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1.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(3): 318-325, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496165

RESUMO

Proteins are the physical basis of life and perform all kinds of life activities. Proteins have different orientations and function in different tissues. The same protein, located in different subcellular regions, can perform different and even opposite functions. Both functional and structural proteins are capable of undergoing re-localization which can directly or indirectly participate in signal transduction. Due to abnormal transduction of signals during carcinogenesis, the proteins originally expressed in the cytoplasm are translocated into the nucleus and lead to functional changes in the tumor tissue. The changes of protein localization are affected by many factors, including the interaction between proteins, expression level of proteins and the cleaved intracellular domain of transmembrane protein.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Citoplasma , Proteínas de Membrana , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4143-4147, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Vitamin D analogs have a protective effect on carcinogenesis in humans. Since vitamin D receptor (VDR) is detected in many histotypes of cancer, this study evaluated the role of VDR expression in endometrioid carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor samples were collected from 60 patients who had undergone surgery, and the pattern of VDR expression assessed in tissue microarray (TMA) blocks of tumor samples. When VDR expression in the cytoplasm was higher than that in the nucleus, this was noted as 'displacement'. Using statistical analysis, the relationship between VDR expression and clinicopathological factors was evaluated. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining of nuclear VDR was as follows: Negative: 32 (53.3%); mild: 13 (21.7%); moderate: 14 (23.3%); strong: 1 (1.7%). For cytoplasmic VDR expression: Negative: 2 (3.3%); mild: 19 (31.7%); moderate: 31 (51.7%); strong: 7 (11.7%). VDR displacement was found in 42 (70%) cores. VDR displacement was significantly positively correlated with endometrioid carcinoma having lower histological grade (1, p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Displacement of VDR was significantly correlated with lower histological grade. Clinicians might be able to predict prognosis and decide therapies related to vitamin D analogs using this remarkable biomarker for endometrial carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Prognóstico , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Citoplasma/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Vitamina D/genética
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(70): 10440-10443, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410422

RESUMO

In this work, a unique dual-site controlled fluorescent probe was presented for the sensitive and concurrent detection of pH in the cytoplasm and lysosomes. With the probe, the simultaneous down-regulation of pH in the lysosomes and cytoplasm during autophagy has been successfully revealed for the first time.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Sondas Moleculares/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
4.
Cancer Invest ; 37(7): 293-298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328584

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to analyse the expression of Interleukin-6 receptor in different human gastric tissue and to correlate with the clinicopathological features of the patients. Immunohistochemistry was done against the IL-6R antibody and the Q-score was calculated from the staining pattern. Higher Q-scores were observed in tumour cells than the adjacent normal cells which were statistically significant. We also observed a significant correlation between the expressions of IL-6R and the clinicopathological features These findings suggest that IL-6R may represent as a therapeutic target for gastric carcinoma and serve as a prognostic indicator, as well.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
5.
Plant Sci ; 286: 57-67, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300142

