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Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 644-650, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-680765


During the season of high malaria transmission, most children are infected by Plasmodium, which targets red blood cells (RBCs), affecting haematological parameters. To describe these variations, we examined the haematological profiles of two groups of children living in a malaria-endemic area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the peak of the malaria transmission season in a rural area of Burkina Faso. After informed consent and clinical examination, blood samples were obtained from the participants for malaria diagnosis and a full blood count. Of the 414 children included in the analysis, 192 were not infected with Plasmodium, whereas 222 were asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium infection. The mean age of the infected children was 41.8 months (range of 26.4-57.2) compared to 38.8 months (range of 22.4-55.2) for the control group (p = 0.06). The asymptomatic infected children tended to have a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level (10.8 g/dL vs. 10.4 g/dL; p < 0.001), mean lymphocyte count (4592/µL vs. 5141/µL; p = 0.004), mean platelet count (266 x 103/µL vs. 385 x 103/µL; p < 0.001) and mean RBC count (4.388 x 106/µL vs. 4.158 x 106/µL; p < 0.001) and a higher mean monocyte count (1403/µL vs. 1192/µL; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Special attention should be applied when interpreting haematological parameters and evaluating immune responses in asymptomatic infected children living in malaria-endemic areas and enrolled in vaccine trials.

Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Malária/parasitologia , Prevalência , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , População Rural , Estações do Ano
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 14(3): 219-224, May-June 2010. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-556832


The coinfection of HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and their vertical transmission constitute a public health problem in sub-Saharan countries of Africa. The objectives of this research are: i) identify the pregnant women that are coinfected by HIV and HBV at Saint Camille Medical Centre; ii) use three antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, nevirapine and lamivudine) to interrupt the vertical transmission of HIV and HBV from infected mothers; and iii) use the PCR technique to diagnose children who are vertically infected by these viruses in order to offer them an early medical assistance. At Saint Camille Medical Centre, 115 pregnant women, aged from 19 to 41 years, were diagnosed as HIV-positive and, among them, 14 coinfected with HBV. They had at least 32 weeks of amenorrhoea and all of them received the HAART, which contained lamivudine. Two to six months after childbirth, the babies underwent PCR diagnosis for HIV and HBV. The results revealed that, among these mothers, 64.4 percent were housewives, 36.5 percent were illiterates, and only 1.7 percent had a university degree. The rate of vertical transmission of HIV and HBV was 0.0 percent (0/115) and 21.4 percent (3/14), respectively. The 3 mothers who transmitted the HBV to their children had all HBsAg, HbeAg, and HBV DNA positive. An antiretroviral therapy that in addition to zidovudine and nevirapine includes lamivudine could, as in the present study, block or reduce the vertical transmission in HIV positive pregnant women who are coinfected with HBV.

Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Hepatite B/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Burkina Faso , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Adulto Jovem , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico