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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 749-756, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974295

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation. The experimental design resulted in an efficient pyrene degradation, reducing the experiment time while the PAH concentration applied in the assays was increased. The selected fungus was able to degrade almost 100% of pyrene (0.08 mg mL-1) after 48 h of incubation under saline condition, without generating toxic compounds and with a TOC reduction of 17%. Intermediate metabolites of pyrene degradation were identified, suggesting that the fungus degraded the compound via the cytochrome P450 system and epoxide hydrolases. These results highlight the relevance of marine-derived fungi in the field of PAH bioremediation, adding value to the blue biotechnology.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Filogenia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Pirenos/metabolismo , Pirenos/química , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Benzo(a)pireno/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 10-12, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889198

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Vitellibacter aquimaris D-24T (=KCTC 42708T = DSM 101732T), a halophilic marine bacterium, was isolated from seawater collected from Desaru beach, Malaysia. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of D-24T with a genome size of approximately 3.1 Mbp and G + C content of 39.93%. The genome of D-24T contains genes involved in reducing a potent greenhouse gas (N2O) in the environment and the degradation of proteinaceous compounds. Genome availability will provide insights into potential biotechnological and environmental applications of this bacterium.


Assuntos
Água do Mar/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Flavobacteriaceae/genética , Filogenia , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Sequência de Bases , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Malásia
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 671-679, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889179

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Thraustochytrids are unicellular protists belonging to the Labyrinthulomycetes class, which are characterized by the presence of a high lipid content that could replace conventional fatty acids. They show a wide geographic distribution, however their diversity in the Antarctic Region is rather scarce. The analysis based on the complete sequence of 18S rRNA gene showed that strain 34-2 belongs to the species Thraustochytrium kinnei, with 99% identity. The total lipid profile shows a wide range of saturated fatty acids with abundance of palmitic acid (16:0), showing a range of 16.1-19.7%. On the other hand, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are present in a range of 24-48% and 6.1-9.3%, respectively. All factors analyzed in cells (biomass, carbon consumption and lipid content) changed with variations of culture temperature (10 °C and 25 °C). The growth in glucose at a temperature of 10 °C presented the most favorable conditions to produce omega-3fatty acid. This research provides the identification and characterization of a Thraustochytrids strain, with a total lipid content that presents potential applications in the production of nutritional supplements and as well biofuels.


Assuntos
Água do Mar/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Biotecnologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Estramenópilas/isolamento & purificação , Estramenópilas/classificação , Estramenópilas/genética , Regiões Antárticas
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 29: 13-21, sept. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1017057

RESUMO

Background: The past years have witnessed a growing number of researches in biofilm forming communities due to their environmental and maritime industrial implications. To gain a better understanding of the early bacterial biofilm community, microfiber nets were used as artificial substrates and incubated for a period of 24 h in Mauritian coastal waters. Next-generation sequencing technologies were employed as a tool for identification of early bacterial communities. Different genes associated with quorum sensing and cell motility were further investigated. Results: Proteobacteria were identified as the predominant bacterial microorganisms in the biofilm within the 24 h incubation, of which members affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were among the most abundant classes. The biofilm community patterns were also driven by phyla such as Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The functional analysis based on KEGG classification indicated high activities in carbohydrate, lipid and amino acids metabolism. Different genes encoding for luxI, lasI, agrC, flhA, cheA and cheB showed the involvement of microbial members in quorum sensing and cell motility. Conclusion: This study provides both an insight on the early bacterial biofilm forming community and the genes involved in quorum sensing and bacterial cell motility.


Assuntos
Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Aderência Bacteriana , Movimento Celular , Biofilmes , Biodiversidade , Percepção de Quorum , Incrustação Biológica , Metagenômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Maurício
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 393-394, July-Sept. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889136

RESUMO

Abstract Dietzia sp. 111N12-1, isolated from the seawater of South China Sea, shows strong petroleum hydrocarbons degradation activity. Here, we report the draft sequence of approximately 3.7-Mbp genome of this strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome sequence of Dietzia strain isolated from the sea. The genome sequence may provide fundamental molecular information on elucidating the metabolic pathway of hydrocarbons degradation in this strain.