RESUMO

Phosphorus in plant cells occurs in inorganic form as both ortho- and pyrophosphate or bound to organic compounds, like e.g., nucleotides, phosphorylated metabolites, phospholipids, phosphorylated proteins, or phytate as P storage in the vacuoles of seeds. Individual compartments of the cell are surrounded by membranes that are selective barriers to avoid uncontrolled solute exchange. A controlled exchange of phosphate or phosphorylated metabolites is accomplished by specific phosphate transporters (PHTs) and the plastidial phosphate translocator family (PTs) of the inner envelope membrane. Plastids, in particular chloroplasts, are the site of various anabolic sequences of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Apart from their role in metabolism PHTs and PTs are presumed to be also involved in communication between organelles and plant organs. Here we will focus on the integration of phosphate transport and homeostasis in signaling processes. Recent developments in this field will be critically assessed and potential future developments discussed. In particular, the occurrence of various plastid types in one organ (i.e. the leaf) with different functions with respect to metabolism or sensing, as has been documented recently following a tissue-specific proteomics approach (Beltran et al., 2018), will shed new light on functional aspects of phosphate homeostasis.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Citoplasma/fisiologia , Família Multigênica , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 2805-2810, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Galectins belong to the family of galactose-binding proteins known to play an important role in the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and neoplastic progression. Herein, we studied the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of Gal-3 was analyzed by means of multiparametric flow cytometry in normal and pathological B-cells from peripheral blood and bone marrow samples of 67 patients with CLL. RESULTS: Pathological B-cells expressed significantly higher levels of cytoplasmic Gal-3 than normal B-cells. Moreover, overexpression of cytoplasmic Gal-3 was observed in the prognostically poorest subgroup of CLL patients, namely those with 17p deletion. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a possible role of galectin-3 in CLL pathophysiology and its potential value as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Galectina 3/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 2811-2819, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recent knowledge implicates a differential expression of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) mRNA splice variants (i.e., IGF-IEa, IGF-IEb and IGF-IEc) in cancerous tissues, implying possible specific roles of the encoded IGF-I protein isoforms in cancer biology. In particular, there is growing evidence that the IGF-IEc isoform may play a distinct biological role in various types of cancers. The present study investigated whether IGF-IEc expression is associated with a particular type of thyroid cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of different types of thyroid cancers from 92 patients were assessed for IGF-IEc expression by immunohistochemistry. In addition, thyroid cancer biopsies of different TNM staging histological types were evaluated for mRNA expression of the IGF-IEc transcript by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: From the total number of 92 samples, 2 were anaplastic, 10 medullary, 4 hyperplasias of C-cells, 11 follicular, 5 hurtle cell carcinomas, 2 poorly differentiated, 5 nodular hyperplasias, 1 lymphoma and 52 were papillary thyroid cancers. The age of cancer diagnosis or tumor size did not significantly affect the IGF-IEc expression. Among all types of cancers, IGF-IEc was expressed in papillary differentiated thyroid cancer. Its expression/localization was mainly cytoplasmic and significantly associated with TNM staging and the presence of muscular and capsule cancerous invasion (p<0.05). Similarly, a differential profile was revealed regarding the mRNA expression of the IGF-IEc transcript, that exhibited a higher expression in aggressive compared to the non-aggressive papillary cancers. CONCLUSION: IGF-IEc isoform expression in thyroid cancer is positively associated with more advanced stages of papillary thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Citoplasma/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
8.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(6): 583-592, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238858

RESUMO

Actin plays an important role in cellular adhesion, muscle and non-muscle contractility, migration, polarization, mitosis, and meiosis. Investigation of specific mechanisms underlying these processes is essential not only for fundamental research but also for clinical applications, since modulations of actin isoforms are directly or indirectly correlate with severe pathologies. In this review we summarize the isoform-specific functions of actin associated with adhesion structures, motility and division of normal and tumor cells; alterations of the expression and structural organization of actin isoforms in normal and tumor cells. Selective regulation of cytoplasmic ß- or γ-actin expression determines functional diversity between isoforms: ß-actin plays the predominant role in contraction and intercellular adhesion, and γ-actin is responsible for the cellular plasticity and motility. Similar data were obtained in different epithelial and mesenchymal neoplastic cell cultures, as well as in immunomorphological comparison of normal human tissues with tumor analogues. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts is essential for proliferation control and acquisition of invasiveness in epithelial tumors.


Assuntos
Actinas/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/fisiologia , Actinas/química , Animais , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Humanos , Mamíferos , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(6): 593-607, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238859

RESUMO

Mitochondria are among the most important cell organelles involved in the regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. During the last decade, a number of molecular structures responsible for the mitochondrial calcium transport have been identified including the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU), Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX), and Ca2+/H+ antiporter (Letm1). The review summarizes the data on the structure, regulation, and physiological role of such structures. The pathophysiological mechanism of Ca2+ transport through the cyclosporine A-sensitive mitochondrial permeability transition pore is discussed. An alternative mechanism for the mitochondrial pore opening, namely, formation of the lipid pore induced by saturated fatty acids, and its role in Ca2+ transport are described in detail.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Humanos , Transporte de Íons , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/metabolismo
10.
Gene ; 710: 291-306, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185283

