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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 622-626, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098297

RESUMO

The studies have illustrated odontometric analysis can be used to determine the sexual dimorphism effect on size of the teeth in various populations. The main aim of the study was to identify the inter-cuspal-, bucco-lingual -dimensions and weight of human upper-arch pre-molars in males and females of different South Asian populations. These metrics can distinguish sex which can have application in mass disasters, archaeology of mingled human remains and the in unidentified or several ancestry. The sample size consisted of 60 orthodontically extracted maxillary pre-molars from Pakistani and Saudi Arabian populations respectively. For male and female groups of each population fifteen first and second maxillary premolars were collected respectively, stored in PBS solution. The weight of the individual teeth was recorded. Later, digitally pictures were captured parallel to the occlusal surface to measure maximal bucco-lingual and inter-cuspal dimensions using Image-J software. The dimensions and weights were compared using Students' t-test between males and females respective Pakistani and Saudi Arabian first (P1) and second (P2) maxillary pre-molars. The dimensions for male P1 and P2 were statistically significantly larger than that for females in both populations. Furthermore, wet-weight of pre-molars in males is significantly greater than females in both populations. The findings demonstrate maxillary pre-molars can discriminate between the sexes in various populations.


Las investigaciones han ilustrado que el análisis odontométrico se puede utilizar para determinar el efecto del dimorfismo sexual en el tamaño de los dientes en varias poblaciones. El objetivo principal del estudio fue identificar las dimensiones y el peso entre cúspides, buco-linguales y el peso de los premolares de la arcada superior humana en hombres y mujeres de diferentes poblaciones del sur de Asia. Estas medidas pueden distinguir el sexo y ser importante en desastres masivos, arqueología de restos humanos entremezclados y en ancestros no identificados. El tamaño de la muestra consistió en 60 premolares maxilares extraídos ortodóncicamente de las poblaciones de Pakistán y Arabia Saudita, respectivamente. Para los grupos de hombres y mujeres de cada población, se recogieron quince primeros y segundos premolares superiores respectivamente, almacenados en solución de PBS. Se registró el peso de los dientes individuales. Posteriormente se capturaron imágenes digitales paralelas a la superficie oclusal para medir las dimensiones máximas buco-linguales e intercúspides utilizando software Image-J. Las dimensiones y los pesos se compararon mediante la prueba t de Student entre lo premolares maxilares (P1) y segundos (P2) de hombres y mujeres paquistaníes y saudíes. Las dimensiones para P1 y P2 de los hombres fueron estadísticamente significativos mayores que para las mujeres en ambas poblaciones. Además, el peso húmedo de los premolares en los varones era significativamente mayor que el de las mujeres en ambas poblaciones. Los hallazgos demuestran que los premolares maxilares pueden discriminar entre los sexos en varias poblaciones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/métodos , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Paquistão , Arábia Saudita , Medicina Legal
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e019119, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092689

RESUMO

Abstract Serological screening of 199 serum samples from Dromedary camels—from different cities in Saudi Arabia—was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies against two cyst-forming coccidian parasites, namely Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 68 (34.2%) samples, while those against N. caninum were present in 33 (16.6%) samples. The highest seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was reported in samples from Taif (51.2%), while the lowest seroprevalence was reported in samples from Riyadh and Hofuf (15.1%). The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies was reported in samples from Jizan (35.9%) while the lowest was reported in samples from Taif (2.4%). A total of 47 male and 21 female camels exhibited antibodies against T. gondii , while 19 male and 14 female camels showed antibodies against N. caninum . Concurrent detection of both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies was observed in 18 camels. It has been demonstrated that T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies are prevalent in camels from different cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Resumo A triagem sorológica para a detecção de anticorpos para Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum no camelo dromedário foi realizada investigando 199 amostras de soro coletadas em diferentes cidades da Arábia Saudita. As amostras foram testadas utilizando imunoensaios enzimáticos para a detecção de anticorpos de ambos os parasitas coccídeos formadores de cistos (Laboratórios IDEXX, Bommeli Diagnostics, AG, Berna, Suíça). Anticorpos contra T. gondii foram detectados em 68 (34,2%) amostras, enquanto 33 (16,6%) apresentaram anticorpos contra N. caninum. A maior soroprevalência de anticorpos contra T. gondii (51,2%) foi relatada em Taif, enquanto a menor soroprevalência (15,1%) foi relatada em Riyadh e Hofuf. A maior soroprevalência de anticorpos contra N. caninum foi relatada em Jizan (35,9%), enquanto a menor foi em Taif (2,4%). Um total de 47 machos e 21 fêmeas revelou anticorpos para T. gondii , enquanto 19 machos e 14 fêmeas revelaram anticorpos para N. caninum . A detecção de ambos os anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum foi de 18 indivíduos. Foi demonstrado que os anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum são predominantes em camelos de diferentes cidades do Reino da Arábia Saudita.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Camelus/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e020019, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092690