Assuntos
Água do Mar/microbiologia , Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Actinomycetales/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Actinomycetales/classificação , Actinomycetales/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , China
7.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(6): 2037-2048, jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-840011

RESUMO

Resumo Emissários submarinos são apresentados como uma eficiente alternativa para o destino final de efluentes sanitários em regiões costeiras densamente povoadas em virtude da elevada capacidade de dispersão e depuração da matéria orgânica no ambiente marinho, e por demandar pequenas áreas para sua implementação. A probabilidade de condições improprias de balneabilidade, em áreas costeiras adjacentes aos emissários submarinos de esgotos de Ipanema, Barra da Tijuca e Icaraí, é avaliada com base em metodologia computacional probabilística que contempla em conjunto a modelagem hidrodinâmica, de transporte e decaimento bacteriano. Os resultados mostram que as concentrações de coliformes fecais são influenciadas fortemente pela radiação solar e todos os fatores responsáveis por sua mitigação no ambiente marinho. Os referidos emissários não comprometem a balneabilidade na região costeira, visto que as condições improprias de balneabilidade são restringidas às regiões adjacentes aos pontos de lançamento do efluente. A poluição observada nas praias é indicativa da contaminação que ocorre pelos sistemas lagunares, rios e canais ambientalmente degradados.


Abstract Submarine outfalls are proposed as an efficient alternative for the final destination of wastewater in densely populated coastal areas, due to the high dispersal capacity and the clearance of organic matter in the marine environment, and because they require small areas for implementation. This paper evaluates the probability of unsuitable bathing conditions in coastal areas nearby to the Ipanema, Barra da Tijuca and Icaraí outfalls based on a computational methodology gathering hydrodynamic, pollutant transport, and bacterial decay modelling. The results show a strong influence of solar radiation and all factors that mitigate its levels in the marine environment on coliform concentration. The aforementioned outfalls do not pollute the coastal areas, and unsuitable bathing conditions are restricted to nearby effluent launching points. The pollution observed at the beaches indicates that the contamination occurs due to the polluted estuarine systems, rivers and canals that flow to the coast.


Assuntos
Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Brasil , Saúde Ambiental , Risco , Rios , Água do Mar/análise , Esgotos/análise , Navios
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 37-42, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839338

RESUMO

Abstract Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42 h showed that at the end of 24 h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, ‘k’ value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g) = 0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, ‘g’ of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.615, Free = 0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.056, Free = 0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the “persistent variants” where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Ecossistema , Microbiologia Ambiental , Eucariotos , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Biodiversidade
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. 147 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-868416

RESUMO

O uso das águas costeiras para fins recreacionais está associado com benefícios à saúde e bem-estar, todavia eventuais impactos negativos podem diminuir estes benefícios. Esses usos variam de acordo com o tipo de atividade desenvolvida, sendo que a recreação de contato primário requer contato direto e prolongado com a água, durante a qual pode ocorrer ingestão acidental. A Resolução CONAMA nº 274/2000 dispõe sobre os critérios de balneabilidade e reza que as condições da qualidade das águas recreacionais devem ser avaliadas através de indicadores microbiológicos de contaminação fecal, e ainda recomenda que seja realizada pesquisa de organismos patogênicos em praias sistematicamente impróprias. Dada a escassez de dados da ocorrência de patógenos em águas costeiras, no período de 2010 a 2012, a CETESB realizou o Estudo de microrganismos patogênicos nas praias do Litoral Paulista pesquisando enterovírus, adenovírus, vírus da hepatite A, Cryptosporidium sp e Giardia sp, no intuito de preencher esta lacuna e gerar dados primários. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a probabilidade de infecção por Cryptosporidium sp e Giardia sp após exposição a águas recreacionais costeiras usando como ferramenta a Avaliação Quantitativa de Risco Microbiológico (AQRM), como também o risco de doença. As concentrações de (oo)cistos nas águas das praias são oriundas dos relatórios de Qualidade das Praias Litorâneas no Estado de São Paulo da CETESB dos anos de 2011 e 2012. Nesse período foram analisadas 203 amostras coletadas de 12 praias na 1ª fase e de cinco praias na 2ª fase para a pesquisa de ocorrência de (oo)cistos. As amostras de água foram coletadas na isóbata de um metro, com frequência mensal. Giardia sp foi o microrganismo mais frequente, presente em 43 por cento das amostras e Cryptosporidium sp em 13 por cento . O cenário de exposição considerou tipos de atividade, tipos de usuários (crianças, adultos e esportistas), concentração de (oo)cistos, volume de ingestão, duração e frequência da exposição. A probabilidade de infecção foi maior em praias com mais amostras positivas para oocistos e cistos, no grupo dos esportistas e para Giardia sp. Em alguns casos os valores de risco de doença ultrapassaram o risco tolerável pela U.S. EPA (2012) de 3,6 por cento casos de gastroenterite, assim como ultrapassaram os resultados de incidência acumulada encontradas por LAMPARELLI et al. (2015). Os resultados apontaram a necessidade de melhoria nos sistemas de tratamento de efluentes no Litoral Paulista. A AQRM é uma ferramenta capaz de estimar a probabilidade de infecção no cenário das águas recreacionais e pode auxiliar no gerenciamento dos riscos