RESUMO

The WD40 transcription factor family is a superfamily found in all eukaryotes that plays important roles in regulating growth and development. To our knowledge, to date, WD40 superfamily genes have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but little information is available on the WD40 superfamily genes in peach. In this study, we identified 220 members of the WD40 superfamily in the peach genome, and these members were further classified into five subfamilies based on phylogenetic comparison with those in Arabidopsis. The members within each subfamily had conserved motifs and gene structures. The WD40 genes were unevenly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 8 of the peach genome. Additionally, 58 pairs of paralog WD40 members were found on eight chromosomes in peach, and 242 pairs of orthologous WD40 genes in peach and Arabidopsis were matched. The 54 selected putative WD40 genes in peach had diverse expression patterns in red-fleshed and white-fleshed peach fruits at five developmental stages. Prupe.6G211800.1 was located only on the cytomembrane, while Prupe.1G428200.1 and Prupe.I003200.1 were located on both the cytomembrane and in the nucleus; Prupe.1G558700.1 was densely localized around the nuclear rim but relatively faintly localized in the nucleoplasm; Prupe.5G116300.1 was located in the nucleus and cytomembrane with strong signals but showed weak signals in the cytoplasm; and Prupe.8G212400.1 and Prupe.1G053600.1 were located mainly in the nuclear envelope and cytomembrane but relatively faintly in the nucleoplasm. This study provides a foundation for the further functional verification of WD40 genes in peach.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus persica/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada , Citoplasma/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Repetições WD40
11.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol ; 57(2): 84-93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: WNT5A (Wnt family member 5A) belongs to the WNT family of secreted signaling glycoproteins that play essential role in developmental, physiological and pathological processes. WNT5A was shown to take part in carcinogenesis process playing both oncogenic and suppressor functions in various types of human malignancies. This study aimed to assess the expression of the WNT5A gene at the mRNA and protein levels in the specimens derived from endometrial cancer (EC) or unchanged control endometrium. The associations between the WNT5A expression levels and clinicopathological characteristics and survival of EC patients were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA was isolated in order to assess the relative amounts of WNT5A mRNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) in samples of unchanged endometrial control (n = 8) and tumor samples of EC patients (n = 28). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to determine the presence of WNT5A protein in the sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens derived from unchanged endome-trial controls (n = 6) and EC tumors (n = 19). Significance of differences in WNT5A expression levels between the studied groups of EC patients and correlations between the WNT5A and demographic data, pathological features, hematological parameters and overall survival of the patients were evaluated by statistical analysis. RESULTS: The level of WNT5A mRNA was decreased in EC in comparison to unchanged endometrium. WNT5A expression was associated with primary tumor invasion status exhibiting reduced level of transcripts in EC that involved organs beyond the uterus when compared to the uterus-confined cancers. WNT5A immunoreactivity was visualized in the cytoplasm and nuclei of EC cells as well as in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells of unchanged endometrium. WNT5A mRNA expression levels correlated negatively with cytoplasmic, and positively with nuclear immunoreactivity of the WNT5A protein in the EC cells. In addition, the relationships between blood leucocyte count (in particular granulocytes and lymphocytes) of patients with EC and their WNT5A mRNA and protein expression levels were established. A positive correlation between the nuclear immunoexpression of WNT5A protein in the cancer cells in cell nuclei and mean platelet volume in blood was also found. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the first study of WNT5A expression at the transcript and protein levels indicate that it could be considered as a potential marker of molecular changes that take place during EC development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt-5a/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/imunologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt-5a/imunologia
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 206-214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176880

RESUMO

SUMOylation is an important protein modification that regulates the properties of substrate proteins in a variety of cellular processes. SUMOylation is catalyzed via a cascade of enzymes and is usually stimulated by SUMO E3 ligases. However, the molecular functions and regulatory mechanisms of SUMOylation in forage crops are unknown. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized DiMMS21, a homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana SUMO ligase AtMMS21, from the forage legume Desmodium intortum. DiMMS21 is expressed ubiquitously in various D. intortum organs and its encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that DiMMS21 contains a conserved SP-RING domain that is required for its activity. Biochemical evidence supports the notion that this protein is a functional SUMO ligase. When expressed in an Arabidopsis mms21 mutant, DiMMS21 completely rescued the defects in root, leaf, and silique development. The results from cotyledon greening and marker gene expression suggested that DiMMS21 can only partially complements the role of AtMMS21 in abscisic acid (ABA) responses. In summary, we characterized the molecular features of DiMMS21 and uncovered potential roles of this SUMO ligase in development and ABA responses, increasing our understanding on the function of SUMOylation in forage crops.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Citoplasma/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/metabolismo
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 259-278, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200272