RESUMO

Abstract Knowledge of the Arabian Gulf fish's parasite fauna is very poor. Until recently, only scattered reports from different locations are known for ecto- and endoparasites. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the digenean species that infects one of the most economically fish species in the Arabian Gulf, the rosy goatfish Parupeneus rubescens . One plagiorchiid species has been described, belonging to the Gorgoderidae family, and has been named as Phyllodistomum vaili Ho, Bray, Cutmore, Ward & Cribb, 2014 based on its morphological and morphometric characteristics. In order to accurately classify and characterize this plagiorchiid species, molecular analysis was carried out using both nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA gene regions and revealed that the present plagiorchiid species was associated with other species belonging to the Gorgoderidae family and deeply embedded in the Phyllodistomum genus, closely related to the previously described P. vaili (gb- KF013187.1, KF013173.1). The present study therefore revealed that the species Phyllodistomum is the first account as endoparasites from the rosy goatfish inhabiting the Arabian Gulf.


Resumo O conhecimento da fauna de parasitas dos peixes do Golfo Árabe é escasso. Atualmente, apenas relatórios dispersos de diferentes locais são conhecidos para ecto e endoparasitas. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar as especies digenéticas que infectam uma das espécies economicamente mais importantes do Golfo Arábico, o peixe-cabra rosado Parupeneus rubescens . Uma espécie de plagiorquídeo foi descrita, pertencente à família Gorgoderidae e foi denominada Phyllodistomum vaili Ho, Bray, Cutmore, Ward & Cribb, 2014, com base em suas propriedades morfológicas e morfométricas. A fim de classificar e caracterizar com precisão essa espécie de plagiorquídeo, a análise molecular foi realizada usando as regiões nucleares do gene 18S e 28S rRNA, revelando que a atual espécie de plagiorchídeo estava associada a outras espécies pertencentes à família Gorgoderidae e, profundamente incorporada ao gênero Phyllodistomum , intimamente relacionado ao P. vaili descrito anteriormente (gb - KF013187.1, KF013173.1). O presente estudo revelou, portanto, que a espécie Phyllodistomum vailli é o primeiro relato como endoparasita do peixe-cabra rosado que habita o Golfo Arábico.


Assuntos
Animais , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Perciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Arábia Saudita , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S , RNA Ribossômico 28S
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1089-1094, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012401

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disabling disease. Epidemiological studies have revealed various risk factors for OA, including sex, aging, obesity, occupational illnesses, and chronic diseases. Here we evaluate the clinical, pathological, and radiological findings of knee OA in a subset of Saudi patients who were subjected to total knee replacement (TKA). The study population included 30 Saudi patients with knee OA who were operated by TKA (from June 2014 to December 2015) in the Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Patient's clinical and radiological data were collected from the hospital files. Pathological examination of the excised superior articular surface of tibia and femoral condyles were done. Pearson Chi-squared analysis was used to test for differences between the variables in associated risk factors. There were more women than men. Sixty per cent of patients were older than 60 years [mean age, 59.2 (females) and 61.7 (men) years-old]. All patients exceeded obesity class 1, with females being more obese than males. Pathological examination of the superior articular surface of tibia and femoral condyles showed high score lesions, which was more apparent in females than in males. Radiological findings showed that most lesions were high grade. The findings of this study will help to understand the pathogenesis of OA and improve treatment decision making relevant to TKA in knee OA in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere.


La artrosis de rodilla (OA, por sus siglas en inglés) es una enfermedad invalidante común. Los estudios epidemiológicos han revelado diversos factores de riesgo para la OA, que incluyen el sexo, el envejecimiento, la obesidad, las enfermedades profesionales y las enfermedades crónicas. Aquí evaluamos los hallazgos clínicos, patológicos y radiológicos de la OA de rodilla en un subconjunto de pacientes sauditas que fueron sometidos a reemplazo total de rodilla (RTR). La población de estudio incluyó a 30 pacientes saudíes con OA de rodilla que fueron operados por RTR (desde junio de 2014 hasta diciembre de 2015) en el Departamento de Ortopedia, Facultad de Medicina, King Abdulaziz University, Arabia Saudita. Los datos clínicos y radiológicos de los pacientes se obtuvieron de las fichas hospitalarias. Se realizó examen patológico de la superficie articular superior de la tibia extirpada y cóndilos femorales. Se utilizó el análisis Chi-cuadrado de Pearson para probar las diferencias entre las variables en los factores de riesgo asociados. El número de mujeres era mayor que los hombres. El 60 % de los pacientes eran mayores de 60 años [edad media, 59,2 (mujeres) y 61,7 (hombres) años]. Todos los pacientes superaron la obesidad clase 1, siendo las mujeres más obesas que los hombres. El examen patológico de la superficie articular superior de la tibia y los cóndilos femorales mostraron lesiones con puntaje alto, que fue más evidente en mujeres que en hombres. Los hallazgos radiológicos mostraron que la mayoría de las lesiones eran de alto grado. Los hallazgos de este estudio ayudarán a comprender la patogenia de la OA y mejorarán la toma de decisiones sobre el tratamiento relevante para el RTR en la OA de rodilla en Arabia Saudita y en otros lugares.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Joelho/patologia , Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Arábia Saudita , Índice de Massa Corporal , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Fatores de Risco , Artroplastia do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia
5.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4622, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998003