The use of coastal water for recreational purposes has been associated with benefits to health and well-being; however some negative impacts can diminish such benefits. The usages can vary according to the type of activity but the primary contact demands physical contact resulting in a high probability in accidental ingestion of water. Brazilian legislation for coastal recreational waters CONAMA 274/2000 establishes criteria for fecal indicator bacteria and furthermore recommends investigation of pathogenic organisms for beaches which classification is systematically as improper. Given the scarcity of data referring to pathogenic presence in beaches´ waters, CETESB carried out a study, in 2010 and 2012, for quantifying enterovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A virus, Cryptosporidium sp and Giardia sp in coastal waters of São Paulo state in order to obtain data about their occurrence of these pathogens in coastal waters. The objective of this study was to estimate the annual risk of infection and disease for Giardia sp and Cryptosporidium sp by ingestion of water during primary contact recreation using QMRA approach. Concentrations of both parasites were taken from the annual report entitled Quality of coastal beaches in São Paulo state by CETESB (2011 and 2012). In these years were analyzed 203 samples of water for quantifying (oo)cysts of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from 12 beaches in the first year and five beaches in the second year of research. The samples were collected at one meter isobaths, with monthly frequency. Giardia was the most frequent parasite present in 43 per cent of samples and Cryptosporidium sp in 13 per cent . Exposure scenario was built considering types of activity, beach goers (children, adults and athletes), concentration of parasites, ingestion rate, duration and frequency of exposure. The probability of annual infection was higher in beaches in which there were more positive results for parasites for athletes and for Giardia infection. The tolerable risk for gastroenteritis by USEPA, which is 3.6 per cent , was overpassed in some cases. Though the results found in this study overpassed the cumulative incidence reported by LAMPARELLI et al. (2015). The results indicate the need for improvements in wastewater treatment systems in the coastal area of São Paulo. As QMRA is a tool capable in estimating the probability of infection it can help to highlight crucial issues in risk management


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Ingestão de Líquidos , Giardia/patogenicidade , Água para Recreação , Medição de Risco , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Microbiologia
10.
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(3): 165-167, 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-831723

RESUMO

Vibrio vulnificus is a bacterium present in natural marine environments that causes infections in immunocompromised people. Sepsis in humans caused by this microorganism is usually accompanied by bullous skin lesions. In the present study we report a case of infection caused by this bacterium affecting a diabetic man, 74 years old, who fell overboard and hurt his leg. The identification of the V. vulnificus was made in the blood culture sample. This is the first report of isolation of V. vulnificus in Santa Catarina, Brazil, showing the dissemination of this bacterium in warm seawater over the world (AU)


Vibrio vulnificus é uma bactéria que se desenvolve em ambientes marinhos naturais e causa infecção em pessoas imunocomprometidas. Sepse em humanos causada por esse microrganismo é geralmente acompanhada por lesões bolhosas da pele. Relatamos um caso de infecção causada por esta bactéria que afetou um homem diabético, de 74 anos, que caiu ao mar e machucou a perna. A identificação do V. vulnificus foi feita na amostra de hemocultura. Este é o primeiro relato de isolamento de V. vulnificus em Santa Catarina, Brasil, elucidando a disseminação das bactérias de ambiente marítimo de água quente pelo mundo (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio vulnificus/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1019-1026, Oct.-Dec. 2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-769652

RESUMO

Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated.


