundance followed the order: lipases > laccases > cellulases > proteases > amylases > pectinases. Statistically significant differences were attributed to the tillage system, with the NT showing about five times more hydrolases than the CT system. The outstanding differences can be attributed to the management of crop residues, left on the soil surface in the NT, and mechanically broken and incorporated into the soil in the CT. Differences between the CS and the CR were slighter, 10% higher for the CS, but not statistically different. Most of the sequences belonged to fungi (Verticillium, and Colletotrichum for lipases and laccases, and Aspergillus for proteases), and to the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius for amylases. Our results indicate that agricultural soils under conservative managements may represent a hotspot for bioprospection of hydrolases.


Assuntos
Solo/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Archaea/enzimologia , Proteínas Arqueais/genética , Fungos/enzimologia , Hidrolases/genética , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 801-808, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889172

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The various types of lignocellulosic biomass found in plants comprise the most abundant renewable bioresources on Earth. In this study, the ruminal microbial ecosystem of black goats was explored because of their strong ability to digest lignocellulosic forage. A metagenomic fosmid library containing 115,200 clones was prepared from the black-goat rumen and screened for a novel cellulolytic enzyme. The KG35 gene, containing a novel glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulase domain, was isolated and functionally characterized. The novel glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulase gene is composed of a 963-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 320 amino acid residues (35.1 kDa). The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest sequence identity (58%) for sequences from the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulases. The novel glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulase gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Substrate specificity analysis revealed that this recombinant glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulase functions as an endo-β-1,4-glucanase. The recombinant KG35 endo-β-1,4-glucanase showed optimal activity within the range of 30-50 °C at a pH of 6-7. The thermostability was retained and the pH was stable in the range of 30-50 °C at a pH of 5-7.


Assuntos
Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/enzimologia , Celulase/química , Celulase/genética , Rúmen/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Celulase/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cabras , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metagenoma , Metagenômica
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(1): e5658, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839234

RESUMO

Chitinases are hydrolases that degrade chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine linked β(1-4) present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans, insects, nematodes and fungal cell walls. A metagenome fosmid library from a wastewater-contaminated soil was functionally screened for chitinase activity leading to the isolation and identification of a chitinase gene named metachi18A. The metachi18A gene was subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and the MetaChi18A chitinase was purified by affinity chromatography as a 6xHis-tagged fusion protein. The MetaChi18A enzyme is a 92-kDa protein with a conserved active site domain of glycosyl hydrolases family 18. It hydrolyses colloidal chitin with an optimum pH of 5 and temperature of 50°C. Moreover, the enzyme retained at least 80% of its activity in the pH range from 4 to 9 and 98% at 600 mM NaCl. Thin layer chromatography analyses identified chitobiose as the main product of MetaChi18A on chitin polymers as substrate. Kinetic analysis showed inhibition of MetaChi18A activity at high concentrations of colloidal chitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and sigmoid kinetics at low concentrations of colloidal chitin, indicating a possible conformational change to lead the chitin chain from the chitin-binding to the catalytic domain. The observed stability and activity of MetaChi18A over a wide range of conditions suggest that this chitinase, now characterized, may be suitable for application in the industrial processing of chitin.


Assuntos
Quitinases/genética , Quitina/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Quitinases/química , Quitina/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Expressão Gênica/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Especificidade por Substrato
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 835-845, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828196

RESUMO

Abstract Rivers and streams are important reservoirs of freshwater for human consumption. These ecosystems are threatened by increasing urbanization, because raw sewage discharged into them alters their nutrient content and may affect the composition of their microbial community. In the present study, we investigate the taxonomic and functional profile of the microbial community in an urban lotic environment. Samples of running water were collected at two points in the São Pedro stream: an upstream preserved and non-urbanized area, and a polluted urbanized area with discharged sewage. The metagenomic DNA was sequenced by pyrosequencing. Differences were observed in the community composition at the two sites. The non-urbanized area was overrepresented by genera of ubiquitous microbes that act in the maintenance of environments. In contrast, the urbanized metagenome was rich in genera pathogenic to humans. The functional profile indicated that the microbes act on the metabolism of methane, nitrogen and sulfur, especially in the urbanized area. It was also found that virulence/defense (antibiotic resistance and metal resistance) and stress response-related genes were disseminated in the urbanized environment. The structure of the microbial community was altered by uncontrolled anthropic interference, highlighting the selective pressure imposed by high loads of urban sewage discharged into freshwater environments.