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the pattern and severity of early childhood caries (ECC) by using the decayed and filled surface (dfs) index in preschool children in Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: A convenience sample of 270 preschool children below 5 years of age (144 boys, 126 girls) attending outpatient pediatric dental clinics was selected for the study. World Health Organization criteria were used to diagnose caries through assessment of the dfs index. Information regarding oral hygiene practices, socio-economic status, and educational status of the mother was obtained through a structured questionnaire given to mothers. The data were statistically analyzed with the Chi-square test and Student's t-test. Results: 73% of children were not brushing regularly; 74.4% of them were using fluoridated toothpaste. In the maxillary teeth, boys had a higher mean dfs index (10.25), as well as a higher number of decayed surfaces (ds), than girls. In the mandibular teeth, boys and girls had similar mean dfs indices. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding filled buccal surfaces (p=0.001) and occlusal surfaces (p=0.001) in maxillary teeth. The mandibular first molar was the most commonly affected tooth (93.3%); lower anterior teeth were the least affected teeth (2-4%) among the primary dentition. Conclusion: The ECC pattern in the northern region of Saudi Arabia follows the typical pattern of nursing caries.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Arábia Saudita , Saúde Bucal , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Assistência Ambulatorial , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Creches , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontopediatria , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária
6.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4637, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998007

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the reliability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in assessing the tooth length in comparison to orthopantomography (OPG). Material and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for extraction as result of caries or periodontal involvements were randomly selected. Panoramic radiographs and CBCT images were obtained and subsequently patients were subjected for extraction. Teeth with poor prognosis were extracted and stored in 10% formalin. Radiographic teeth measurements were carried out on OPG and CBCT images using a software and the actual tooth length (A-L) measurements were carried out with a digital vernier caliper. The data collected were statistically analyzed for paired "t" test significance of differences and Pearson's correlation at 5% level of confidence. Results: There was significant difference comparing all three actual tooth length (A-L) and CBCT- and OPG-measured tooth lengths. A significant positive correlation was observed among all the measurements. Conclusion: CBCT images exhibited accuracy over panoramic images even though the measurements are still significantly different from actual anatomical tooth lengths.


Assuntos
Humanos , Dente Pré-Molar/anatomia & histologia , Radiografia Panorâmica/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/instrumentação , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Odontometria/métodos , Arábia Saudita , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4679, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998236

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of novel newly identified periodontal pathogenic strains in subgingival plaque samples and relate it with bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and age. Material and Methods: 268 chronic periodontitis patients with a mean age of 46.0 ± 6.0 years were included. The following microorganisms were evaluated: Campylobacter gracilis (Cg), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Tannerella forsythia (Tf). Full mouth examination was registered; the probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were assessed at six sites per tooth. Dental subgingival plaque samples were taken in the deepest pocket per arch in the maxilla and mandible. DNA analysis was performed using DNA-strip technology. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia were detected at high level of 80% and 82% respectively. F nucleatum revealed a rate of 94%. Bacterial load significantly increased by increasing mean probing depth of the examined sites. Pearson's coefficient was the highest for Pg (r=0.62, p=0.0001) and the lowest for Cg (r=0.08, p=0.04). The bacterial load significantly increased by increasing the number of bleeding sites; Pearson's coefficient varied from r= 0.14 for Pg (p=0.01) to r=0.39 for Tf (p=0.001). Conclusion: It was confirmed the presence of main putative periodontal pathogens detectable in Saudi periodontal subjects, also providing a comprehensive view for correlation of these putative periodontal pathogens with the increase in probing pocket depth to the presence and load of all the bacterial species.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais , Bolsa Periodontal , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Periodontite Crônica , Arábia Saudita , Modelos Logísticos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
8.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3890, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966733

