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1.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 135-140, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-747143

RESUMO

Introduction Mercury poisoning causes hearing loss in humans and animals. Acute and long-term exposures produce irreversible peripheral and central auditory system damage, and mercury in its various forms of presentation in the environment is ototoxic. Objective We investigated the otoacoustic emissions responses in a riverside population exposed to environmental mercury by analyzing the inhibitory effect of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS) on transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). Methods The purpose of the research was to evaluate the entire community independently of variables of sex and age. All of the participants were born and lived in a riverside community. After otolaryngologic evaluation, participants were received tympanometry, evaluation of contralateral acoustic reflexes, pure tone audiometry, and recording of TEOAEs with nonlinear click stimulation. Hair samples were collect to measure mercury levels. Results There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory effect of the MOCS, age, and the level of mercury in the hair. Conclusions The pathophysiological effects of chronic exposure may be subtle and nonspecific and can have a long period of latency; therefore, it will be important to monitor the effects of mercury exposure in the central auditory system of the Amazon population over time. Longitudinal studies should be performed to determine whether the inhibitory effect of the MOCS on otoacoustic emissions can be an evaluation method and diagnostic tool in populations exposed to mercury. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Espondilartrite/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Artrite Psoriásica/genética , Artrite Psoriásica/virologia , Artrite Reativa/epidemiologia , Artrite Reativa/genética , Artrite Reativa/virologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Infecções por HIV/complicações , /genética , Espondilartrite/diagnóstico , Espondilartrite/genética , Espondilartrite/virologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/virologia
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(2): 196-205, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-746503

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Higiene , Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Esquistossomose/transmissão
3.
Radiol. bras ; 48(2): 69-73, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-746617

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of dilution of paramagnetic contrast agent with iodinated contrast and xylocaine on the signal intensity during magnetic resonance arthrography, and to improve the paramagnetic contrast agent concentration utilized in this imaging modality. Materials and Methods: Samples specially prepared for the study with three different concentrations of paramagnetic contrast agent diluted in saline, iodinated contrast agent and xylocaine were imaged with fast spin echo T1-weighted sequences with fat saturation. The samples were placed into flasks and graphical analysis of the signal intensity was performed as a function of the paramagnetic contrast concentration. Results: As compared with samples of equal concentrations diluted only with saline, the authors have observed an average signal intensity decrease of 20.67% for iodinated contrast agent, and of 28.34% for xylocaine. However, the increased gadolinium concentration in the samples caused decrease in signal intensity with all the dilutions. Conclusion: Minimizing the use of iodinated contrast media and xylocaine and/or the use of a gadolinium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L diluted in saline will improve the sensitivity of magnetic resonance arthrography. .


Objetivo: Investigar, mediante quantificação da intensidade do sinal emitido em amostras, se a diluição do agente de contraste paramagnético com contraste iodado e xilocaína alteram o sinal emitido pelo meio de contraste paramagnético durante o exame de artrorressonância magnética, e aperfeiçoar a concentração de contraste paramagnético utilizada no exame. Materiais e Métodos: Foi realizada sequência de pulso fast spin eco ponderada em T1 com saturação de gordura, utilizando três diferentes concentrações de contraste paramagnético diluídas em solução salina, contraste iodado e xilocaína. As amostras foram colocadas em frascos e a análise gráfica da intensidade do sinal em função da concentração de contraste paramagnético foi realizada. Resultados: Constatou-se que as diluições de contraste paramagnético em contraste iodado e xilocaína diminuíram, em média, a intensidade do sinal em 20,67% para o contraste iodado e 28,34% para a xilocaína, em comparação com as amostras de concentração idêntica diluídas apenas em solução salina. Porém, o aumento da concentração de gadolínio nas amostras ocasionou a diminuição da intensidade do sinal emitido pelo gadolínio, para todas as diluições. Conclusão: Minimizar o uso do meio de contraste iodado e da xilocaína e/ou a utilização de uma concentração de gadolínio com 2,5 mmol/L, diluída em solução salina, irá aperfeiçoar a sensibilidade do exame de artrorressonância magnética. .


Assuntos
Internet/provisão & distribução , África ao Sul do Saara
6.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 18(12): 3553-3562, Dez. 2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-695349

RESUMO

A região Subsaariana do continente africano é onde se concentra a maior carga de doença do mundo e é a única região do planeta onde se espera que o número de pessoas pobres irá aumentar nas próximas décadas. Os países desta região, em diferentes graus, experimentam processo lento de envelhecimento populacional, mas, ao mesmo tempo, é onde a população idosa mais cresce em números absolutos. A partir de revisão da bibliografia, buscou-se destacar a situação demográfica e social em que vivem as pessoas idosas na região subsaariana e os principais desafios que se impõem aos governos locais para a superação dos complexos problemas postos a toda a sociedade. Constatou-se que as políticas públicas voltadas para este segmento populacional na região não representam prioridade e, por conseguinte, dificilmente entram na agenda atual da cooperação internacional.