Assuntos
Humanos , Urbanização , Microbiologia da Água , Rios/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Microbiota , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ecossistema , Metabolismo Energético , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metagenômica , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico
5.
Clinics ; 70(5): 369-372, 05/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-748271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The ability of the Timed Up and Go test to predict sarcopenia has not been evaluated previously. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed 68 elderly patients (≥60 years of age) in a private hospital in the city of Salvador-BA, Brazil, between the 1st and 5th day of hospitalization. The predictive variable was the Timed Up and Go test score, and the outcome of interest was the presence of sarcopenia (reduced muscle mass associated with a reduction in handgrip strength and/or weak physical performance in a 6-m gait-speed test). After the descriptive data analyses, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of a test using the predictive variable to predict the presence of sarcopenia were calculated. RESULTS: In total, 68 elderly individuals, with a mean age 70.4±7.7 years, were evaluated. The subjects had a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 5.35±1.97. Most (64.7%) of the subjects had a clinical admission profile; the main reasons for hospitalization were cardiovascular disorders (22.1%), pneumonia (19.1%) and abdominal disorders (10.2%). The frequency of sarcopenia in the sample was 22.1%, and the mean length of time spent performing the Timed Up and Go test was 10.02±5.38 s. A time longer than or equal to a cutoff of 10.85 s on the Timed Up and Go test predicted sarcopenia with a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 88.7%. The accuracy of this cutoff for the Timed Up and Go test was good (0.80; IC=0.66-0.94; p=0.002). CONCLUSION: The Timed Up and Go test was shown to be a predictor of sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients. .


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Íleo/microbiologia , Intestino Delgado/transplante , Intestinos/microbiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , /genética , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Metagenoma/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 28(2): 71-77, dic. 2013. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-708089

RESUMO

El cuerpo humano presenta una gran variedad de micro nichos que están colonizados por diversos grupos de microorganismos, principalmente bacterias, que establecen con nuestro cuerpo una relación simbionte y colaboran de manera positiva a nuestrabiología. En los últimos años, diversos grupos multinacionales han emprendido la tarea de estudiar, mediante avanzados procedimientos de análisis molecular y bioinformáticos, las comunidades microbianas que habitan nuestro cuerpo. Este artículo, pretende entregar una visión global de cómo, en la actualidad, se está abordando el estudio de nuestromicrocosmos y cuáles son los aspectos más sobresalientes derivados de los mismos.


The human body has great variety of micro niches that are colonized by various groups of microorganisms, mainly bacteria, which provide ourbody with a symbiotic relationship and collaborate in a positive way to our biology. In recent years, variousmultinational groups have undertaken the task of studying, using advanced methods of molecular and bioinformatic analysis, microbial communitiesinhabiting our bodies. This article aims to give an overview of how, at present, is being addressed the study of our microcosm and what aspects are mostover projections derived from them.


Assuntos
Humanos , Corpo Humano , Intestinos/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Interações Microbianas , Pele/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia
7.
Braz. oral res ; 26(4): 366-372, July-Aug. 2012. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-640713

