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2.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 55(1): 65-67, 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-794294

RESUMO

Estudios realizados en momias o en cuerpos momificados con técnicas convencionales y estudios de tomografía computada, revelaron patologíasmaxilofaciales tales como: atrición, pulpitis abscesos y enfermedad periodontal; además de otras enfermedades con mayor compromiso general, a saber: osteomielitis, enfermedad de Paget, defectos cráneomandibulares y traumas. Sin embargo, se observa un bajo porcentaje de caries. Para la continuidad de la vida en el más allá, revestía una importancia fundamental la conservación de loscuerpos en este mundo...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Maxilomandibulares , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Múmias , Paleontologia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Cárie Dentária , Osteíte Deformante , Osteomielite , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/métodos , Traumatismos Dentários
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(6): 701-704, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-769570

RESUMO

Tutankhamun was a Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (New Kingdom) in ancient Egypt. Medical and radiological investigations of his skull revealed details about the jaw and teeth status of the mummy. Regarding the jaw relation, a maxillary prognathism, a mandibular retrognathism and micrognathism have been discussed previously. A cephalometric analysis was performed using a lateral skull X-ray and a review of the literature regarding King Tutankhamun´s mummy. The results imply diagnosis of mandibular retrognathism. Furthermore, third molar retention and an incomplete, single cleft palate are present.


Resumo Tutankhamun foi um faraó da 18ª dinastia (Novo Império) do antigo Egito. Estudos médicos e radiológicos de seu crânio revelaram detalhes sobre o estado dos dentes e mandíbula da múmia. Já houve relatos sobre a relação mandibular, o prognatismo maxilar, retroganatismo e micrognatismo mandibular. Neste estudo foi feita análise cefalométrica com radiografia lateral e uma revisão da literatura a respeito da múmia do faraó Tutankhamun. Os resultados levam à conclusão de retrogantismo mandibular. Também estão presentes retenção de terceiro molar e fissura palatina singular incompleta.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , História Antiga , Adulto Jovem , Múmias , Dente , Antigo Egito
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(8): 974-980, Dec. 2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-769834

RESUMO

We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times.


Assuntos
Animais , História Medieval , Humanos , Lactente , Cemitérios/história , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/história , Múmias/parasitologia , Opistorquíase/história , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos/história , Opisthorchis/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/história , Sibéria/etnologia , Zigoto
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(5): 637-643, mayo 2013. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-684372

RESUMO

We report a severe osteo-arthropathy in a body of a Chinchorro adult mole exhumed from the pre-Hispanic site of Playa Miller 8, located in the city of Arica, on the northern coast of Chile. The advanced state of joint disease shows that the individual was cared by his social group, to be oble to survive. This care was perpetuated in the postmortem treatment, applying red color to the body. Particular self-care social dynamics of Chinchorro society are inferred.


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Múmias , Osteoartrite/patologia , Chile
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(3): 1041-1044, Sept. 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-595527

RESUMO

The classical hypothesis proposes that Chagas disease has been originated in the Andean region among prehistoric people when they started domesticating animals, changing to sedentary habits, and adopting agriculture. These changes in their way of life happened nearly 6,000 years ago. However, paleoparasitological data based on molecular tools showed that Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease were commonly found both in South and North American prehistoric populations long before that time, suggesting that Chagas disease may be as old as the human presence in the American continent. The study of the origin and dispersion of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among prehistoric human populations may help in the comprehension of the clinical and epidemiological questions on Chagas disease that still remain unanswered.


A hipótese clássica sobre a origem da doença de Chagas propõe que tenha surgido entre as populações pré-históricas dos Andes quando começaram a domesticar animais, mudaram para hábitos sedentários e adotaram a agricultura. Estas mudanças em seus hábitos de vida aconteceram há aproximadamente 6.000 anos. Entretanto, os dados da paleoparasitologia, baseados na biologia molecular, mostraram que a infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi e a doença de Chagas eram comuns tanto em populações pré-históricas da América do Sul e América do Norte muito antes deste período. De acordo com os dados paleoparasitológicos, a doença de Chagas pode ser tão antiga quanto a presença humana no continente americano. O estudo sobre a origem e dispersão da infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi entre populações humanas pré-históricas pode auxiliar na compreensão de questões clínicas e epidemiológicas sobre a doença de Chagas que ainda permanecem sem resposta.