Assuntos
Bactérias/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/microbiologia , Brasil/química , Brasil/classificação , Brasil/genética , Brasil/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Fezes/classificação , Fezes/genética , Fezes/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Recreação/química , Recreação/classificação , Recreação/genética , Recreação/isolamento & purificação , Recreação/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos/química , Estudos Retrospectivos/classificação , Estudos Retrospectivos/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos/microbiologia , Estações do Ano/química , Estações do Ano/classificação , Estações do Ano/genética , Estações do Ano/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano/microbiologia , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/classificação , Água do Mar/genética , Água do Mar/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Poluição da Água/química , Poluição da Água/classificação , Poluição da Água/genética , Poluição da Água/isolamento & purificação , Poluição da Água/microbiologia
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(3): 558-564, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-761590

RESUMO

AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m–3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L–1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05). The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05). The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m–3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L–1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.


ResumoO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alcalinidade para o cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em sistema superintensivo em bioflocos. Foram utilizadas 12 unidades experimentais circulares de 1000L abastecido com 850L de água provenientes de um berçário intensivo, povoadas a uma densidade de 165 camarões.m-3 e peso médio 5,6g. Os tratamentos em triplicata consistiram de quatro níveis de alcalinidade na água: 40, 80, 120 e 160 mg.L–1 de carbonato de cálcio. Para correção da alcalinidade, foi utilizado cal hidratada (CaOH). Foi observado um decréscimo no pH da água nos tratamentos de menor alcalinidade (p<0,05). Os sólidos suspensos sedimentáveis totais também foram menores nos tratamentos de menor alcalinidade. Não foi observada diferença significativa nos demais parâmetros físico-químicos e biológicos de qualidade de água avaliados, assim como nos parâmetros zootécnicos do cultivo entre os tratamentos (p≥0,05). Os resultados de sobrevivência e taxa de crescimento dos camarões foram considerados adequados para o sistema de cultivo utilizado nos distintos tratamentos. O cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em bioflocos na densidade de 165 camarões.m–3 pode ser realizado em águas com alcalinidade entre 40 a 160 mg.L–1 de CaCO3, sem comprometer os índices zootécnicos do cultivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química , Qualidade da Água , Aquicultura
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 377-387, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-749728

RESUMO

Three bacterial isolates identified as Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, Rhodococcus erythropolis HS4 and Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, were isolated from crude oil enrichments of natural seawater. Single strains and four bacterial consortia designed by mixing the single bacterial cultures respectively in the following ratios: (Alcanivorax: Pseudomonas, 1:1), (Alcanivorax: Rhodococcus, 1:1), (Pseudomonas: Rhodococcus, 1:1), and (Alcanivorax: Pseudomonas: Rhodococcus, 1:1:1), were analyzed in order to evaluate their oil degrading capability. All experiments were carried out in microcosms systems containing seawater (with and without addition of inorganic nutrients) and crude oil (unique carbon source). Measures of total and live bacterial abundance, Card-FISH and quali-, quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons (GC-FID) were carried out in order to elucidate the co-operative action of mixed microbial populations in the process of biodegradation of crude oil. All data obtained confirmed the fundamental role of bacteria belonging to Alcanivorax genus in the degradation of linear hydrocarbons in oil polluted environments.


