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1.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 167-176, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601753

RESUMO

Blubber taken from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) during a subsistence hunt at Ulukhaktok, NT (formerly Holman, NWT) at intervals between 2002 and 2015 was analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. Results from these analyses were combined with others previously published to yield a data set of 18 tri- to hepta-substituted PBDE congeners in 102 animals sampled over a span of 19 year (females) and 34 year (males). In females, mean total PBDE concentrations increased between 1996 and 2015 by approximately 50%, from 1940 to 2780 pg/g wet wt., although not significantly so (p > 0.05) by one-way ANOVA. In males, concentrations ranged from 376 to 6470 pg/g wet wt. between 1981 and 2015 (p < 0.05). In males, the most rapid increase in PBDE concentrations occurred before 2000, but between 2002 and 2015 mean total PBDE concentrations increased by a further 50%. ANCOVA showed PBDE concentrations in females to be correlated (p < 0.05) with sampling year but not with age or condition (as measured by blubber thickness); in males, PBDE concentrations were strongly correlated (p < 0.01) with year, age and condition. The relative proportions of tetra-bromo- congeners declined weakly in both sexes over the sampling period, with a compensatory increase in penta-bromo-congener distribution. Overall, the results show no evidence yet of a decline in PBDE concentrations in western Arctic ringed seals in response to voluntary and regulated restrictions on PBDE use in the early 2000s.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Focas Verdadeiras/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Masculino
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21139, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most symptomatic large-to-massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) should be operated, but the surgical reparability depended on the degree of rotator cuff muscle atrophy or fatty infiltration. The orthopedic surgeons will decide whether the teared stump is reparable during the surgery, but preoperative evaluation can be done by some assessment tools. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in recent studies to predict the reparability of large-to-massive RCTs, but the clinical availability was not as good as ultrasound. We hypothesize that the ultrasound elastography can predict the reparability of large-to-massive RCTs. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study and participants with large-to-massive RCTs who are going to have surgeries will be included. Out investigators will evaluate the shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and strength of all participants. Participants' degree of shoulder pain and activities of daily living (ADLs) will be assessed by American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. The ultrasound elastography will be used to evaluate the tissue quality of supraspinatus muscle and infraspinatus muscle. To test the reliability of the ultrasound elastography, two physicians will perform the ultrasound elastography independently and twenty participants will be selected for the reliability test. Besides, MRI will be used to evaluate the size of tear, the degree of tendon retraction, fatty infiltration of rotator cuff muscles, and muscle atrophy. Finally, the orthopedic surgeons will perform surgeries and decide whether the teared stump can be completely repaired intraoperatively. The primary analysis is the predictive validity of ultrasound elastography for the reparability of large-to-massive RCTs. Before the predictive validity of ultrasound elastography is measured, our investigators will assess the reliability of ultrasound elastography when administered to cases with large-to-massive RCTs, and we will check the correlations between the findings of ultrasound elastography and MRI. DISCUSSION: The outcome will provide the evidence of ultrasound elastography for preoperative evaluation of large-to-massive RCTs. The relationships between the findings of ultrasound elastography and MRI will also be examined for further analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03682679. Date of Registration: 25 September 2018, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03682679?cond=rotator+cuff&cntry=TW&draw=2&rank=1.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura/cirurgia , Ombro/fisiopatologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Manguito Rotador/patologia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/patologia
3.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(7): 762-767, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of body fat ratio with precocious puberty in girls. Previous studies have shown that body mass index (BMI) is associated with the girls' age of puberty but have not revealed the association of body fat ratio with age of puberty. METHODS: Based on the consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP), 128 children with precocious puberty who were admitted to the hospital from July to August, 2017, were divided into a CPP group with 87 children and a peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) group with 41 children. A total of 51 girls without any puberty development signs were enrolled as the control group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the body fat ratios of upper limbs, legs, trunk, android area, gynoid area, and the whole body. The association between body fat ratios and precocious puberty was analyzed with reference to age, BMI, BMI-Z score, bone age, ovarian volume, and hormone levels. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the CPP and PPP groups had significantly higher body fat ratios of upper limbs, legs, trunk, android area, gynoid area, and the whole body, legs/whole body fat ratio, and (upper limbs+legs)/trunk fat ratio (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences in the above body fat ratios and fat distribution indicators between the CPP and PPP groups (P>0.05). For the girls with precocious puberty, the high body fat ratio group had significantly higher luteinizing hormone (LH) base value, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)-stimulated LH peak value, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone peak value than the low body fat ratio group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, both the high body fat ratio and low body fat ratio groups had a significantly higher LH base value (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in body fat may be a factor inducing precocious puberty in girls, but further studies are needed to determine the mechanism.