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the composition of subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sixteen CKD pre-dialysis individuals (CKD) and 14 individuals without clinical evidence of kidney disease (C) presenting chronic periodontitis were treated by scaling and root planing. Subgingival samples were collected from each patient and analyzed for their composition by checkerboard at baseline and 3 months post-therapy. Significant differences between groups at baseline were sought by the Mann-Whitney and χ² tests. Changes over time were examined by the Wilcoxon test. At baseline, the CKD group had significantly lower counts of E. faecalis compared to the C group (p < 0.05). After treatment, the levels of a greater number of species were reduced in the C group. Higher levels of A. israelii, C. rectus, F. periodonticum, P. micra, P. nigrescens, T. forsythia, N. mucosa, and S. anginosus (p < 0.05) were found in the CKD group compared to the C group. Also, non-responsive sites in CKD individuals harbored significantly higher levels of pathogenic species (T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, T. denticola, Fusobacterium spp., D. pneumosintes, E. faecalis and S. aureus; p < 0.05) than sites that responded to therapy, as well as non-responsive sites in the C group. The periodontitis-associated subgingival microbiota of CKD and systemically healthy individuals was similar in composition. However, high levels of pathogenic species persisted in the subgingival microbiota of patients with CKD after treatment.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gengiva/microbiologia , Periodontite/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Carga Bacteriana , Doença Crônica , Raspagem Dentária , Sondas de DNA , Metagenoma , Periodontite/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(2): 233-238, abr.-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-656832

RESUMO

Introducción. Pocos estudios han descrito la microbiota subgingival en mujeres embarazadas con preeclampsia leve. Objetivo. Identificar cambios periodontales y de la microbiota subgingival en mujeres embarazadas con preeclampsia, después del tratamiento periodontal. Materiales y métodos. En un análisis secundario de un ensayo clínico de asignación aleatoria, se estudiaron 57 pacientes con preeclampsia en el Hospital Universitario del Valle de Cali. Se asignaron al azar 31 al grupo de intervención periodontal (detartraje y alisado subgingival ultrasónico y manual) durante su embarazo y otras 26 al grupo control (profilaxis supragingival). Se determinaron los parámetros clínicos periodontales y la microbiota subgingival a la inclusión al estudio y en el posparto. Se evaluaron 8 bacterias periodontopáticas y 2 virus herpes por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se usaron las pruebas de ji al cuadrado, test de McNemar o t de Student, con un nivel de significancia de p≤ Resultados. Los grupos fueron comparables en las variables clínicas y microbiológicas al inicio del estudio. El tratamiento periodontal redujo el promedio de la profundidad de bolsa en el grupo de intervención de 2,44±0,31 a 2,31±0,24 mm (p=0,000) y en el grupo control de 2,58±0,37 a 2,44±0,39 mm (p=0,000),y el índice de sangrado, de 16,4±1,5 a 7,9±0,7 % en el primero (p=0,000), y de 17,1±1,8 a 10±0,9 %, en el segundo (p=0,002). La frecuencia de detección de microorganismos no varió de manera significativa entre los grupos. Conclusión. El raspaje y alisado radicular, así como la profilaxis supragingival, redujeron de manera significativa la profundidad a la sonda y el índice de sangrado gingival. El tratamiento periodontal no fue más efectivo que la profilaxis para reducir los organismos periodontopáticos o los virus herpes.


Introduction. Few studies have described subgingival microbiota in pregnant women with mild preeclampsia. Objective. Clinical periodontal and subgingival microbiota changes were identified in pregnant women with mild preeclampsia after periodontal treatment. Materials and methods. In a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, 57 preeclamptic women were studied at Hospital Universitario del Valle in Cali, Colombia. Thirty one women were randomized to the periodontal intervention group (subgingival scaling and planing ultrasonic and manual) during pregnancy and 26 to the control group (supragingival prophylaxis). Periodontal clinical parameters and subgingival microbiota were characterized at the time of acceptance into the study and again at postpartum. Eight periodontopathic bacteria and 2 herpesviruses were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square, McNemar or Student´s t tests were used, with a significance level of p≤0.05. Results. Both groups were comparable in the clinical and microbiological variables at baseline. Periodontal treatment reduced the average pocket depth in the intervention group from 2.4±0.3 to 2.3±0.2 mm (p<0.001) and in control group 2.6±0.4 to 2.44±0.4 mm, (p<0.001) and bleeding index 16.4±1.5% to 7.9±0.7% in the intervention group(p<0.001) and 17.1±1.8% to 10±0.9% in the control group (p=0.002). The frequency of detection of microorganisms did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusion. Scaling/root planning and supragingival prophylaxis significantly reduced the probing depth and gingival bleeding index. Periodontal treatment was not more effective than prophylaxis in reducing periodontopathic organisms or herpesvirus.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Raspagem Dentária , Metagenoma , Pré-Eclâmpsia/microbiologia , Aplainamento Radicular , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Polimento Dentário , Raspagem Dentária/métodos , Hemorragia Gengival/etiologia , Gengivite/complicações , Gengivite/microbiologia , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/terapia , Gengivite/virologia , /isolamento & purificação , Higiene Bucal , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/prevenção & controle , Bolsa Periodontal/virologia , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Periodontite/terapia , Periodontite/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Transtornos Puerperais/microbiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/virologia , Aplainamento Radicular/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Simplexvirus/isolamento & purificação
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(4): 246-250, dic. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-634699