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and contributing factors of antibiotic selfmedication for oral conditions in dental patients. Material and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 501 patients attending Taibah University Dental College and Hospital, Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia during late 2016. Questions were on socio-demographic characteristics, and pattern of antibiotic self-medication for oral disease. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS software version 21. Statistical significance level was set at p ≤.05. Results: Age range was 15-64 years (29.08±9.32 years) with 297 females (59.3%) and 204 males (40.7%). 135 patients (27%) self-medicated with antibiotics for oral disease. This practice was statistically significantly associated with the older adults (p=0.001), lack of medical or dental insurance (p=0.014 and 0.007, respectively), and poor dental attendance (p=0.021). A number of 26 (25.7%) perceived analgesics as antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was the most commonly cited antibiotic by 18 patients (17.8%). Dental pain was the most frequently reported oral condition. Pharmacists were the most common source for antibiotic prescription cited by 58 (57.4%). Conclusion: Antibiotic self-medication for oral disease is associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for non-indicated clinical oral conditions. The practice was encouraged by lenient behavior of pharmacists, lack of health insurance, and poor dental attendance.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/normas , Biofarmácia , Antibacterianos , Doenças da Boca , Arábia Saudita , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Saúde Bucal , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assistência Odontológica
9.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3934, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966742

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate why women avoid dental visits during pregnancy and to explore the possible association between this attitude and relevant socio-demographic factors. Material and Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed to pregnant women during their routine visits to antenatal clinics in Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire explored socio-demographic factors of age, education, employment status and nationality. It also explored misconceptions/ reasons for avoiding dental visits during pregnancy. Results: A total of 360 pregnant women participated, and their mean age was 30.08 years (range=18-52 years, SD=5.96). The most commonly cited misconception/reason for avoiding dental visits was "local anesthesia is not safe during pregnancy", followed by "transportation is difficult" and lastly, "dental treatment is not safe during pregnancy", (43.6%, 37.5%, 18.9%, respectively). Illiterate participants were statistically significantly associated with the misconception of "unsafe dental treatment during pregnancy" (p=0.002), whereas school-level and unemployed participants were statistically significantly associated with the misconception of "unsafe local anesthesia during pregnancy" (p=0.02, p=0.036 respectively). Conclusion: Pregnant women avoid dental visits mainly due to the misconception that local anesthesia is not safe during pregnancy. Difficult transportation seems to be another important deterrent in preventing pregnant women to visit dentists in this geographic area. Changing the misconceptions should be the starting point in addressing this public health problem and this should involve the three parties involved: pregnant women, oral healthcare providers and obstetric care providers.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Gravidez , Assistência Odontológica , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Consultórios Odontológicos , Anestesia Local
10.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3973, 15/01/2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966827

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the prevalence of pulp stones using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in a Saudi Arabian adolescent population. Material and Methods: CBCT scans of 237 individuals compromising of 1018 teeth were examined. All teeth were analyzed in three dimensions and the presence of pulp stones were identified as a round or oval shaped dense structures in the pulp space. The location of involved tooth in terms of arch, side involved and the status of the tooth were documented. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying Chi-square test. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Pulp stones were observed in 119 out of the 237 participants, and in 118 teeth out of 1018 teeth examined, with the patient prevalence of 50.2% and tooth prevalence 10.6%. Pulp stones were observed in 76 (51.3%) of males and 43 (48.3%) of females, with no significant difference (p>0.05). A nonsignificant difference was also noted when maxillary and mandibular arches and the left and right sides were compared. Pulp stones were observed more frequently observed in molars and in carious (8.8%) and restored teeth (17.1%). Conclusion: The prevalence of pulp stones was high in molars and in carious and restored teeth. No significant difference was noticed between gender, arch and side of tooth involved with pulp stones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Arábia Saudita , Prevalência , Adolescente , Calcificações da Polpa Dentária , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/instrumentação , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 4027, 15/01/2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-966884

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate expectant mothers' knowledge and beliefs on oral healthcare of infants. It also aimed at exploring their knowledge on oral health care during pregnancy and the possible relationship between oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among expectant mothers attending antenatal clinics in Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia in summer, 2017. Questions collected data on sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample as well as basic knowledge on oral healthcare during pregnancy and infancy. There were also questions on knowledge about adverse pregnancy outcomes that may be associated with poor oral health. Results: A convenient sample of 360 pregnant women participated in the study. A percentage of 79.7% showed a good level of knowledge in oral healthcare of infants while a percentage of 8.9% only showed a good level of knowledge in oral healthcare during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Education level and employment status were significantly associated the good level of knowledge in oral healthcare of infants (p=0.000, and 0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Most of expectant mothers, particularly educated and employed ones, have good knowledge on oral healthcare of infants, however, the majority lacked sufficient knowledge on pregnancy outcomes and oral healthcare during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Arábia Saudita , Gravidez , Saúde Bucal , Assistência Odontológica , Gestantes , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 4242, 15/01/2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-967064