Assuntos
Puberdade Precoce , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante , Maturidade Sexual
4.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(3): 240-244, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the cartilage regeneration of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) cocultured with chondrocytes seeded on the scaffolds. METHODS: The cellular morphologies and proliferation capabilities on the scaffolds were evaluated. The scaffolds with the cocul-ture of ASCs/SVF and chondrocytes were implanted into the full thickness cartilage defective rabbit joints for 10 weeks. RESULTS: The cells seeded into the scaffolds showed good adhesion and proliferation. Implantation with SVF and chondrocytes revealed desirable in vitro healing outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The SVF cells were better than ASCs in terms of the formation of cartilage matrix in a coimplantation model. Without in vitro expansion, the SVF cells are good cell sources for cartilage repair.


Assuntos
Cartilagem , Condrócitos , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Coelhos , Regeneração
5.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 12-19, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare different clinical and morphometric features of patients undergoing TPAIT for prediction of postoperative outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review enrolled patients who underwent TPAIT for the period from January 2007 to October 2017. Morphometric parameters were analyzed using preoperative CT scans and patients were grouped to examine association of these characteristics with postoperative morbidity. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of a TPA in the lowest sex-specific quartile. The impact of sarcopenia on pancreatic islet features, perioperative blood transfusion, ICU- and hospital-stay, complications, repeated admission within 90 days and islet function was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 34 patients were included in this study (12 males and 24 females). At the time of diagnosis, mean age of patients was 43.1 years. Mean body mass index (BMI) in sarcopenic patients was 24.9 kg/m2, mean BMI in those without sarcopenia - 24.8 kg/m2 (p=1.00). Various surgical complications were observed in 11 patients (32.3%). Patients with sarcopenia experienced more complications (83.3%) compared with patients without sarcopenia (50%). However, differences were not significant (p=0.31). Islet characteristics (islet numbers, purity), readmission, ICU- and hospital-stay, incidence of blood transfusion and islet function were also similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is not a predictor of postoperative complications and islet cell function in chronic pancreatitis patients following TPAIT.


Assuntos
Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Pancreatectomia , Pancreatite Crônica/cirurgia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pancreatite Crônica/complicações , Pancreatite Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/complicações , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): 51-61, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503004