Assuntos
Animais , História Antiga , Humanos , Doença de Chagas/história , Múmias/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , América , Paleopatologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
8.
In. Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Reinhard, Karl Jan; Araújo, Adauto. Fundamentos da paleoparasitologia. Rio de Janeiro, Editora Fiocruz, 2011. p.43-52, ilus. (Temas em saúde).
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-638230
9.
In. Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Reinhard, Karl Jan; Araújo, Adauto. Fundamentos da paleoparasitologia. Rio de Janeiro, Editora Fiocruz, 2011. p.287-299. (Temas em saúde).
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-638246
10.
In. Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Reinhard, Karl Jan; Araújo, Adauto. Fundamentos da paleoparasitologia. Rio de Janeiro, Editora Fiocruz, 2011. p.437-453, ilus. (Temas em saúde).
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-638254
12.
Colomb. med ; 41(2): 112-120, abr.-jun. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-573010

RESUMO

Introduction: The practice of artificial mummification of human corpses in America was common to most Andean pre-Hispanic societies to which the Muiscas belonged. Objective: bio-anthropologically and paleopathologically characterize the SO10-IX mummy.Materials and methods: Case and field history graphic study with invasive and non-invasive techniques. Results: Pre-Hispanic individual from the 14th century, male, 25 to 30 years of age. Macroscopic dental and osseous characteristics suggest it fitting the American Indian pattern. Evident absence of lower left member and right thigh, and the vertebral column reveals marked angular kyphosis, a pre-vertebral abscess in spindle shape, a lesion of vertebrate bodies T7 and T8, compatible with tuberculous spondylitis known as Pott’s disease. Also noted is the good state of the dentoalveolar complex. Conclusions: For the first time, there is evidence of tuberculosis, in pre-Hispanic times, in a Muisca mummy from the Andean plateau (high plains). Due to the multidisciplinary approach, the historical, geographic, paleopathologic, bio-anthropologic, cultural, and chronological contexts of the mummy were reconstructed, granting importance to this national heritage asset. Two facial reconstruction studies are proposed, preservation and manipulation, and a genetic analysis to confirm the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. The ritual position of mummification caused difficulties in the study and measurement techniques.


Introducción: La práctica de la momificación artificial de cuerpos humanos en América, fue común a la mayoría de las sociedades prehispánicas andinas, a las que pertenecen los muiscas. Objetivo: Caracterizar bioantropológica y paleopatológicamente la momia S010-IX. Materiales y métodos: Estudio historiográfico de campo y de caso, con uso de técnicas invasivas y no invasivas. Resultados: Individuo prehispánico, del siglo XIV, sexo masculino, de 25-30 años de edad. Las características macroscópicas dentales y óseas sugieren que pertenece al patrón indígena americano. Presenta ausencia de miembro inferior izquierdo y muslo derecho. En la columna vertebral se observa una marcada cifosis angular, restos de un absceso prevertebral en forma de huso, una lesión de los cuerpos vertebrales T7 y T8, compatibles con una espondilitis tuberculosa conocida como Mal de Pott. Presenta un buen estado del complejo dentoalveolar. Conclusiones: Por primera vez se presenta evidencia de la existencia de tuberculosis, en época prehispánica, en una momia muisca del altiplano. Gracias al enfoque multidisciplinario se reconstruyó el contexto histórico, geográfico, paleopatológico, bioantropológico, cultural y cronológico de la momia, dándole la importancia a este bien patrimonial de la nación. Se proponen estudios de reconstrucción facial, preservación y manejo, y un análisis genético para confirmar la presencia de ADN de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. La posición ritual de la momificación, dificultó el estudio y las técnicas de medición.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Colômbia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Múmias , Paleopatologia , Espondilite
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 138(4): 461-469, abr. 2010. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-553217