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar a un grupo de 229 trabajadoras sexuales de Comodoro Rivadavia (Chubut), atendidas en centros públicos de salud de dicha ciudad, mediante la aplicación del método conocido como balance del contenido vaginal (BACOVA). Este método comprende el estudio morfológico de la microbiota vaginal, como así también de la reacción infamatoria. Incluye el análisis del contenido vaginal en fresco y por tinciones de Gram y de Giemsa, de modo de integrar la exploración de todo el panorama biológico. El 35,37 % de estas mujeres presentó microbiota normal (MN); el 15,72 %, microbiota intermedia (MI); el 23,14 %, vaginosis bacteriana (VB) y el 10,48 %, vaginitis microbiana inespecífca (VMI). Los casos de vaginitis por levaduras y por Trichomonas vaginalis comprendieron el 8,30 % y 6,99 % de las mujeres, respectivamente. Se observó el desplazamiento de la MN hacia una MI, que se correspondió con el predominio de bacterias corineformes. Por otra parte, no se reconoció un marcado desequilibrio del contenido vaginal ante la colonización e infección por levaduras o por T. vaginalis: el 48 % de los casos de estas vaginitis convencionales no presentaron reacción infamatoria vaginal (RIV). El 24,89 % de los casos de MN presentaron una signifcativa RIV, y en más del 50 % de las mujeres se diagnosticaron disfunciones vaginales en ausencia de sintomatología. Estos resultados se podrían asociar a un incremento del riesgo gineco-obstétrico, lo que afecta la salud sexual y reproductiva de la población estudiada.


The aim of this work was to study the vaginal microenvironment in sex workers from Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut. For that purpose, BAVACO procedures were applied. A total of 229 female sex workers attended public health centers. Vaginal secretions were analyzed by Gram and Giemsa stains. The following results were obtained: normal microbiota 35.37 %, intermediate microbiota 15.72 %, bacterial vaginosis 23.14 %, microbial nonspecifc vaginitis, Donders'"aerobic vaginitis" 10.48 %, yeast vulvovaginitis 8.30 %, and trichomoniasis 6.99 %. The intermediate microbiota was characterized by a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and the presence of diphtheroid bacilli cell types. The population studied shared increased values of vaginal dysfunctions. These results are considered risk factors for obstetric and gynecologic diseases.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/prevenção & controle , Metagenoma , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Profissionais do Sexo , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Vagina/microbiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Argentina , Líquidos Corporais/microbiologia , Líquidos Corporais/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/epidemiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/microbiologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/epidemiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/parasitologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/prevenção & controle , Vagina/parasitologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/prevenção & controle
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(2): 94-103, jun. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-634678