RESUMO

Objective: We investigated the effects of a 12-week exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity (SI) and hyperinsulinemia and associated changes in regional and ectopic fat. Research design and methods: Healthy, black South African women with obesity (mean age 23 ± 3.5 years) and of isiXhosa ancestry were randomised into a 12-week aerobic and resistance exercise training group (n = 23) and a no exercise group (control, n = 22). Pre and post-intervention testing included assessment of SI, insulin response to glucose (AIRg), insulin secretion rate (ISR), hepatic insulin extraction (FEL) and disposition index (DI) (AIRg × SI) (frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test); fat mass and regional adiposity (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); hepatic, pancreatic and skeletal muscle fat content and abdominal s.c. and visceral adipose tissue volumes (MRI). Results: Exercise training increased VO2peak (mean ± s.d.: 24.9 ± 2.42 to 27.6 ± 3.39 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001), SI (2.0 (1.2-2.8) to 2.2 (1.5-3.7) (mU/l)-1 min-1, P = 0.005) and DI (median (interquartile range): 6.1 (3.6-7.1) to 6.5 (5.6-9.2) × 103 arbitrary units, P = 0.028), and decreased gynoid fat mass (18.5 ± 1.7 to 18.2 ± 1.6%, P < 0.001) and body weight (84.1 ± 8.7 to 83.3 ± .9.7 kg, P = 0.038). None of these changes were observed in the control group, but body weight increased (P = 0.030). AIRg, ISR and FEL, VAT, SAT and ectopic fat were unaltered after exercise training. The increase in SI and DI were not associated with changes in regional or ectopic fat. Conclusion: Exercise training increased SI independent from changes in hyperinsulinemia and ectopic fat, suggesting that ectopic fat might not be a principal determinant of insulin resistance in this cohort.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/terapia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Glicemia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , África do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(3): 134-138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of intramuscular adipose tissue and low levels of capillarization are both predicative of low muscle and mobility function in older adults, however little is known about their relationship. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of intramuscular adipose tissue and capillarization in older adults. SETTING: An outpatient medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven sedentary adults (age 59.9 ± 1.0 years, BMI 32.0 ± 0.7 kg/m2, VO2max 22.4 ± 0.7 ml/kg/min); Measurements: All participants underwent CT scans to determine intramuscular adipose tissue and muscle biopsies to determine capillarization in the mid-thigh. A step-wise hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to examine the contributions of age, sex, race, body mass index, 2-hour postprandial glucose, VO2max, and muscle capillarization, to the variability in intramuscular adipose tissue. RESULTS: The predictors as a group accounted for 38.1% of the variance in intramuscular adipose tissue, with body mass index and capillarization each significantly contributing to the final model (P<0.001). The part correlation of body mass index with intramuscular adipose tissue was r = 0.47, and the part correlation of capillarization with intramuscular adipose tissue was r = 0.39, indicating that body mass index and capillarization explained 22.1%, and 15.2% of the variance in intramuscular adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: While increased muscle capillarization is typically thought of as a positive development, in some clinical conditions, such as tendinopathies, an increase in capillarization is part of the pathological process related to expansion of the extracellular matrix and fibrosis. This may also be an explanation for the surprising finding that high capillarization is related to high levels of intramuscular adipose tissue. Future studies are necessary to determine the relationship of changes in both capillarization and intramuscular adipose tissue after interventions, such as exercise.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Capilares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coxa da Perna/irrigação sanguínea
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013636, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ideal proportion of energy from fat in our food and its relation to body weight is not clear. In order to prevent overweight and obesity in the general population, we need to understand the relationship between the proportion of energy from fat and resulting weight and body fatness in the general population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of proportion of energy intake from fat on measures of body fatness (including body weight, waist circumference, percentage body fat and body mass index) in people not aiming to lose weight, using all appropriate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least six months duration. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) to October 2019. We did not limit the search by language. SELECTION CRITERIA: Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised intervention trial, 2) included adults aged at least 18 years, 3) randomised to a lower fat versus higher fat diet, without the intention to reduce weight in any participants, 4) not multifactorial and 5) assessed a measure of weight or body fatness after at least six months. We duplicated inclusion decisions and resolved disagreement by discussion or referral to a third party. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data on the population, intervention, control and outcome measures in duplicate. We extracted measures of body fatness (body weight, BMI, percentage body fat and waist circumference) independently in duplicate at all available time points. We performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity, funnel plot analyses and GRADE assessment. MAIN RESULTS: We included 37 RCTs (57,079 participants). There is consistent high-quality evidence from RCTs that reducing total fat intake results in small reductions in body fatness; this was seen in almost all included studies and was highly resistant to sensitivity analyses (GRADE high-consistency evidence, not downgraded). The effect of eating less fat (compared with higher fat intake) is a mean body weight reduction of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.7 to -1.1 kg, in 53,875 participants from 26 RCTs, I2 = 75%). The heterogeneity was explained in subgrouping and meta-regression. These suggested that greater weight loss results from greater fat reductions in people with lower fat intake at baseline, and people with higher body mass index (BMI) at baseline. The size of the effect on weight does not alter over time and is mirrored by reductions in BMI (MD -0.5 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.6 to -0.3, 46,539 participants in 14 trials, I2 = 21%), waist circumference (MD -0.5 cm, 95% CI -0.7 to -0.2, 16,620 participants in 3 trials; I2 = 21%), and percentage body fat (MD -0.3% body fat, 95% CI -0.6 to 0.00, P = 0.05, in 2350 participants in 2 trials; I2 = 0%). There was no suggestion of harms associated with low fat diets that might mitigate any benefits on body fatness. The reduction in body weight was reflected in small reductions in LDL (-0.13 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.21 to -0.05), and total cholesterol (-0.23 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.14), with little or no effect on HDL cholesterol (-0.02 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.00), triglycerides (0.01 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.07), systolic (-0.75 mmHg, 95% CI -1.42 to -0.07) or diastolic blood pressure(-0.52 mmHg, 95% CI -0.95 to -0.09), all GRADE high-consistency evidence or quality of life (0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.07, on a scale of 0 to 10, GRADE low-consistency evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Trials where participants were randomised to a lower fat intake versus a higher fat intake, but with no intention to reduce weight, showed a consistent, stable but small effect of low fat intake on body fatness: slightly lower weight, BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat compared with higher fat arms. Greater fat reduction, lower baseline fat intake and higher baseline BMI were all associated with greater reductions in weight. There was no evidence of harm to serum lipids, blood pressure or quality of life, but rather of small benefits or no effect.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Adiposidade , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139833, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526583