RESUMO

Halophytes are crucial in the light of increasing soil salinization, yet our understanding of their chemical composition and its relationship to key morphological traits such as succulence or salt excretion is limited. This study targets this issue by exploring the relationship between the elemental composition of 108 plant species from saline environments in Iran and their eco-morphological traits and taxonomy. Leaves and/or photosynthetic shoots of individual species and soils were sampled and analyzed for 20 elements in plant samples and 5 major elements plus % gypsum content, pH, and EC in soil samples. Eu-halophytes and leaf- and stem-succulent and salt-recreting plants showed high concentrations of Na, S, and Mg and low concentrations of Ca and K. In contrast, pseudo-halophytes, facultative-halophytes and eury-hygro-halophytes, which often lack succulent shoots, showed low Na, S, and Mg and high Ca and K concentrations in their leaves. Clear patterns were identified among taxonomic families, with Chenopodiaceae and Plumbaginaceae having high Na and Mg and low Ca and K concentrations, Caryophyllaceae having high K, Poaceae having low Na, and Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, and Brassicaceae showing high foliar Ca concentrations. We conclude that the elemental composition of halophytes and pseudo-halophytes is related to salt-tolerance categories, eco-morphological types and respective taxonomic groups.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/química , Cálcio/química , Chenopodiaceae/química , Clima , Citoplasma/química , Ecossistema , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Irã (Geográfico) , Magnésio/química , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas , Salinidade , Solo/química , Enxofre/química
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(54): 7852-7855, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215553
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 252, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thermo-sensitive male-sterility based on Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm (K-TCMS) plays an important role in hybrid wheat breeding. This has important possible applications in two-line hybrid wheat breeding but the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism related to fertility restoration are poorly understood. In this study, comparative transcriptome profiling based on RNA sequencing was conducted for two near-isogenic lines comprising KTM3315R and its sterile counterpart KTM3315A, a total of six samples (3 repetitions per group), in order to identify fertility restoration genes and their metabolic pathways. RESULTS: In total, 2642 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, among which 1238 were down-regulated and 1404 were up-regulated in fertile anthers. Functional annotation enrichment analysis identified important pathways related to fertility restoration, such as carbohydrate metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism and biosynthesis, as well as candidate genes encoding pectin methylesterase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase. Moreover, transcription factor analysis showed that a large number of DEGs were mainly involved with the WRKY, bHLH, and MYB transcription factor families. Determination of total soluble sugar and flavonoid contents demonstrated that important metabolic pathways and candidate genes are associated with fertility restoration. Twelve DEGs were selected and detected by quantitative reverse-transcribed PCR, and the results indicated that the transcriptome sequencing results were reliable. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that identified DEGs were related to the fertility restoration and they proved to be crucial in Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm. These findings also provide a basis for exploring the molecular regulation mechanism associated with wheat fertility restoration as well as screening and cloning related genes.


Assuntos
Aegilops/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Triticum/genética , Citoplasma/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 175, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DUOII is a multi-ovary wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line with two or three pistils and three stamens in each floret. The multi-ovary trait of DUOII is controlled by a dominant gene, whose expression can be suppressed by the heterogeneous cytoplasm of TeZhiI (TZI), a line with the nucleus of common wheat and the cytoplasm of Aegilops. Crosses between female DUOII plants and male TZI plants resulted in multi-ovary F1s; whereas, the reciprocal crosses resulted in mono-ovary F1s. Although the multi-ovary trait is inherited as single trait controlled by a dominant allele in lines with a Triticum cytoplasm, the mechanism by which the special heterogeneous cytoplasm suppresses the expression of multi-ovary is not well understood. RESULTS: Observing the developmental process, we found that the critical stage of additional pistil primordium development was when the young spikes were 2-6 mm long. Then, we compared the quantitative proteomic profiles of 2-6 mm long young spikes obtained from the reciprocal crosses between DUOII and TZI. A total of 90 differentially expressed proteins were identified and analyzed based on their biological functions. These proteins had obvious functional pathways mainly implicated in chloroplast metabolism, nuclear and cell division, plant respiration, protein metabolism, and flower development. Importantly, we identified two key proteins, Flowering Locus K Homology Domain and PEPPER, which are known to play an essential role in the specification of pistil organ identity. By drawing relationships between the 90 differentially expressed proteins, we found that these proteins revealed a complex network which is associated with multi-ovary gene expression under heterogeneous cytoplasmic suppression. CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomic analysis has identified certain differentially expressed proteins in 2-6 mm long young spikes, which was the critical stage of additional primordium development. This paper provided a universal proteomic profiling involved in the cytoplasmic suppression of wheat floral meristems; and our findings have laid a solid foundation for further mechanistic studies on the underlying mechanisms that control the heterogeneous cytoplasm-induced suppression of the nuclear multi-ovary gene in wheat.