RESUMO

Metagenomic library PP1 was obtained from Antarctic soil samples. Both functional and genotypic metagenomic screening were used for the isolation of novel cold-adapted enzymes with potential applications, and for the detection of genetic elements associated with gene mobilization, respectively. Fourteen lipase/esterase-, 14 amylase-, 3 protease-, and 11 cellulase-producing clones were detected by activity-driven screening, with apparent maximum activities around 35 °C for both amylolytic and lipolytic enzymes, and 35-55 °C for cellulases, as observed for other cold-adapted enzymes. However, the behavior of at least one of the studied cellulases is more compatible to that observed for mesophilic enzymes. These enzymes are usually still active at temperatures above 60 °C, probably resulting in a psychrotolerant behavior in Antarctic soils. Metagenomics allows to access novel genes encoding for enzymatic and biophysic properties from almost every environment with potential benefits for biotechnological and industrial applications. Only intI- and tnp-like genes were detected by PCR, encoding for proteins with 58-86 %, and 58-73 % amino acid identity with known entries, respectively. Two clones, BAC 27A-9 and BAC 14A-5, seem to present unique syntenic organizations, suggesting the occurrence of gene rearrangements that were probably due to evolutionary divergences within the genus or facilitated by the association with transposable elements. The evidence for genetic elements related to recruitment and mobilization of genes (transposons/integrons) in an extreme environment like Antarctica reinforces the hypothesis of the origin of some of the genes disseminated by mobile elements among "human-associated" microorganisms.


A partir de muestras de suelo antártico se obtuvo la metagenoteca PP1. Esta fue sometida a análisis funcionales y genotípicos para el aislamiento de nuevas enzimas adaptadas al frío con potenciales aplicaciones, y para la detección de elementos génicos asociados a la movilización de genes, respectivamente. Por tamizaje fenotípico se detectaron 14, 14, 3 y 11 clones productores de lipasas/esterasas, proteasas, amilasas y celulasas, respectivamente, con actividades máximas aparentes de 35 °C para las amilasas y lipasas, y de 35-55 °C para las celulasas, tal como se observó para otras enzimas adaptadas al frío. Sin embargo, una celulasa parece ser compatible con enzimas mesófilas, las que usualmente se mantienen activas hasta por sobre 60 °C. Este hecho probablemente esté asociado a un comportamiento psicrotolerante en los suelos antárticos. La metagenómica permite acceder a una nueva miríada de productos metabólicos con potenciales beneficios para aplicaciones biotecnológicas e industriales. Se detectaron los genes tipo intI y tnp por PCR, y sus productos génicos deducidos tuvieron identidades del 58 al 86 % y del 58 al 73 % con secuencias conocidas, respectivamente. Dos clones, BAC 27A-9 y BAC 14A-5, parecen presentar organizaciones sintéticas únicas, lo cual sugiere la existencia de rearreglos génicos probablemente debidos a divergencias evolutivas dentro del género o facilitados por la asociación de elementos de transposición. La evidencia de elementos génicos relacionados con el reclutamiento y la movilización de genes en ambientes extremos como la Antártida refuerza la hipótesis sobre el origen de algunos genes diseminados por elementos móviles entre los microorganismos asociados al ser humano.


Assuntos
Clima Frio , Enzimas/genética , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Metagenoma , Microbiologia do Solo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Regiões Antárticas , Clonagem Molecular , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética , Enzimas/isolamento & purificação , Fertilizantes , Gasolina , Biblioteca Gênica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Petróleo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Poluentes do Solo
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 19(1): 68-73, Jan.-Feb. 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-578751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of coronally positioned flap (CPF) on the subgingival biofilm composition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two subjects with gingival recessions were treated with CPF. Clinical parameters were assessed before and at 6 months after surgery. Subgingival biofilms were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique for 40 bacterial species. RESULTS: Recession height, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing improved significantly (p<0.05) at 6 months post-CPF. The proportions of 10 periodontal pathogens and the proportions of red and orange complexes decreased at 6 months. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CPF can induce beneficial effects on the composition of the subgingival microbiota after 6 months.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gengiva/microbiologia , Retração Gengival/microbiologia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/microbiologia , Carga Bacteriana , Sondas de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Gengiva/cirurgia , Retração Gengival/cirurgia , Metagenoma , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(4): 537-541, July-Aug. 2009. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-525845

RESUMO

Our aim was to study the fauna of ants in the Hospital Universitário of the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, municipality of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, as well as to identify the microorganisms the ants carry and their patterns of resistance to antibiotics. Sterile tubes (traps) containing honey were used to attract the ants. Traps were exposed for 3h, and those which attracted ants were considered the test group, while the ones that did not attract the insects constituted the control group. Only the ant species Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) was sampled. Sixty microorganisms were isolated from the sampled ants, including seven Gram-positive bacilli, 14 Gram-negative bacilli, 22 Gram-positive cocci and 17 filamentous fungi. Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Group D Streptococcus were the microorganisms with the highest resistance to the tested antibiotics. The ants should be considered an important vector of infections as they carry several pathogenic microorganisms, spreading them on the surface of sterile materials, equipments and uncontaminated food. It is impossible to define the exact role of ants in nosocomial infections at this moment; however, this issue must be better studied and special attention must be given by the commissions of Nosocomial Infection Control.


