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1.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 110-116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874044

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose is to compare the clinical results of using silk versus nylon sutures for conjunctival autograft suturing in pterygium surgery. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trial 50 eyes from 50 patients with primary nasal pterygium were randomized to undergo pterygium surgery with the use of either nylon sutures or silk sutures for conjunctival autograft suturing. Patients were followed up for 6 months. Main outcome measures included recurrence, postoperative discomfort according to a visual analog scale (VAS), graft hyperemia, and graft edema. RESULTS: According to the results, there was no significant difference between groups regarding recurrence rate of pterygium (P = 0.72). A significant decrease in the mean VAS discomfort score from day 1 to day 14 was observed in both groups (P = 0.001); postoperative discomfort during the first 2 weeks, was not significantly different between the two groups. At 2 weeks' postoperatively, significantly greater number of nylon sutures remained on the autograft (P = 0.021), some of which were buried and could not be removed. CONCLUSION: Both silk and nylon are effective suture materials for autograft suturing in pterygium surgery with similar postoperative discomfort and recurrence rate. Significantly greater number of nylon sutures remains buried on the autograft and could not be removed easily.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/transplante , Nylons , Pterígio/cirurgia , Seda , Técnicas de Sutura , Suturas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoenxertos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 28(6): 916-921, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870738

RESUMO

PURPOSES: To describe the prevalence of ocular features among COVID-19 patients and their relationship with clinical data, inflammatory markers and respiratory support therapy (including CPAP); to investigate SARS-CoV-2 in ocular secretions of symptomatic patients. METHODS: 172 COVID-19 patients were evaluated for presence of ocular manifestations. Clinical and laboratory data were also reviewed. Conjunctival swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Forty-five patients (26.2%) reported ocular manifestations. Patients treated with CPAP were more likely to have ocular abnormalities (p <.01). The presence of ocular symptoms was not associated with more significant alterations on blood tests. Conjunctival swabs from patients with suspect conjunctivitis yielded negative results for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular features are not infrequent in COVID-19 patients, but the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in ocular secretions is low. Ocular manifestations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients can also be a consequence of respiratory support therapy. Prevention of possible transmission through ocular secretions is still recommended.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Túnica Conjuntiva/virologia , Conjuntivite Viral/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , RNA Viral/análise , Conjuntivite Viral/diagnóstico , Conjuntivite Viral/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
4.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 73-78, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874038

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a substantial change in eye care and clinical practice. There has been conflicting information and weak evidence on the virus's transmission through tears. Yet, virus detection on cornea and conjunctiva surface as a gateway for infection is not well-studied. Moreover, there have been no reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through tonometry to date. Thus, this uncertainty has urged this review on evidence-based guidelines and recommendations on tonometer use in the COVID-19 era. The aim of this article is to provide ophthalmologists with recommendations for tonometry practice based on current evidence and best practice guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tonometria Ocular/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Túnica Conjuntiva/virologia , Córnea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção , Reutilização de Equipamento , Humanos , Oftalmologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Lágrimas/virologia
5.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(4): 151-155, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779470

RESUMO

Muller's muscle of the upper eyelid (MM) remains a poorly understood anatomical structure, so its role in the emergence of upper eyelid ptosis provokes certain interest. This literature review examines the gradual rise of attention devoted to MM and describes existing methods of its surgical treatment. Despite progress in ptosis surgery, much remains unsolved. Taking into account the available literature data, it is necessary to further advance histological studying of MM, which will help develop pathogenetically founded surgical treatment of acquired upper eyelid ptosis.