Assuntos
Alcanivoraceae/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Pseudomonas stutzeri/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Alcanivoraceae/classificação , Alcanivoraceae/genética , Alcanivoraceae/isolamento & purificação , Biotransformação , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Consórcios Microbianos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Pseudomonas stutzeri/classificação , Pseudomonas stutzeri/genética , Pseudomonas stutzeri/isolamento & purificação , /genética , Rhodococcus/classificação , Rhodococcus/genética , Rhodococcus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Água do Mar/microbiologia
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(1): 199-212, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-753786

RESUMO

The Gorean snapper, Lutjanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life - history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance of juveniles (<20cm) and sub-adults (20-35cm) which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean±SD; 16.19±3.73cm) to the marine habitat samples (32.89±6.14cm) indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous studies demonstrated that juvenile L. goreensis displays estuarine dependency and habitat flexibility. Hence, this underscores the importance of preserving estuarine environments as essential fish habitats to prevent overfishing. The study also concludes that the species is vulnerable to recruitment overfishing in the marine environment especially as a consequence of shrimping. Consequently, it advocates for ban on all fishing activities during peak spawning periods in breeding grounds and shrimp ground assemblage.


El pargo Lutjanus goreensis es un componente importante de la pesca artesanal y de arrastre en el Golfo de Guinea. A pesar de su importancia económica, hay una escasez de información sobre la estructura de tamaño y las estrategias de historia de vida de las especies. Por lo tanto, los objetivos de este estudio fueron proporcionar datos de referencia sobre las etapas del ciclo de vida, el estado de la explotación y el hábitat de la especie en Nigeria. Se realizaron recolectas mensuales de capturas artesanales y de arrastre en Five Cowrie Creek y aguas costeras de Lagos en diciembre 2008 y diciembre 2010, respectivamente. Se analizaron las distribuciones de frecuencia de tallas de los peces capturados para proporcionar información preliminar sobre la media y longitudes modales en la captura y las estrategias de historia de vida basado en el uso del hábitat y la dependencia a los estuarios para L. goreensis. Un total de 822 ejemplares de L. goreensis se obtuvieron de Five Cowrie Creek, mientras que 377 muestras de las aguas costeras de Lagos. La longitud total varió entre 7.90-34.90cm para muestras del estuario y 21.90-56.10cm para marinas. Histogramas de frecuencia de talla mostraron distribuciones de tamaño polimodales en muestras estuarinas y marinas. Distribuciones de frecuencia de talla de L. goreensis mostraron una alta abundancia de juveniles (<20cm) y subadultos (20-35cm) que representaron el 84.1% y el 68.4% de los estuarios y las muestras marinas examinadas respectivamente. Para las muestras del estuario, peces de talla 13.00-13.99cm fueron los más explotados, mientras que en muestras marinas, las tallas de 29.00-30.99cm y 31.00-32.99cm constituyeron los peces más frecuentemente explotados. Un aumento de la longitud total de la quebrada (media±SD; 16.19±3.73cm) para el hábitat marino (32.89±6.14cm) indicó un cambio ontogenético en el uso del hábitat. La aparición de una población juvenil predominante en Five Cowrie Creek por L. goreensis sugiere una estuario-dependencia y es indicativa de un hábitat juvenil temporal o un corredor migratorio. En conclusión, los datos del estudio actual y estudios previos demostraron que juveniles de L. goreensis presentan una dependencia a los estuarios y una flexibilidad en el uso de hábitat. Por lo tanto, esto subraya la importancia de preservar los ambientes estuarinos como hábitats esenciales de peces para evitar la sobrepesca. El estudio también concluye que la especie es vulnerable a la sobrepesca de reclutamiento en el medio marino, especialmente como consecuencia de la pesca de camarón. En consecuencia, se aboga por la prohibición de todas las actividades pesqueras durante los períodos de mayor puesta de huevos.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nigéria , Perciformes/classificação , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar
15.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 12(4): 845-852, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-732638

RESUMO

Three experiments were designed to assess the accumulation and acute toxicity of copper (Cu) in juvenile fat snook Centropomus parallelus. The first experiment was performed to determine the 96-h lethal concentration (LC50) of Cu. The second experiment was designed to assess the effects of sublethal concentrations of Cu (0.47 and 0.94 mg/L), while the third one allowed us to test the recovery capacity of fish exposed to the sublethal concentrations Cu and kept in sea water without Cu addition. The LC50 value for Cu was found to be 1.88 mg/L Cu. Fish exposed to the sublethal concentrations of Cu showed a significant accumulation of Cu in gills at 96 h respect to the control ones (0.43 µg/g Cu). No significant difference was observed in the accumulation of Cu in gills between fish exposed to 0.47 mg/L (1.09 µg/g Cu) and 0.94 mg/L (1.26 µg/g Cu). Exposure (24 and 96 h) to the sublethal concentrations of Cu tested induced DNA damage in the erythrocytes. The results show that acute exposure to sublethal concentrations induces Cu accumulation and DNA damage in fish, these effects being recovered after 240 h in sea water without Cu addition.