RESUMO

The present study assessed the association between phthalate exposure and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (POLG) methylation along with the potential effect on the characteristics of body fat in children. A total of 152 children were enrolled. The urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat, and bisulfite-treated DNA was subjected to a pyrosequencing assay. In total, 17 CpG sites in the exon 2 region of POLG were included in the analysis. A multivariable regression model was applied to determine whether characteristics of body fat were associated with phthalate exposure and methylation of POLG. After adjustment for covariates, male children with a ten-fold increase in mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) or mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations had significantly higher measurements for total body fat (MMP: ß = 6.47%; MBzP: ß = 3.54%), and trunk fat (MMP: ß = 6.67%; MBzP: ß = 3.90%). Male children who had hypermethylation at the 2nd CpG site in exon 2 of POLG also had high measurements for BMI (ß = 1.66 kg/m2), waist (ß = 4.49 cm) and hip (ß = 4.81 cm) circumference, total body fat (ß = 5.48%), and trunk fat (ß = 6.21%). A dose-response relationship existed between methylation at the 2nd CpG site in exon 2 of POLG and characteristics of body fat (p for trend<0.01). This study suggested that male children who are exposed to phthalic acid esters have high body weight, BMI, and body and trunk fat percentages. Methylation of the exon 2 region of POLG is a possible mechanism behind the causal effect of endocrine-disrupting substances.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(4): e202000403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578723

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To collect data capable of pointing out the effects of the ultracavitation treatment on the liver of rabbits after adipose tissue application, by means of histological analyses of the liver and hematological and biochemical exams. METHODS: This is an experimental study with 12 albino rabbits as sample, which were divided into 3 groups and submitted to a hypercaloric diet for one month. Subsequently, subjects underwent UCV treatment: 3 minutes, 30 W, continuous mode at 100%, every 2 ERAS = 441.02 J/cm2, intensity of 10w/cm2. They were then euthanized and underwent biopsy after 24 hours. RESULTS: After 48 hours from the ultracavitation treatment, the animals' livers presented greater amount of fat infiltration if compared to the amount presented 96 hours after the treatment. However, laboratory tests showed no alterations. Values were maintained within normal parameters of cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified that infiltrates may appear on livers after the treatment, despite high hematological and biochemical tests results. The fat infiltrates reduction 96 h after treatment suggests lower risks to animal health, if the period between applications is respected.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Lipodistrofia/patologia , Lipodistrofia/terapia , Fígado/patologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Lipodistrofia/sangue , Masculino , Coelhos , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(7): 616-627, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559477