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of Arabic coffee on bleached teeth in comparison to black coffee. Material and Methods: Forty teeth (sound maxillary or mandibular premolars with no carious lesions) were randomly selected into 4 groups (A, B, C and D). One group (A) did not receive bleaching and was incubated in saline. The second group (B) was bleached and then incubated in saline. The last two groups were bleached and were immersed in either Arabic coffee (C) or black coffee (D). Color recording of the samples was always carried out as near to their mid-buccal surfaces as possible using VITA Easyshade Advance System. Color measurements were carried out using a digital spectrophotometer at baseline and after short-term and long-term immersion. Data were subjected to two way ANOVA and T-test. The level of significance was set at was set at 0.05. Results: Results show that immersion in Arabic coffee resulted only in significant reduction in the b* color value upon long-term immersion (i.e. a reduction in the yellow hue). Black coffee on the other hand resulted in significant: reduction in lightness, increased red tint and increased yellow hue altogether. Conclusion: The use of Arabic coffee did not deteriorate color, with the only significant change being the reduction of yellowish hue. Arabic coffee could be an alternative to black coffee after bleaching.


Assuntos
Arábia Saudita , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Clareamento Dental , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Café/efeitos adversos , Análise de Variância
13.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3837, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-965574

RESUMO

Objective: To measure the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices of parents in regards to their understanding of early childhood caries (ECC) in Al jouf province, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Material and Methods: A cross-sectional oral health survey was conducted among 228 parents, who were selected by stratified cluster sampling. A questionnaire consisting of 10 questions in each domain addressing knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice for ECC was applied. Scoring in the knowledge field included Yes/No/Don't know, while the attitude and practice domains used a 5-point Likert scale. Results: The mean values for knowledge of the respondents was 'Yes' (106.1 ±46.12), 'No' (63.5 ±50.95), and 'Don't know' (58.4 ±23.21); the p-value was p>0.05. The mean values for attitudes of the parents were strongly disagree (49.8 ±33.51), disagree (28 ±15.63), cannot say (47.4 ±20.33), agree (69.4 ±26.57), and strongly agree (33.4 ±30.48); the p-value was p<0.05. The mean values for preventive practices were strongly disagree (23.3 ±25.15), disagree (27.6 ±28.29), cannot say (38.9 ±31.8), agree (84.9 ±28.07), and stronglyagree (53.3 ±38.73); the p-value was <0.05. Conclusion: The parents did not have adequate knowledge of ECC but did have a good attitude and practice towards its prevention.


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Arábia Saudita , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Pais , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância
14.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3945, 15/01/2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-965619

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence of enamel pearls on panoramic radiographs and to explore any potential correlation between the occurrences of enamel pearls with gender, jaw and tooth involved. Material and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 642 adolescents aging 12­19 years were examined for the presence of enamel pearls. The location of involved tooth in terms of jaw and side and gender were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying Chi-square tests with the Yates correction. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The person prevalence of enamel pearls was 4.82% of patients and tooth prevalence was 0.96%. No statistical significant difference was observed between maxillary and mandibular arches and no gender and side predilection was observed. Most of the enamel pearls were seen in maxillary third molars (4.76%) and mandibular third molars (2.68%), followed by maxillary first molars (2.68%) and mandibular second molars (1.95%). No enamel pearl was observed in any of the anterior teeth or in any of the deciduous teeth. Conclusion: The prevalence of enamel pearls was observed in 4.28% of patients and 0.96% of teeth. They were most frequently seen on molars with no predilection for gender, jaw and side.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Arábia Saudita , Radiografia Panorâmica/instrumentação , Adolescente , Esmalte Dentário , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Mandíbula , Maxila , Dente Molar
15.
Rev. Bras. Odontol. Leg. RBOL ; 4(2): [12-21], mai.-ago. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-911826