Três experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o acúmulo e toxicidade aguda do cobre (Cu) em juvenis de robalo-peva Centropomus parallelus. O primeiro experimento foi realizado para determinar a concentração letal (96h-CL50) de Cu. O segundo experimento foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de concentrações subletais de Cu (0,47 e 0,94 mg/L), enquanto o terceiro permitiu testar a capacidade de recuperação dos peixes expostos a concentrações subletais do Cu e posteriormente mantidos em água do mar sem acréscimo de Cu. O valor de LC50 encontrado para o Cu foi de 1,88 mg/L. Os peixes expostos as concentrações subletais de Cu mostraram um acúmulo significativo nas brânquias em relação ao controle em 96 h de exposição (0,43 µg/g Cu). Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada entre os peixes expostos a 0,47 mg/L de Cu (1,09 µg/g) e 0,94 mg/L de Cu (1,26 µg/g). A exposição (24 e 96 h) para as concentrações subletais de Cu induziram danos no DNA. Os resultados mostram que a exposição aguda a concentrações subletais induz o acúmulo de Cu e danos ao DNA nas brânquias dos peixes, onde estes efeitos são recuperados após 240 h em água do mar sem adição de Cu.


Assuntos
Animais , Água do Mar/efeitos adversos , Bass/fisiologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Toxicologia/métodos , Ensaio Cometa/veterinária , Testes para Micronúcleos/veterinária
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1273-1284, oct.-dic. 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-753689

RESUMO

Genetic material (short DNA fragments) left behind by species in nonliving components of the environment (e.g. soil, sediment, or water) is defined as environmental DNA (eDNA). This DNA has been previously described as particulate DNA and has been used to detect and describe microbial communities in marine sediments since the mid-1980’s and phytoplankton communities in the water column since the early-1990’s. More recently, eDNA has been used to monitor invasive or endangered vertebrate and invertebrate species. While there is a steady increase in the applicability of eDNA as a monitoring tool, a variety of eDNA applications are emerging in fields such as forensics, population and community ecology, and taxonomy. This review provides scientist an understanding of the methods underlying eDNA detection as well as applications, key methodological considerations, and emerging areas of interest for its use in ecology and conservation of freshwater and marine environments. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4): 1273-1284. Epub 2014 December 01.


El material genético que liberan los organismos en los componentes no vivos del ecosistema (aire, suelo, agua y sedimentos) recibe el nombre de ADN ambiental (ADNa) (eDNA, por su nombre en inglés). Este ADN previamente definido como ADN particulado ha sido utilizado desde mediados de la década de los ochenta y principios de los noventas para describir la composición de las comunidades microbianas en sedimentos marinos y de comunidades microbianas y fitoplanctónicas en la columna de agua. Recientemente el ADNa es utilizado principalmente para la detección y monitoreo de especies invasoras y en peligro. No obstante, existen múltiples áreas en las que este método puede ser utilizado como por ejemplo en ciencias forenses, ecología de poblaciones y comunidades, y taxonomía. Esta revisión proporciona información sobre esta nueva herramienta molecular, sus actuales y futuras aplicaciones, historia, principales consideraciones metodológicas y áreas emergentes para su uso en ecología y conservación de ambientes marinos y de agua dulce.


Assuntos
Animais , DNA , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce , Água do Mar
17.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(3): 218-230, oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-734583

RESUMO

.