RESUMO

An increase in fat mass is considered to be an important risk factor for the worldwide increase in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, for a given fat mass, there is a large variability in the risk prediction of these cardiometabolic diseases. For example, some lean people unexpectedly have a risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that is similar to the increased risk that is observed in most people who have obesity. What both of these phenotypes have in common is a very characteristic fat distribution. As a result, much focus has been given on the strong predictive power of increased visceral fat mass. However, an analysis of the causes of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, as well as comparisons to rare diseases such as lipodystrophy and studying genetically determined fat distribution in the general population, suggest that an impaired ability to expand subcutaneous fat in the lower part of the body is also important for predicting the incidence of these cardiometabolic diseases. This Review, first, addresses the identification of distinct fat distribution phenotypes and their risk of cardiometabolic diseases by discussing findings from published studies that have applied precise quantification of different fat depots. Second, this Review provides support for the theory that a lower amount of lower-body fat mass is equally important to a high amount of visceral fat mass as a determinant of cardiometabolic diseases. Third, this Review discusses the genetic and lifestyle-related causes of metabolically healthy and unhealthy fat distribution. Finally, this Review summarises and appraises the effectiveness of lifestyle-related interventions and pharmacological interventions for reducing visceral adiposity and maintaining lower-body fat mass to prevent and treat cardiometabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(25): 32006-32016, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506396

RESUMO

The subchronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and high-fat diet (HFD) consumption lead to glucose intolerance by different mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation. Under stressful conditions, the cells exert a heat shock response (HSR), by releasing the 72-kDa heat shock proteins (eHSP72), fundamental chaperones. The depletion of the HSR can exacerbate the chronic inflammation. However, there are few studies about the early effects of the association of HFD consumption and exposure to low concentrations of PM2.5 in the oxidative stress and HSR, in the genesis of glucose intolerance. Thus, we divided 23 male B6129SF2/J mice into control (n = 6), polluted (n = 6), HFD (n = 6), and high-fat diet + polluted (HFD + polluted) (n = 5) groups. Control and polluted received a standard diet (11.4% of fats), while HFD and HFD + polluted received HFD (58.3% of fats). Simultaneously, polluted and HFD + polluted received 5 µg/10 µL of PM2.5, daily, 7×/week, while control and HFD were exposed to 10 µL of saline solution 0.9% for 12 weeks. At the 12th week, animals were euthanized. We collected the metabolic tissues to analyze oxidative parameters, total blood to the hematological parameters, and plasma to eHSP72 measurement. The association of HFD and PM2.5 impaired glucose tolerance in the 12th week. Besides, it triggered an antioxidant defense by the adipose tissue, which was negatively correlated with eHSP72 levels. In conclusion, a low concentration of PM2.5 exposure associated with HFD consumption leads to glucose intolerance, by impairing adipose tissue antioxidant defense and systemic eHSP72 levels.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Antioxidantes , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Material Particulado
13.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 85-89, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of resveratrol on body composition in adult catch-up growth rats and to explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: Eight-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal controls for 4 weeks (NC4) group, caloric restriction for 4 weeks (R4) group, calorie restriction meanwhile resveratrol treatment for 4 weeks (R4E) group, normal controls for 12 weeks (NC12) group, catch-up growth (CUG) group and catch-up growth meanwhile resveratrol treatment for 8 weeks (CUGE) group. At the end of the four-week and twelve-week experimental period, the body weight, muscle and fat content of trunk and whole body, the ratio of trunk to whole body fat were detected, and at the end of twelve-week experimental period, the expression of SIRT1 in skeletal muscle and epididymal adipose tissue, and the expression of PPARγ in epididymal adipose tissue were detected. RESULTS: Compared with NC12 group, the fat content of trunk and whole body and trunk to whole body fat ratio in CUG group were increased significantly, along with the expression of PPARγ in epididymal adipose tissue was increased significantly (P<0.05), while the muscle content of trunk and whole body, the expression of SIRT1 in skeletal muscle and epididymal adipose tissue in CUG group were decreased significantly compared with NC12 group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); compared with CUG group, oral administration of resveratrol distinctly reduced the body fat content and trunk to whole body fat ratio in the CUGE groups, and the expression of PPARγ in epididymal adipose tissue of CUGE group was also significantly decreased (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the muscle content and the expression of SIRT1 in skeletal muscle and epididymal adipose tissue in CUGE group were significantly increased compared with the CUG group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Resveratrol can decrease body fat content, increase muscle content and improve abdominal fat accumulation in adult catch-up growth rats, and its mechanism may be associated with increasing SIRT1 expression in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue, decreasing PPARγ expression in visceral adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Restrição Calórica , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
14.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(3): 257-268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of bioimpedance (BIA) and skinfolds thickness (SF) in body fat percentage measuring (%BF) compared to the reference method dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Brazilian reproductive age women, as well as to estimate of inter- and intra-observer precision for SF. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 170 women aged 18-37 years with BMI between 18 and 39.9 kg/m2 were selected for this cross-sectional study. Body density was evaluated through equations proposed by Jackson, Pollock and Ward (1980) (EqJPW) and Petroski (1995) (EqPET), and %BF was estimated by BIA, DXA and Siri's formula (1961). The SF were measured by two separate observers: A and B (to determine inter-observer variability), who measured the folds at three times with 10-minute interval between them (to determine intra-observer variability - we used only observer A). RESULTS: The %BF by DXA was higher than those measured by SF and BIA (p<0.01, for all) of 90 volunteers. The Lin coefficient of agreement was considered satisfactory for %BF values obtained by EqJPW and BIA (0.55) and moderate (0.76) for sum of SF (ΣSF) values obtained by EqJPW and EqPET. No agreement was observed for the values obtained by SF (EqJPW and EqPET), BIA and DXA. Analysis of inter- and intra-observer of 59 volunteers showed that different measures of SF thickness met acceptability standards, as well as the % BF. CONCLUSION: BIA and SF measurements may underestimate %BF compared with DXA. In addition, BIA and SF measurements are not interchangeable with DXA. However, our results suggest the equation proposed by Jackson, Pollock and Ward (three skinfolds) compared to BIA are interchangeable to quantify the %BF in Brazilian women in reproductive age. Furthermore, our results show acceptable accuracy for intra- and inter-observer skinfold measurements. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):257-68.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Antropometria/métodos , Composição Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Pregas Cutâneas , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Kardiologiia ; 60(3): 4-13, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375610