RESUMO

Saudi Arabia (SA), an oil rich developing country with a population of 31 million people, yet only 33% of whom are Saudis. Wealth, work opportunities and religious status make SA a hub for people from around the world whether it be through legal or illegal routs. As a developing country, SA faces many challenges in regard to mass disasters in light of its underdeveloped infrastructure and the annual Haj (Islamic pilgrimage) that attracts nearly 3 million people in a small area over a short period of time. Moreover, the numbers of unregistered births is high. These factors necessitate the importance of having a strong human identification and age estimation practice. Aim: To assess the reality of Forensic Odontology in Saudi Arabia in regard to: number of personnel and their training, number of forensic odontology cases and the way these cases are referred and documented. Materials and Methods: This project consisted of two parts: Observational study to assess how the system works in regard to forensic odontology cases, how these cases are dealt with and how they are referred. Part two: Cross-sectional survey aimed at all registered Forensic personnel to assess their qualifications, training, level of expertise, expert witness experience and involvement in specialized Forensic Odontology cases, namely: human identification, age estimation and bite mark analysis. Results: Out of 51 participants, only one dentist is registered with some form of Forensic training, 42 have a medical background, 39 of whom received medical Forensic training. Looking at forensic odontology in particular, only 11 out of 51 have had Forensic Odontology training. Participants who don't have any training in Forensic Odontology, yet have worked on cases that required Forensic Odontology training, were 37 on age estimation cases, 27 on bite mark analysis and 36 on human identification cases. There are no designated programs on Forensic Odontology in Saudi Arabia, nor is there a Forensic Odontology entity. There are no clear national guidelines or protocols to personnel when dealing with forensic cases and no detailed forms that documents oral findings. Conclusion: There is no solid Forensic Odontology system in Saudi Arabia that is objective, preserves the integrity of the law and protects human rights. There are many areas that can be improved to achieve that aim and a list of recommendations is presented.


Arábia Saudita, um país desenvolvido e rico em petróleo, com uma população de 31 milhões de habitantes, onde apenas 33% das pessoas são sauditas. Riqueza, oportunidades de trabalho e situação religiosa faz do país um centro de atração para pessoas de todo o mundo, tanto por rotas legais como ilegais. Como um país em desenvolvimento, enfrenta muitos desafios relacionados a desastres em massa em virtude de uma infraestrutura subdesenvolvida e o Haj anual (peregrinação islâmica) que atrai aproximadamente 3 milhões de pessoas em uma pequena área durante um curto período de tempo. Além disso, o número de nascimentos não registrado é alto. Nesse sentido, todos esses fatores reforçam a importância de um sistema de identificação humana e estimativa de idade eficientes. Objetivos: Avaliar a realidade da Odontologia Legal na Arábia Saudita em relação à equipes e treinamento que recebem, número de casos envolvendo a Odontologia Legal e como esses casos são conduzidos e documentados. Material e Métodos: a metodologia consistiu em dois momentos ­ estudo observacional para avaliar como o sistema funciona com relação a casos envolvendo a Odontologia Legal, como esses casos são conduzidos, analisados e referenciados. Em outro momento, um estudo focado em todo o pessoal de área pericial para avaliar sua formação e qualificação profissional, treinamento, experiência e envolvimento com casos de Odontologia Legal envolvendo identificação humana, estimativa de idade e análise de marcas de mordida. Resultados: dos 51 participantes, apenas um cirurgião-dentista está registrado com algum treinamento forense, 42 têm formação médica, dos quais 39 receberam treinamento forense na área médica. Analisando a Odontologia Legal, de maneira particular, somente 11 dos 51 participantes tiveram treinamento em Odontologia Legal. Dos participantes que não tiveram nenhum treinamento em Odontologia Legal, mas trabalharam em casos que necessitavam de tal especialidade, 37 foram casos de estimativa de idade, 27 casos de marcas de mordida e 36 casos de identificação humana. Na Arábia Saudita não há nenhum programa voltado para a Odontologia Legal e nenhuma entidade oficial nessa especialidade. Não há protocolos claros para as equipes forenses quando envolvidas em casos odontolegais, bem como formulários para achados odontológicos. Conclusão: Não há um sistema estruturado em Odontologia Legal na Arábia Saudita que seja objetivo, juridicamente embasado e que proteja os direitos humanos. Há muitas áreas que precisam ser melhoradas a fim de atingir a lista de recomendações apresentada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes , Prova Pericial , Odontologia Legal , Mordeduras e Picadas , Arábia Saudita
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 499-508, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889148

RESUMO

Abstract Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39.4%), followed by S. Paratyphi (21.2%), S. Typhimurium (15.2%), S. Typhi and S. Arizona (12.1%), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporin; and aminoglycosides. Moreover, several S. enterica isolates exhibited resistance to the first-line antibiotics used for Salmonellosis treatment including ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In addition, the results revealed the emergence of two S. enterica isolates showing resistance to third-generation cephalosporin. Analysis of resistance determinants in S. enterica strains (n = 33) revealed that the resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, was attributed to the presence of carb-like, dfrA1, floR, tetA gene, respectively. On the other hand, fluoroquinolone resistance was related to the presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes. These findings improve the information about foodborne Salmonella in Saudi Arabia, alarming the emergence of multi-drug resistant S. enterica strains, and provide useful data about the resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Integrons , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Salmonella enterica/genética , Arábia Saudita , Sorotipagem , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
17.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(2): 188-194, abr.-jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-899499