The Sub-Saharan part of the African continent is the area that has the highest disease burden in the world and is the only region of the planet where it is expected that the number of poor people will increase in the coming decades. The countries of this region, to different degrees, experience slow process of population aging but at the same time, it is the are where the elderly population grows fastest in absolute numbers. Based on a review of the literature, an attempt was made to highlight the social and demographic situation in which the elderly live in the Sub-Saharan region and the main challenges faced by local governments to overcome the complex problems affecting society as a whole. It was found that public policies geared to this segment of the population in the region do not represent a priority and, consequently, are unlikely to be included in the current agenda of international cooperation.


Assuntos
Idoso , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Dinâmica Populacional , África ao Sul do Saara , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pobreza
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(1): 103-111, ene.-mar. 2012. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-639816

RESUMO

Introducción. La mutación de la hemoglobina S (HbS) va acompañada por otras mutaciones en la región del cromosoma 11, conocida como conjunto de la globina beta(beta globin cluster). El patrón de combinación de estos polimorfismos da lugar a los haplotipos que se heredan junto con la mutación de la hemoglobina S, se denominan haplotipos de la mutación bs y revisten gran importancia epidemiológica y clínica. Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de los principales haplotipos asociados al gen HBB en pacientes colombianos heterocigotos para hemoglobina S. Materiales y métodos. En la Clínica Colsanitas se han estudiado a la fecha 1.200 muestras de sangre periférica de niños en busca de hemoglobinopatías, y se ha encontrado el rasgo falciforme como la hemoglobinopatía más frecuente. Se determinaron los haplotipos del gen HBB que presentaron la mutación beta-S en 33 niños con patrón electroforético de hemoglobina AS, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y enzimas de restricción. Se determinaron el patrón electroforético de la hemoglobina, el nivel de hemoglobina fetal y los parámetros hematológicos de cada individuo. Resultados. Los haplotipos de la hemoglobina S encontrados con mayor frecuencia en la muestra analizada son de origen africano y su orden de aparición fue mayor para el haplotipo Bantú (36,4 %), seguido por Senegal (30,3 %), Benín (21,2 %) y Camerún (12,1 %). La electroforesis de hemoglobina confirmó el fenotipo AS; la dosificación de hemoglobina fetal mostró niveles por debajo de 1 % y los parámetros hematológicos analizados mostraron valores normales en el 100 % de los individuos. Conclusión. Los haplotipos de la HbS encontrados con mayor frecuencia en la muestra estudiada eran de origen africano y su distribución variaba de acuerdo con el lugar de prodedencia del individuo. La mayor frecuencia correspodió al haplotipo Bantú.


Introduction. The hemoglobin S (HbS) mutation is accompanied by other mutations in the region of chromosome 11 known as "beta globin cluster". The pattern of combination of these polymorphisms giving rise to the haplotypes that co-inherit the HbS mutation, are called haplotypes bs, and are of great epidemiological and clinical significance. Objective. The frequencies of major haplotypes associated with S beta-globin gene was determined in Colombian patients heterozygous for hemoglobin S. Materials and methods. As part of the national neonatal screening program at Clínica Colsanitas, located in major cities of Colombia, nearly 1,200 children from different areas of the country were examined for hemoglobinopathies. The sickle cell trait was identified as the most common. S beta-globin gene haplotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzymes in 33 children with AS hemoglobin electrophoretic patterns (carrier state). In addition, electrophoretic patterns of hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin levels and hematologic parameters of each individual were identified. Results. The most frequent haplotypes in Colombia were the Bantú haplotype (36.4 %), followed by Senegal (30.3 %), Benin (21.2 %) and Cameroon (12.1 %) haplotypes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed the AS phenotype in all patients, and fetal hemoglobin levels below 1%. Other hematological parameters were normal in all cases. Conclusion. The HbS haplotypes found more frequently in the sample were of African origin, and their distribution varied according to the place of origin of the individual. The most frequent corresponded to the Bantu haplotype.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Hemoglobina Falciforme/genética , Globinas beta/genética , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/etnologia , Eletroforese das Proteínas Sanguíneas , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina Fetal/análise , Haplótipos/genética , Triagem Neonatal , Traço Falciforme/sangue , Traço Falciforme/etnologia , Traço Falciforme/genética
8.
s.l; Global Health Strategies initiatives; 2012. 109 p.
Não convencional em Inglês | LILACS, BDS | ID: biblio-848067
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(7): 677-680, July 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-550738

RESUMO

A 3-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in intron 6 of GSTM3 (rs1799735, GSTM3*A/*B) affects the activity of the phase 2 xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme GSTM3 and has been associated with increased cancer risk. The GSTM3*B allele is rare or absent in Southeast Asians, occurs in 5-20 percent of Europeans but was detected in 80 percent of Bantu from South Africa. The wide genetic diversity among Africans led us to investigate whether the high frequency of GSTM3*B prevailed in other sub-Saharan African populations. In 168 healthy individuals from Angola, Mozambique and the São Tomé e Príncipe islands, the GSTM3*B allele was three times more frequent (0.74-0.78) than the GSTM3*A allele (0.22-0.26), with no significant differences in allele frequency across the three groups. We combined these data with previously published results to carry out a multidimensional scaling analysis, which provided a visualization of the worldwide population affinities based on the GSTM3 *A/*B polymorphism.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , África ao Sul do Saara , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
11.
Biol. Res ; 43(4): 403-409, 2010. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-582854