RESUMO

Background: The Camarones River Valley, located in the extreme north of Chile, is characterized by high environmental arsenic levels and an arid desert. It has been inhabited by humans for the past 7,000 years. Evidence exists for chronic arsenic poisoning in both prehispanic and present populations residing in the area. Chronic arsenic exposure causes multi-systemic problems and can induce congenital malformations, in particular neural tube development defects such as spina bifda. Aim: To study the prevalence of spina bifda among prehispanic mummies of the area. Material and Methods: Onehundred and twenty prehistoric adult individuals were analyzed for evidence of spina bifda occulta of the sacrum in skeletal samples from the sites of Camarones 8, Camarones 9, Azapa 140 and Lluta 54, held in repository at the Museo Universidad de Tarapacá de Arica- San Miguel de Azapa. A diagnosis was considered positive when at least S1, S2 or S3 were affected. As controls, mummies of individuals that resided in Lluta and Azapa valley, with a low arsenic exposure, were analyzed. Results: The frequency of spina bifda occulta among samples from the Camarones coast and Lluta and Azapa Valley were 13.5 and 2.4 percent respectively. Conclusions: Considering these were contemporaneous samples, and are believed to have had no other differences in diet or other factors, the differential exposures to arsenic could have produced the observed differences in spina bifda frequencies.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação por Arsênico/história , Exposição Ambiental/história , Múmias , Espinha Bífida Oculta/história , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Intoxicação por Arsênico/etiologia , Intoxicação por Arsênico/patologia , Chile , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Paleopatologia , Sacro/patologia , Espinha Bífida Oculta/induzido quimicamente , Espinha Bífida Oculta/patologia
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(2): 225-228, Mar. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-544630

RESUMO

In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA) report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Múmias/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Citocromos b/genética , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , República da Coreia
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(1): 66-72, Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-539298

RESUMO

Current clinical data show a clear relationship between the zoonosis rates of Diphyllobothrium pacificum and Anisakis caused by the El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) phenomenon along the Chilean coast. These parasites are endemic to the region and have a specific habitat distribution. D. pacificum prefers the warmer waters in the northern coast, while Anisakis prefers the colder waters of Southern Chile. The ENSO phenomenon causes a drastic inversion in the seawater temperatures in this region, modifying both the cool nutrient-rich seawater and the local ecology. This causes a latitudinal shift in marine parasite distribution and prevalence, as well as drastic environmental changes. The abundance of human mummies and archaeological coastal sites in the Atacama Desert provides an excellent model to test the ENSO impact on antiquity. We review the clinical and archaeological literature debating to what extent these parasites affected the health of the Chinchorros, the earliest settlers of this region. We hypothesise the Chinchorro and their descendants were affected by this natural and cyclical ENSO phenomenon and should therefore present fluctuating rates of D. pacificum and Anisakis infestations.


Assuntos
Animais , História Antiga , Humanos , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Difilobotríase/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Múmias/parasitologia , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisaquíase/história , Chile/epidemiologia , Difilobotríase/epidemiologia , Difilobotríase/história , Paleopatologia , Peru/epidemiologia
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 9-16, July 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-520896

RESUMO

One hundred years since the discovery of Chagas disease associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection, growing attention has focused on understanding the evolution in parasite-human host interaction. This interest has featured studies and results from paleoparasitology, not only the description of lesions in mummified bodies, but also the recovery of genetic material from the parasite and the possibility of analyzing such material over time. The present study reviews the evidence of Chagas disease in organic remains excavated from archeological sites and discusses two findings in greater detail, both with lesions suggestive of chagasic megacolon and confirmed by molecular biology techniques. One of these sites is located in the United States, on the border between Texas and Mexico and the other in state of Minas Gerais, in the Brazilian cerrado (savannah). Dated prior to contact with Europeans, these results confirm that Chagas disease affected prehistoric human groups in other regions outside the Andean altiplanos and other transmission areas on the Pacific Coast, previously considered the origin of T. cruzi infection in the human host.