Assuntos
Blefaroptose , Túnica Conjuntiva , Pálpebras , Humanos , Músculo Liso , Músculos Oculomotores
6.
S D Med ; 73(8): 360-365, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809295

RESUMO

A 71-year-old female presented to the ophthalmology clinic with bilateral brown to black pigmentary cysts in the lower palpebral conjunctiva following eight months of 100 mg twice daily oral minocycline therapy for long- standing pyoderma gangrenosum. Minocycline-induced pigmentation has been reported in skin, nails, teeth, mucosa, thyroid, bones, and sclera. To our knowledge, since 1981, only eight cases of minocycline-induced conjunctival pigmentation have been reported, all of which occurred after longer usage and higher cumulative doses of minocycline. The diagnosis could be verified by cobalt blue filter autofluorescence. Too few cases of this benign condition exist to establish management guidelines, risk stratification of minocycline dosage/length of therapy, or other contributing patient-demographic factors. In this case, minocycline discontinuation was recommended, and a two-month follow-up ophthalmologic exam revealed unchanged pigmentation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Túnica Conjuntiva , Minociclina , Transtornos da Pigmentação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Pigmentação , Transtornos da Pigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Pele
7.
Mol Syst Biol ; 16(7): e9841, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715628

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which poses an unprecedented worldwide health crisis, and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. The angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been suggested to be the key protein used by SARS-CoV-2 for host cell entry. In their recent work, Lindskog and colleagues (Hikmet et al, 2020) report that ACE2 is expressed at very low protein levels-if at all-in respiratory epithelial cells. Severe COVID-19, however, is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome and extensive damage to the alveoli in the lung parenchyma. Then, what is the role of the airway epithelium in the early stages of COVID-19, and which cells need to be studied to characterize the biological mechanisms responsible for the progression to severe disease after initial infection by the novel coronavirus?


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/enzimologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
8.
Mol Syst Biol ; 16(7): e9610, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715618

RESUMO

The novel SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a global challenge on healthcare and society. For understanding the susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the cell type-specific expression of the host cell surface receptor is necessary. The key protein suggested to be involved in host cell entry is angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, we report the expression pattern of ACE2 across > 150 different cell types corresponding to all major human tissues and organs based on stringent immunohistochemical analysis. The results were compared with several datasets both on the mRNA and protein level. ACE2 expression was mainly observed in enterocytes, renal tubules, gallbladder, cardiomyocytes, male reproductive cells, placental trophoblasts, ductal cells, eye, and vasculature. In the respiratory system, the expression was limited, with no or only low expression in a subset of cells in a few individuals, observed by one antibody only. Our data constitute an important resource for further studies on SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry, in order to understand the biology of the disease and to aid in the development of effective treatments to the viral infection.


Assuntos
Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Testículo/metabolismo
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20536, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the efficacy of transconjunctival approach (TCA) for the treatment of orbital fractures (OF) comprehensively and systematically. METHODS: In this study, we plan to search electronic databases of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and for relevant randomized controlled trials. All these databases will be searched from inception to the March 1, 2020 without limitations of language and publication status. Two independent authors will carry out study selection, data collection, and study quality assessment. Any disagreements will be resolved by discussion with another author if necessary. The study quality will be assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tool. Statistical analysis will be conducted using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: This study will be the first 1 to exert direct evidence to evaluate the efficacy of TCA for the treatment of OF. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study will provide an exhaustive view of TCA for the treatment of OF. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202040154.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/cirurgia , Fraturas Orbitárias/patologia , Fraturas Orbitárias/cirurgia , China/epidemiologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 83(3): 250-261, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-528294

RESUMO

To identify and classify available information regarding COVID-19 and eye care according to the level of evidence, within four main topics of interest: evidence of the virus in tears and the ocular surface, infection via the conjunctival route, ocular manifestations, and best practice recommendations. A structured review was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar on COVID-19 and ophthalmology. The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence worksheet was used for quality assessments. 1018 items were identified in the search; 26 records were included in the qualitative synthesis, which encompassed 6 literature reviews, 10 case series or cross-sectional studies, 4 case reports, and 6 intervention descriptions. Seventeen out of 26 records (65%) were categorized as level 5 within the Oxford CBME methodology grading system, the rest were level 4. The evidence generated on COVID-19 and ophthalmology to date is limited, although this is understandable given the circumstances. Both the possible presence of viral particles in tears and conjunctiva, and the potential for conjunctival transmission remain controversial. Ocular manifestations are not frequent and could resemble viral infection of the ocular surface. Most recommendations are based on the strategies implemented by Asian countries during previous coronavirus outbreaks. There is a need for substantive studies evaluating these strategies in the setting of SARS-CoV-2. In the meantime, plans for applying these measures must be implemented with caution, taking into account the context of each individual country, and undergo regular evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Oftalmopatias/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Túnica Conjuntiva/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Oftalmologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Lágrimas/virologia
14.
Am J Pathol ; 190(9): 1823-1832, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561135