Bacterial richness in maritime Antarctica has been poorly described to date. Phylogenetic affiliation of seawater free-living microbial assemblages was studied from three locations near the Argentinean Jubany Station during two Antarctic summers. Sixty 16S RNA cloned sequences were phylogenetically affiliated to Alphaproteobacteria (30/60 clones), Gammaproteobacteria(19/60 clones), Betaproteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacteriia- Bacteroides (CFB), which were (2/60) and (3/60) respectively. Furthermore, six out of 60 clones could not be classified. Both, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, showed several endemic and previously undescribed sequences. Moreover, the absence of Cyanobacteria sequences in our samples is remarkable. In conclusion, we are reporting a rich sequence assemblage composed of widely divergent isolates among themselves and distant from the most closely related sequences currently deposited in data banks.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Regiões Antárticas , Sequência de Bases , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Microbiota , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Ribotipagem , RNA Bacteriano/genética , /genética
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 495-511, Jun.-Aug. 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-715447

RESUMO

The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16±55.35ind./m²) belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae), Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not usually a representative group in suprabenthos. Samples showed low correlations between suprabenthos and environmental variables. A somewhat stronger correlation could be established between water characteristics and dragged material abundance. The studied suprabenthos assemblage was found to have high taxa richness and very dynamic behaviour at spatial and temporal scale. Further analysis suggested that there is no evident pattern of distribution and that causality can not be directly attributed to temporal variation only. Possibly there is an influence of a synergy of environmentals or biological factors, rather than a single variable. The species Americamysis bahia and Americamysis taironana are reported for the first time in Venezuela. This study represents the first ecological research of the suprabenthos in the Caribbean region.


El suprabentos o hiperbentos es la agregación de organismos de pequeño tamaño que interactúan por cierto tiempo en la capa de límite bentónico. La información de la composición taxonómica y el papel de las especies suprabentónicas, especialmente en la zona litoral, es escasa. Este trabajo trata de contribuir a solventar este problema. Se analizó la variación espacial y temporal de la agregación suprabentónica en la zona de rompiente de cuatro playas en la costa litoral de Venezuela. Se dio especial atención al sedimento y características del agua. Todas las muestras fueron tomadas mensualmente durante el 2011. Las muestras fueron extraídas utilizando un trineo suprabentónico manual paralelo a la línea de costa. En cada playa se escogieron dos sitios. Las muestras fueron separadas e identificadas hasta el nivel taxonómico más bajo posible. Se midieron doce variables ambientales: oxígeno disuelto, porcentaje de saturación de oxígeno, pH, salinidad, temperatura superficial, sólidos suspendidos totales, inorgánicos y orgánicos, carbono orgánico total, materia orgánica en sedimento, tamaño del grano de sedimento y cantidad de material arrastrado en cada muestra. Se identificaron un total de 24 141 individuos (densidad promedio: 26.16±55.35ind./m2), pertenecientes a 21 grupos taxonómicos. Los análisis sugieren que la estacionalidad no explica los cambios observados en la fauna ni en las variables ambientales. La agregación del suprabentos, la densidad total, riqueza y variables ambientales cambiaron de manera diferente entre meses y playas. Los grupos más frecuentes fueron anfípodos y decápodos. A nivel de especies/categorías fueron las post-larvas de camarón (Penaeidae), las megalopas de cangrejos Grapsidae y de Arenaeus cribarius (Lamarck, 1818). La disimilitud entre meses en cada playa se debe principalmente a la abundancia de anfípodos, ctenóforos, decápodos y misidáceos. En meses particulares y algunas playas, se encontraron altas abundancias de ctenóforos. Este grupo dominó esas muestras, aún cuando no son frecuentemente un grupo representativo del suprabentos. Se encontraron bajas correlaciones entre el suprabentos y las variables ambientales. Una relación un poco más fuerte fue establecida con las características del agua y la abundancia de material arrastrado. La agregación de suprabentos estudiada tuvo una alta riqueza taxonómica y fue muy dinámica tanto espacial como temporalmente. Los análisis sugieren que no hay un patrón evidente de distribución y el azar no puede ser atribuido sólo a la variación temporal. Posiblemente hay influencia de una sinergia de factores ambientales o biológicos, más que de una variable en particular. Las especies Americamysis bahia (Molenock, 1969) y Americamysis taironana (Brattegard, 1973) se reportan por primera vez para Venezuela. Este es el primer estudio ecológico del suprabentos en el Mar Caribe.