Assuntos
Animais , História Antiga , Humanos , Doença de Chagas/história , Fósseis , Megacolo/história , Múmias/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , América , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Megacolo/parasitologia , Paleopatologia
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(4): 671-672, July 2009. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-523741

RESUMO

Pediculosis seems to have afflicted humans since the most ancient times and lice have been found in several ancient human remains. Examination of the head hair and pubic hair of the artificial mummy of Ferdinand II of Aragon (1467-1496), King of Naples, revealed a double infestation with two different species of lice, Pediculus capitis, the head louse, and Pthirus pubis, the pubic louse. The hair samples were also positive for the presence of mercury, probably applied as an anti-pediculosis therapy. This is the first time that these parasites have been found in the hair of a king, demonstrating that even members of the wealthy classes in the Renaissance were subject to louse infestation.


Assuntos
Animais , História do Século XV , Humanos , Pessoas Famosas , Infestações por Piolhos/história , Múmias , Itália
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 28(4): 569-577, dic. 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-526120

RESUMO

Introducción. Los restos óseos arcaicos son fuente privilegiada de información biológica y su caracterización genética permite confirmar o descartar filiaciones propuestas por otras aproximaciones científicas. La historia precolombina de los Andes orientales se divide en tres periodos principales: I) un poblamiento temprano por parte de grupos cazadores-recolectores; II) un periodo intermedio (Herrera) de pueblos con agricultura incipiente, y III) un periodo tardío de pueblos chibchas, agrícolas y alfareros (agroalfarero). Objetivo. Analizar el ADN mitocondrial de restos óseos del periodo Herrera. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 11 individuos pertenecientes al yacimiento arqueológico Madrid 2-41, con una edad aproximada de 2.000 años. Un fragmento (192 pb) del segmento hipervariable I fue amplificado y secuenciado, siguiendo criterios estrictos de autenticidad deADN arcaico. Las secuencias se compararon con las existentes en bases de datos de Norteamérica y Europa usando herramientas bioinformáticas. Resultados. Todas las secuencias resultaron idénticas y fueron clasificadas como haplogrupo B. Esto puede relacionarse con el tipo de entierro ritual practicado en Madrid 2-41, es decir, probablemente los individuos analizados hagan parte de una familia jerárquicamente importanteen la antigua sociedad Herrera. La búsqueda de secuencias homólogas en las bases de datos estadounidense y europea no arrojó coincidencias exactas, aunque existe el reporte de un individuo amazónico de ~4.000 años de antigüedad (Brasil) cuya secuencia coincide con la hallada en Madrid 2-41.Conclusión. Los individuos del yacimiento arqueológico Madrid 2-41 están estrechamente emparentados entre sí por línea materna y presentan una secuencia aparentemente ausente en poblaciones actuales.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Arqueologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Colômbia , Haplótipos , Múmias
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(5): 514-516, Aug. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-491973

RESUMO

We evaluated the presence and distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in a mummy presenting with megacolon that was dated as approximately 560 ± 40 years old. The mummy was from the Peruaçu Valley in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All samples were positive for T. cruzi minicircle DNA, demonstrating the presence and broad dissemination of the parasite in this body. From one sample, a mini-exon gene fragment was recovered and characterized by sequencing and was found to belong to the T. cruzi I genotype. This finding suggests that T. cruzi I infected humans during the pre-Columbian times and that, in addition to T. cruzi infection, Chagas disease in Brazil most likely preceded European colonization.


Assuntos
Animais , História Antiga , Humanos , Doença de Chagas/história , Megacolo/história , Múmias/parasitologia , Paleopatologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Genótipo , Megacolo/parasitologia
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(2): 211-213, Mar. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-480639

RESUMO

Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal). The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Muscidae), a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae). In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.


Assuntos
Adulto , Animais , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Esôfago/parasitologia , Muscidae , Múmias/parasitologia , Portugal , Pupa
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