RESUMO

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a major proinflammatory mediator important in host defense, whereas resolvins (Rvs) are produced during the resolution phase of inflammation. The authors determined the actions of both RvE1 and RvD1 on LTB4-induced responses of goblet cells cultured from rat conjunctiva. The responses measured were an increase in the intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) and high-molecular-weight glycoprotein secretion. Treatment with RvE1 or RvD1 for 30 minutes significantly blocked the LTB4-induced [Ca2+]i increase. The actions of RvE1 on LTB4-induced [Ca2+]i increase were reversed by siRNA for the RvE1 receptor, and the actions of RvD1 were reversed by an RvD1 receptor inhibitor. The RvE1 and RvD1 block of LTB4-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i was also reversed by an inhibitory peptide to ß-adrenergic receptor kinase. LTB4 and block of the LTB4-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i by RvE1 and RvD1 were partially mediated by the depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. RvE1, but not RvD1, counterregulated the LTB4-induced high-molecular-weight glycoprotein secretion. Thus, both RvE1 and RvD1 receptors directly inhibit LTB4 by phosphorylating the LTB4 receptor using ß adrenergic receptor kinase. RvE1 receptor counterregulates the LTB4-induced increase in [Ca2+]i and secretion, whereas RvD1 receptor only counterregulates LTB4-induced [Ca2+]i increase.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Mucinas/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Ophthalmologe ; 117(7): 626-630, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572552

RESUMO

Recent studies have described conjunctivitis in approximately 1% of COVID-19 patients and speculated that SARS-CoV­2 can be transmitted via the conjunctiva. In this article we recapitulate the molecular mechanisms of host cell entry of SARS-CoV­2 and discuss the current evidence for a potential conjunctival transmission of SARS-CoV­2. The current body of evidence indicates that SARS-CoV­2 requires the membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the membrane-bound serine protease TMPRSS2 to enter cells. Recent studies suggest that COVID-19 patients rarely exhibit viral RNA in tear film and conjunctival smears and that, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are only expressed in very small amounts in the conjunctiva, making conjunctival infection with SARS-CoV­2 via these mediators unlikely. Nevertheless, we consider the current evidence to be still too limited to provide a conclusive statement and recommend appropriate protective measures for healthcare personnel who are in close contact with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Túnica Conjuntiva , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos
17.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 28(5): 745-748, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569495

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study objective was to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in conjunctival swabs from patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Forty patients who tested positive by real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were enrolled. Conjunctival swabbing was used to collect the tear and conjunctival secretions of patients. RESULTS: Conjunctival swab rRT-PCR was positive for three patients and negative for 37 patients. Ten of the patients (25%) were diagnosed with conjunctivitis during the ophthalmic examination. Of these patients, one was found positive by conjunctival swab rRT-PCR, and nine were found negative. The difference between patients who tested positive or negative using conjunctival swab rRT-PCR was without statistical significance in terms of the presence of conjunctivitis (p = .720). CONCLUSION: The rate of positivity from conjunctival swab rRT-PCR was 7.5% in patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Túnica Conjuntiva/virologia , Conjuntivite Viral/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Virais/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Lágrimas/virologia
18.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 28(5): 735-738, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589459