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar os níveis de satisfação dos familiares de pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Este foi um estudo analítico transversal. As unidades gerais de terapia intensiva oferecem uma variedade de serviços a pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos. Para as finalidades deste estudo, um entrevistador treinado fez contato com familiares dos pacientes, antes ou após o horário de visita. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 208 participantes, sendo 119 (57,2%) do sexo masculino. Dentre os pacientes, 73 (35,1%) se encontravam em um hospital particular e 135 (64,9%) em um hospital público na cidade de Al Madinah Al-Munawarah. Todos os participantes eram membros da família ou amigos de pacientes admitidos às unidades de terapia intensiva dos hospitais. As respostas de ambos os grupos proporcionaram escores baixos nos índices de satisfação. Observou-se, porém, um escore relativamente elevado nas respostas às questões 2, 6 e 10, concernentes, respectivamente, aos cuidados proporcionados pela equipe do hospital a seus pacientes, à atitude de cortesia dos membros da equipe das unidades de terapia intensiva para com os pacientes, e à satisfação dos pacientes com os cuidados médicos proporcionados. O escore foi muito baixo para o item 11, relacionado à possibilidade de melhorias nos cuidados médicos que os pacientes recebiam. Em geral foi relatada uma satisfação maior com os serviços oferecidos pelas unidades de terapia intensiva dos hospitais públicos, em comparação com a satisfação com os cuidados oferecidos pelas unidades de terapia intensiva dos hospitais privados. Conclusão: Em geral, foi obtido um escore baixo nos índices de satisfação, recomendando-se a realização de outros estudos para avaliar a situação atual, e melhorar a satisfação e a qualidade dos serviços fornecidos pelas unidades de terapia intensiva.


ABSTRACT Objectives: This study aims to identify the satisfaction levels of the family members of patients in intensive care units. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analytical study. General intensive care units offer a variety of services to clinical and surgical patients. For the purpose of this study, a trained interviewer communicated with the families of patients, either before or after visiting hours. Results: The study included 208 participants: 119 (57.2%) males and 89 (42.8%) females. Seventy-three (35.1%) of the patients attended a private hospital, and 135 (64.9%) attended a public hospital in the city of Al Madinah Al- Munawarah. All of the participants were either family members or friends of patients admitted to the intensive care units at the hospitals. The responses of both groups yielded low scores on the satisfaction index. However, a relatively high score was noted in response to questions 2, 6, and 10, which concerned the care that was extended by the hospital staff to their patients, the courteous attitude of intensive care unit staff members towards patients, and patients' satisfaction with the medical care provided, respectively. A very low score was obtained for item 11, which was related to the possibility for improvements to the medical care that the patients received. Overall, greater satisfaction with the services offered by the public intensive care units was reported compared to the satisfaction with the services offered by the private intensive care units. Conclusion: An overall low score on the satisfaction index was obtained, and further studies are recommended to assess the current situation and improve the satisfaction and quality of care provided by intensive care units.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Família/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Arábia Saudita , Estudos Transversais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Hospitais Privados , Cuidados Críticos , Hospitais Públicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(2): 390-400, mar./apr. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-966191

RESUMO

Invasion by the exotic species Prosopis juliflora has become a major threat to native plants in Saudi Arabia as the species continues its spread into different regions of the country. Ziziphus spina-christi is a native tree that is common in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine how both species would benefit from the availability of sufficient resources without competition. To gain a better understanding of growth under such conditions, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in which seedlings of both species were grown under favorable conditions for 6 months. During this period, growth performance was evaluated three times at intervals of 30, 90, and 180 days. Growth performance varied between the two species during one or more of the studied periods. Significant differences between the species were observed for root mass fraction, number of root tips, root to shoot ratio, height, stem diameter, stem dry weight, stem mass fraction, leaf area, leaf mass fraction, and chlorophyll a and b contents. The relative growth rate (RGR) and relative height growth rate were higher in P. juliflora at 30­90 days, whereas leaf area ratio and net assimilation rate were higher for Z. spina-christi at 90­180 days. Remarkably, the RGR for diameter in P. juliflora was almost double that in Z. spina-christi at 30­90 days and 90­180 days. The results obtained reflect a strategic difference in the biomass allocation to different plant components by the two species, whereby P. juliflora allocates higher biomass to the stems and Z. spina-christi allocates higher biomass to the roots.