O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a fauna de formigas existente no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, bem como as espécies de microrganismos transportadas por elas, além de identificar o padrão de resistência destes microrganismos a antimicrobianos. Para atrair as formigas, utilizaram-se tubos estéreis contendo mel. Após período de exposição de 3h, os mesmos foram tampados. Os tubos que atraíram formigas foram considerados o grupo teste e os que não atraíram o controle. Apenas Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) foi amostrada. O isolamento de microrganismos dos exemplares de T. melanocephalum apontou 60 espécies, entre as quais sete eram bacilos Gram positivo, 14 bacilos Gram negativo, 22 cocos Gram positivo e 17 fungos filamentosos. Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus e Streptococcus do grupo D foram os microrganismos que apresentaram maior resistência aos antibióticos. As formigas devem ser consideradas um importante vetor de infecções, pois são carreadoras de microrganismos, levando-os na superfície de seu corpo para materiais estéreis, equipamentos e alimentos não-contaminados. Não é possível definir o papel exato das formigas em infecções nosocomiais. No entanto, este deve ser melhor avaliado e atenção especial deve ser dada pelas comissões de Controle de Infecções Hospitalares.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas/microbiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Metagenoma , Brasil , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
13.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(2): 139-144, Mar. 2009. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-513767

RESUMO

Obesity is a pandemic which has been rapidly developing for three decades. When a population is submitted to the same nutritional stress, some individuals are less susceptible to diet-induced weight gain and hyperglycemia. This observation suggests that other mechanisms are involved which are not directly related to the human genome. The human gut contains an immense number of microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiota. Evidence that gut microbiota composition can differ between obese and lean humans has led to the speculation that gut microbiota can participate in the pathophysiology of obesity. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the link between gut flora and obesity. The first mechanism consists in the role of the gut microbiota to increase energy extraction from indigestible dietary polysaccharides. The second, consists in the role of gut flora to modulate plasma lipopolysaccharide levels which triggers chronic low-grade inflammation leading to obesity and diabetes. A third mechanism proposes that gut microbiota may induce regulation of host genes that modulate how energy is expended and stored. However, further studies are needed to clarify a number of issues related to the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity.


A obesidade é uma pandemia que afeta milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. Quando uma população é submetida ao mesmo estresse nutricional, alguns indivíduos são menos suscetíveis ao ganho de peso induzido pela dieta e à hiperglicemia. Essa observação sugere que outros mecanismos não diretamente relacionados ao genoma humano estejam envolvidos. O intestino humano é colonizado por milhões de bactérias, que coletivamente constituem a flora comensal normal. A evidência de que a composição da flora intestinal pode ser diferente em humanos magros e obesos levou à especulação de que a flora intestinal pode participar na fisiopatologia da obesidade. Diferentes mecanismos foram propostos para tentar explicar a correlação entre flora intestinal e obesidade. O primeiro mecanismo consiste no papel da flora intestinal na extração de energia de polissacarídeos não digeríveis. O segundo mecanismo envolve a modulação dos níveis de lipopolissacarídeo pela flora intestinal, o que desencadeia uma inflamação crônica subclínica que acarreta obesidade e diabetes. Um terceiro mecanismo propõe que a flora intestinal pode induzir a regulação de genes do hospedeiro que modulam como a energia é gasta e armazenada. Entretanto, estudos adicionais são necessários para estabelecer o papel da flora intestinal no desenvolvimento da obesidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Obesidade/microbiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Intestinos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Polissacarídeos/química , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
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