RESUMO

Objective To study the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in determination of risk for adverse course of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in patients after myocardial revascularization.Materials and Methods This study included 217 subjects, 182 IHD patients and 35 evaluated individuals without IHD. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed for 104 patients and coronary bypass (CB) was performed for 78 patients. Also echocardiography (EchoCG) and cardiac computed tomography were performed.Results In IHD patients, EAT volume and thickness were greater than in evaluated subjects without IHD. The composite endpoint (CEP) was observed after PCI more frequently than after CB. In IHD patients with an EAT thickness of 8.5 to 10.2 mm measured with EchoCG in the atrioventricular groove, the risk of CEP was 4.3 times higher after myocardial revascularization than with thicker or thinner EAT regardless of the revascularization method.Conclusion An EAT thickness of 8.5 to 10.2 mm in the atrioventricular groove as measured with EchoCG was associated with a risk of adverse IHD course in patients who have underwent myocardial revascularization.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Revascularização Miocárdica , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Tecido Adiposo , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Pericárdio , Prognóstico
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3281-3290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440124

RESUMO

Introduction: Cells exhibit high sensitivity and a diverse response to the nanotopography of the extracellular matrix, thereby endowing materials with instructive performances formerly reserved for growth factors. This finding leads to opportunities for improvement. However, the interplay between the topographical surface and cell behaviors remains incompletely understood. Methods: In the present study, we showed nanosurfaces with various dimensions of nanopits (200-750 nm) fabricated by self-assembling polystyrene (PS) nanospheres. Human adipose-derived stem cell behaviors, such as cell morphology, adhesion, cytoskeleton contractility, proliferation, and differentiation, were investigated on the prepared PS nanopit surface. Results: The osteogenic differentiation can be enhanced by nanopits with a diameter of 300-400 nm. Discussion: The present study provided exciting new avenues to investigate cellular responses to well-defined nanoscale topographic features, which could further guide bone tissue engineering and stem cell clinical research. The capability to control developing biomaterials mimicking nanotopographic surfaces promoted functional tissue engineering, such as artificial joint replacement, bone repair, and dental applications.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Nanoestruturas/química , Osteogênese , Poliestirenos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/ultraestrutura
17.
Life Sci ; 254: 117764, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407841