Invasão pela espécie exótica Prosopis juliflora tornou-se uma grande ameaça para plantas nativas na Arábia Saudita à medida que a espécie continua a sua propagação em diferentes regiões do país. A Ziziphus spina-christi é uma árvore nativa que é comum na Arábia Saudita. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar como ambas as espécies se beneficiariam com a disponibilidade de recursos suficientes sem competição. Para se obter uma melhor compreensão do crescimento nestas condições, foi conduzida uma experiência em estufa em que as plântulas de ambas as espécies foram cultivadas em condições favoráveis durante 6 meses. Durante este período, o desempenho de crescimento foi avaliado três vezes em intervalos de 30, 90 e 180 dias. O desempenho do crescimento variou entre as duas espécies durante um ou mais dos períodos estudados. Diferenças significativas entre as espécies foram observadas para a fração de massa da raiz, número de pontas de raiz, razão entre a raiz e a parte aérea, altura, diâmetro do caule, peso seco do caule, fração de massa do caule, área foliar, fração de massa foliar e teor de clorofila a e b. A taxa de crescimento relativo (RGR, relative growth rate) e a taxa relativa de crescimento em altura foram maiores em P. juliflora no período 30-90 dias, enquanto que a razão foliar e a taxa de assimilação líquida foram maiores para Z. spina-christi no período 90-180 dias. Notavelmente, a RGR para o diâmetro em P. juliflora foi quase o dobro da de Z. spina-christi aos 30-90 dias e 90-180 dias. Os resultados obtidos refletem uma diferença estratégica na alocação de biomassa para diferentes componentes das plantas pelas duas espécies, sendo que P. juliflora aloca uma biomassa mais alta para as hastes e Z. spina-christi aloca uma biomassa mais alta para as raízes.


Assuntos
Arábia Saudita , Biomassa , Prosopis , Ziziphus
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 1109-1116, Sept. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828994

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to study the effect of high altitude on full term birth weight, body shape and body composition of newborn infants. Twenty five healthy pregnant Saudi women and their healthy newborns from high altitude (2850-3150 m) and equal numbers from low altitude (500 m). For each pregnant woman haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value and blood pressures were measured and recorded immediately after admission to hospital for delivery. Fetal haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit value were determined immediately after delivery. Determination of the newborn's body shape and composition were made from anthropometric measurements which were performed two hours after delivery. Placental weight was determined immediately after its delivery. Placentae were then examined histologically. Compared with their respectives from lowland, the pregnant women from high altitude and their placentae showed haemotogical and histological changes suggestive of maternal and placental hypoxia respectively. There was no haematological evidence suggesting that the high altitude fetuses experienced a greater degree of hypoxia in utero than did the low altitude fetuses. Compared with lowland newborns highland newborns were significantly lighter but fatter and have significantly greater head circumference: birth weight ratios and abdominal circumferences. These differences in body physique between high and lowland neoborns appeared to be mainly secondary to placental hypoxia resulting from maternal hypoxia which in turn was caused by high altitude hypoxia. The altered body physique at birth due to high altitude hypoxia appeared to be not mediated by fetal hypoxia, but possibly by other mechanisms induced by placental hypoxia.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de altura elevada en el peso al nacer a término, la forma del cuerpo y la composición corporal de los recién nacidos. Se estudiaron veinticinco mujeres saudíes, embarazadas sanas y sus recién nacidos sanos, de una zona de gran altura (2850 - 3150 m) y un número igual de una zona de baja altitud (500 m). Las concentraciones de hemoglobina y los valores de hematocrito de las mujeres embarazadas fueron medidas y registradas inmediatamente después de la admisión al hospital para el parto. La concentración de hemoglobina fetal y el valor del hematocrito se determinaron inmediatamente después del parto. Las determinaciones de la forma y composición del cuerpo del recién nacido se realizaron a partir de mediciones antropométricas dos horas después del parto. El peso de la placenta se determinó inmediatamente después de su expulsión. Las placentas fueron examinadas histológicamente. En comparación con sus pares de áreas de baja altura, las mujeres embarazadas de gran altura y su placenta mostraron cambios hematolológicos e histológicos indicativos de hipoxia materna y placentaria, respectivamente. No hubo evidencia hematológica lo que sugiere que los fetos de zonas de gran altura experimentaron un mayor grado de hipoxia en el útero, que los fetos de baja altura. En comparación con los recién nacidos de las tierras bajas de la montaña, los recién nacidos fueron significativamente más livianos pero más obesos, y se registró la circunferencia de la cabeza: se relacionó el peso al nacer y la circunferencia abdominal. Estas diferencias en la constitución corporal entre neonatos de alturas elevadas y bajas parecían ser principalmente secundarias a la hipoxia placentaria, en consecuencia de la hipoxia materna, que a su vez fue causada por la hipoxia de la altura. La composición corporal alterada del recién nacido por hipoxia de altura, parecía no estar mediado por la hipoxia fetal, por el contrario estarían producidos posiblemente por otros mecanismos inducidos por la hipoxia placentaria.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Altitude , Peso ao Nascer , Composição Corporal , Arábia Saudita
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(3): 365-367, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-787294

RESUMO

Abstract: We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmania major , Arábia Saudita , China/etnologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Úlcera da Perna/parasitologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico
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