RESUMO

The micromorphology of foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata var. aristata was studied using stereo, light and scanning microscopy (SEM). This genus belongs to the advanced angiosperm family Acanthaceae, for which few micromorphological leaf studies exist. Results revealed both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the latter being more abundant on leaf veins, particularly on the abaxial surface of very young leaves. With leaf maturity, the density of non-glandular trichomes decreased. Glandular trichomes were rare and of two types: long-stalked capitate and globose-like peltate trichomes. Capitate trichomes were observed only on the abaxial leaf surface, while peltate trichomes were distributed on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.


Assuntos
Acanthaceae/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , África ao Sul do Saara , Acanthaceae/classificação , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/classificação
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 69(1): 163-166, ene.-feb. 2009. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-633600

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los casos de paludismo por Plasmodium falciparum ocurridos en viajeros provenientes del África tropical, atendidos en el Hospital Alemán. Se definió paludismo de origen africano como la infección adquirida en un país del África subsahariana, diagnosticado y tratado en la Argentina. El diagnóstico se realizó por la clínica y la microscopía óptica en frotis de sangre periférica coloreados con Giemsa. Se revieron las historias clínicas de 11 pacientes adultos -cinco turistas y seis marineros mercantes- no oriundos de área endémica, sin condición inmunosupresora, ni morbilidad asociada, internados entre 1993 y 2007. El rango de edad fue de 21 a 48 años; nueve hombres y dos mujeres. Los pacientes fueron clasificados retrospectivamente en malaria grave (seis) o no grave (cinco) según cumplieran con uno o más de los criterios de gravedad de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Todos presentaron fiebre como signo más significativo. Como complicaciones graves se observaron casos de insuficiencia renal, epistaxis, hemoglobinuria, hipoglucemia, edema pulmonar, acidosis y coma. Tres pacientes requirieron internación en la unidad de terapia intensiva. Todos sobrevivieron y solamente tres habían recibido la quimioprofilaxis correcta antes de viajar. El tratamiento se realizó con una o más de las siguientes drogas: mefloquina, quinidina, clindamicina y cotrimoxazol.


The purpose of this paper is to present the cases of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in travelers coming from tropical Africa, who were treated at the Hospital Alemán (Buenos Aires). African malaria was defined as an infection acquired in any country within Africa, diagnosed and treated in Argentina. Diagnostic tools included clinical features and optic microscopy with Giemsa stained peripheral blood films. We reviewed the medical records of 11 adult patients -five tourists and six sailors- with no history of malaria, immunosuppressive condition or associated morbidity, admitted from 1993 to 2007. The age ranged from 21 to 48 years old, nine of them were males and two females. The patients were retrospectively classified into severe malaria -six of them- or mild malaria -five of them- according to severity criteria established by the World Health Organization, within the first three days of the beginnings of the symptoms. All patients presented fever; severe complications included encephalitis, renal failure, bleeding, haemoglobinuria, hypoglycemia, and pulmonary edema. Three patients required admission at the intensive care unit; no patient died. Only three off them had received properly chemoprophylaxis before traveling; all received treatment with at least one of the following drugs: mefloquine, quinidine, clyndamicine and cotrimoxazol.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Malária Falciparum , Viagem , África ao Sul do Saara , Argentina , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle
13.
Global Health ; 4(10): [35], 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDS | ID: biblio-832918

RESUMO

Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan), I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments) are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components) and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.


Assuntos
Humanos , África ao Sul do Saara , Impactos na Saúde/análise , Exploração de Recursos Naturais , Óleos , Saúde Pública , Conflito de Interesses , Gestão Ambiental , Ética nos Negócios , Risco
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(supl.1): 87-90, Oct. 2006. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-441231

RESUMO

We describe an innovative use of multimedia materials to support training and advocacy within a schistosomiasis control programme. The Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) at Imperial College London works with selected sub-Saharan African countries to develop schistosomiasis control programmes. Two elements of the SCI programme were supported by multimedia materials developed at the Wellcome Trust in collaboration with the SCI: (1) training of programme managers, district health officers, and those delivering practical elements of the programme; and (2) advocacy targeted at decision-makers and donors. Evaluation of the materials revealed high reported ratings for both user satisfaction and impact from use of the product. From this experience we draw out several general messages about development of multimedia materials and how these will play a growing future role in promoting training within international health.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recursos Audiovisuais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Cooperação Internacional , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , África ao Sul do Saara , CD-ROM , Saúde Global , Londres , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensino/métodos
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