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Invertebrados/classificação , Meio Ambiente , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar , Venezuela
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(3): 327-333, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-716393

RESUMO

Introduction This research aimed to identify and quantify potentially pathogenic Vibrio from different cultivations of bivalve shellfish in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and water regions in the South Bay, as well as correlate the incidence of these microorganisms with the physicochemical parameters of marine waters. Methods Between October 2008 and March 2009, 60 oyster and seawater samples were collected from six regions of bivalve mollusk cultivation, and these samples were submitted for Vibrio counts. Results Twenty-nine (48.3%) oyster samples were revealed to be contaminated with one or more Vibrio species. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus counts in the samples ranged from < 0.5 log10 Most Probable Number (MPN) g–1 to 2.3 log10 MPN g–1 oyster and from < 0.5 log10 MPN g–1 to 2.1 log10 MPN g–1 oyster, respectively. Of the 60 seawater samples analyzed, 44 (73.3%) showed signs of contamination with one or more vibrio species. The counts of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in the samples ranged from < 0.3 log10 MPN·100mL–1 to 1.7 log10MPN·100mL–1 seawater and from < 0.3 log10 MPN·100mL–1 to 2.0 log10 MPN·100mL–1 seawater, respectively. A positive correlation between V. vulnificus counts and the seawater temperature as well as a negative correlation between the V. parahaemolyticus counts and salinity were observed. Conclusions The results suggest the need to implement strategies to prevent vibrio diseases from being transmitted by the consumption of contaminated bivalve shellfish. .


Assuntos
Animais , Crassostrea/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Aquicultura , Brasil , Temperatura , Vibrio/classificação , Vibrio/patogenicidade
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 142-157, ene.-mar. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-715421

RESUMO

Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km²) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9°C (April, high tide) to 31.4°C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco State, and it also constitutes the more complete reference on the detailed size composition of a set of dominant species in a coastal lagoon in the central Mexican Pacific.


Las lagunas costeras son consideradas áreas de crianza importantes para muchas especies de peces costeros. La laguna costera Barra de Navidad (3.76km²) es importante para la economía local y soporta un desarrollo turístico y pesquerías artesanales. Sin embargo, el rol de esta laguna en la dinámica de las poblaciones de peces costeros es poco conocido. Los objetivos de la investigación fueron: caracterizar el agua de la laguna y las condiciones climáticas relacionadas, elaborar el elenco sistemático de la ictiofauna y estimar la proporción de juveniles en el total de individuos capturados de las especies más abundantes. Las operaciones de recolecta de peces se realizaron entre marzo 2011 y febrero 2012. Se utilizaron varios artes de pesca diferentes que incluyeron atarraya, chinchorro playero y redes de agalla con cuatro tamaños de malla diferentes. Se midieron las variables físicas y químicas en épocas de lluvias y de secas. La laguna es euhalina (salinidad 30-40 ups) la mayor parte del tiempo, aunque en determinados periodos cortos puede tener características mixopolihalinas (salinidad 18-30 ups). Las concentraciones de clorofila y nutrientes indican que la laguna está eutrofizada. La temperatura media del agua varió estacionalmente de 24.9°C (abril, pleamar) a 31.4°C (octubre, bajamar). Se recolectaron en total 36 448 individuos, pertenecientes a 92 especies, de las cuales 31 tienen una relevancia ecológica con base en el número de individuos capturados. Las especies dominantes fueron: Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) y Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). La laguna es un hábitat de juveniles importante para 22 de las 31 especies más abundantes. Estas incluyeron algunas especies de importancia comercial como los pargos (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado y L. novemfasciatus), el robalo (Centropomus nigrescens) y la lisa (Mugil curema). Otras cuatro especies parecen utilizar la laguna principalmente como adultos. El presente trabajo es la primera contribución sobre la composición de la ictiofauna estuarina en el Estado de Jalisco y es también la referencia más completa hasta el momento sobre la composición por tallas del conjunto de especies dominantes en una laguna costera del Pacífico central mexicano.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/classificação , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , México , Densidade Demográfica , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar , Temperatura
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