RESUMO

AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests that during gestation the in utero environment programs metabolism and can increase risk of obesity in adult offspring. Our aim was to study how alterations in maternal diets during gestation might alter body weight evolution, circulating leptin levels and caloric intake in offspring, leading to changes in body composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We fed gestating rats either a control diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD) or an isocaloric low protein diet (LPD), and examined the repercussions in offspring fed similar diets post-weaning on birth weight, body weight evolution, body composition, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance and in the relationship between plasma leptin concentration and caloric intake in offspring during growth and development. KEY FINDS: Offspring from dams fed LPD maintained reduced body weight with greater % lean mass and consumed fewer calories despite having leptin levels similar to controls. On the other hand, offspring from dams fed a HFD were insulin resistant and maintained increased body weight and % fat mass, while consuming more calories than controls despite elevated leptin concentrations. Therefore the uterine environment, modulated primarily through maternal nutrition, modified the relationship between circulating leptin levels, body fat, and caloric intake in the offspring, and dams fed a HFD produced offspring with excess adiposity, insulin resistance, and leptin resistance into adulthood. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicates that in utero environmental factors affected by maternal diet program alterations in the set point around which leptin regulates body weight in offspring into adulthood contributing to obesity.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina , Lactação , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Desmame
19.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(3): 441-445, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440756

RESUMO

Diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been shown to increase DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) expression and DNMTs binding at obesity-associated genes. Natural compounds have the potential to reverse obesity-associated gene expression via the regulation of DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of health promoting compounds of flaxseed on DNMTs and obesity-associated gene expression and weight gain. Sixty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly assigned into one of the following diet groups and fed for eight weeks: 45% kcal fat; 45% kcal fat+10% whole flaxseed; 45% kcal fat+6% defatted flaxseed; 45% kcal fat+4% flaxseed oil; and 16% kcal fat. DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, leptin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α expressions in adipose and muscle tissues were determined by real-time PCR. The health promoting compounds of flaxseed affected selected gene expression and attenuated weight gain. Further research is needed to identify the specific mechanisms modulating leptin or PPAR-α expression during DIO development.


Assuntos
Linho , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Leptina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , Ganho de Peso
20.
Life Sci ; 255: 117719, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428599

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the protective function of exosomes from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice and the possible underlying mechanism in order to provide a theoretical and experimental basis for using exosomes in clinical. MAIN METHODS: The AKI model was prepared through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Exosomes were injected via the tail vein of mice. Male C57/BL6 mice (18-22 g; 6-8 weeks old) were randomly grouped. Firstly, after mice were modeled, the variations of inflammatory cytokines and kidney functions at different time points (0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h) were comprehended. Secondly, mice were divided into Sham, CLP and CLP + Exo, and the survival rates of each group were observed. Lastly, a time point (24 h) was selected for exploring the effect and mechanism of exosomes. The levels of inflammatory cytokines in serum were detected by ELISA, while the kidney was by immunohistochemistry. Kidney histopathological score were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The protein levels of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), inflammation-related and apoptosis-related were detected by western blot. KEY FINDINGS: In CLP group, renal function gradually deteriorated, and the kidneys was in a state of inflammation, apoptosis and microcirculation disorders. However, SIRT1 was activated after intervention of exosomes in CLP mice, which reversed above changes. The mortality was reduced with treatment of exosomes in AKI mice. SIGNIFICANCE: In mice of sepsis-induce AKI, the intervention of AMSCs derived exosomes played a renal protective effect. The mechanism may be through SIRT1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Sepse/terapia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sepse/complicações
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