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 interact with ACE2 or basigin/CD147 receptors, regulating human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 together with serine protease TMPRSS2. The expression of these receptors on the ocular surface is unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gene expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors was investigated in conjunctival epithelial cell samples and in ex-vivo cornea samples using microarray or transcriptome sequencing. RESULTS: ACE2 is expressed in conjunctival samples at a low level, while BSG and TMPRSS2 are expressed at intermediate levels in both conjunctiva and cornea. Other receptors such as ANPEP, AGTR2 are expressed at low level in the conjunctiva. Two RNA editing enzymes involved in antiviral responses, APOBEC3A, and ADAR-1 were also highly expressed. CONCLUSIONS: The ocular surface may represent an entry point for the SARS-CoV-2 in the human body. The conjunctiva and the cornea can adopt antiviral countermeasures which may explain the low prevalence of eye involvement.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Córnea/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Basigina/genética , Criança , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516320

RESUMO

The ocular surface microbiome of veterinary species has not been thoroughly characterized using molecular-based techniques, such as next generation sequencing (NGS), as the vast majority of studies have utilized traditional culture-based techniques. To date, there is one pilot study evaluating the ocular surface of healthy dogs using NGS. Furthermore, alterations in the ocular surface microbiome over time and after topical antibiotic treatment are unknown. The objectives of this study were to describe the bacterial composition of the ocular surface microbiome in clinically normal dogs, and to determine if microbial community changes occur over time or following topical antibiotic therapy. Topical neomycin-polymyxin-bacitracin ophthalmic ointment was applied to one eye each of 13 adult dogs three times daily for seven days, while contralateral eyes served as untreated controls. The inferior conjunctival fornix of both eyes was sampled via swabbing at baseline prior to antibiotic therapy (day 0), after 1 week of treatment (day 7), and 4 weeks after discontinuing treatment (day 35). Genomic DNA was extracted from the conjunctival swabs and primers targeting the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were used to generate amplicon libraries, which were then sequenced on an Illumina platform. Data were analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Molecular Ecology (QIIME 2.0). At baseline, the most relatively abundant phyla sequenced were Proteobacteria (49.7%), Actinobacteria (25.5%), Firmicutes (12%), Bacteroidetes (7.5%), and Fusobacteria (1.4%). The most common families detected were Pseudomonadaceae (13.2%), Micrococcaceae (12%), Pasteurellaceae (6.9%), Microbacteriaceae (5.2%), Enterobacteriaceae (3.9%), Neisseriaceae (3.5%), and Corynebacteriaceae (3.3%). Alpha and beta diversity measurements did not differ in both control and treatment eyes over time. This report examines the temporal stability of the canine ocular surface microbiome. The major bacterial taxa on the canine ocular surface remained consistent over time and following topical antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Primers do DNA , Cães/microbiologia , Olho/microbiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Neomicina/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Polimixinas/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 83(3): 250-261, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490972

RESUMO

To identify and classify available information regarding COVID-19 and eye care according to the level of evidence, within four main topics of interest: evidence of the virus in tears and the ocular surface, infection via the conjunctival route, ocular manifestations, and best practice recommendations. A structured review was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar on COVID-19 and ophthalmology. The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence worksheet was used for quality assessments. 1018 items were identified in the search; 26 records were included in the qualitative synthesis, which encompassed 6 literature reviews, 10 case series or cross-sectional studies, 4 case reports, and 6 intervention descriptions. Seventeen out of 26 records (65%) were categorized as level 5 within the Oxford CBME methodology grading system, the rest were level 4. The evidence generated on COVID-19 and ophthalmology to date is limited, although this is understandable given the circumstances. Both the possible presence of viral particles in tears and conjunctiva, and the potential for conjunctival transmission remain controversial. Ocular manifestations are not frequent and could resemble viral infection of the ocular surface. Most recommendations are based on the strategies implemented by Asian countries during previous coronavirus outbreaks. There is a need for substantive studies evaluating these strategies in the setting of SARS-CoV-2. In the meantime, plans for applying these measures must be implemented with caution, taking into account the context of each individual country, and undergo regular evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Oftalmopatias/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Túnica Conjuntiva/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Oftalmologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Lágrimas/virologia
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