Assuntos
Citoplasma/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteômica , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Triticum/genética
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(45): 6437-6440, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095140

RESUMO

A precise ricin A-chain (RTA) delivery system was constructed by coupling RTA to carbon dots (CDs) with a distinctive capacity for Golgi targeting. The rational design shows efficient internalization and an exact pathway to the cytoplasm for RTA to exert its real toxic action since it could avoid lysosome degradation.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Complexo de Golgi/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Ricina/química , Citoplasma/química , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Ricina/toxicidade
18.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(1): 41-49, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044446

RESUMO

Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone) is a bicyclic naphthoquinone, found in three major plant families viz. Plumbaginaceae, Ebenceae and Droseraceae. The phytochemical is reported to exhibit various pharmacological properties. In this study, plumbagin isolated from Plumbago zeylanica L. was investigated for its in vitro activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Against 100 MRSA isolates that included multi-drug-resistant phenotypes, plumbagin showed consistent activity with a narrow minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 4-8 µg ml-1 . The time-kill study revealed 99% kill of a reference MRSA strain, 8 h after exposure to plumbagin. In the combination MIC study using the reference MRSA strain, plumbagin showed synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin and piperacillin while additive or indifference effect with other commonly used antibiotics. The transmission electron micrograph of the reference MRSA strain treated with plumbagin confirmed cell wall and cytoplasmic changes. Our results demonstrated potent anti-MRSA activity of plumbagin which was not impacted by multi-drug resistance. This is a first ever study that evaluated in vitro anti-MRSA activity of plumbagin employing large number of MRSA isolates. The findings of this study support the need for the further investigation on this phytochemical agent for therapeutic application. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study revealed phytochemical plumbagin's potent and consistent in vitro antibacterial activity against clinically problematic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) including multi-drug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The study results support further research to assess the clinical scope of plumbagin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plumbaginaceae/química , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Citoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Piperacilina/farmacologia
19.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 14(10): 1247-1265, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084385

RESUMO

Aim: Plant virus-like particles (VLPs) have emerged as a novel platform for delivery of drugs/antibodies. The aim of the present investigation is to establish the entry mechanism of flexuous rod-shaped virus particles into mammalian cells. Methods: Far-Western blot analysis, pull-down and ELISA were used to characterize vimentin and Hsp60 interaction with VLPs. The mode/kinetics of internalization of VLPs was deciphered using pharmacological inhibitors/endosomal markers. Results & discussion: The flexuous rod-shaped VLPs of Pepper vein banding virus (PVBV) enter HeLa and HepG2 cells via cell-surface proteins: vimentin and Hsp60, respectively. VLPs internalize via different modes of endocytosis in HeLa, HepG2 cells and are biodegradable. Vimentin and Hsp60 could be potential epithelial ligands that facilitate targeting of nanoparticles to tumor cells.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Potyvirus/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Chaperonina 60/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cinética , Vimentina/metabolismo , Vírion/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus
20.
Planta ; 250(2): 507-518, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098709

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: 'Petaloid' cytoplasmic male sterility is commonly used as a stable genetic mechanism in carrot hybrid breeding. Its introgression in tropical carrot showed morphometric changes and molecular markers were identified for detection at early stage. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the only genetic mechanism in carrot for commercial exploitation of heterosis and production of low cost affordable hybrid seeds. The 'petaloid' CMS system is stable and commonly used in hybrid breeding in temperate carrot but there is no information available on existence of natural CMS system in tropical Asiatic carrot. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate morphometric traits and organizational features of cytoplasmic atp9 gene sequences in newly converted CMS lines (BC4-7) of tropical carrot. The CMS lines had root traits at par with fertile counterparts while floral traits had variation. Petal colour and length, petaloids colour and shape and style length showed differences among the CMS lines and with their maintainers. Molecular markers are effective to establish male sterility at genetic level, for this, six fixed and stable CMS lines were screened with seven novel primer combinations. Out of which five pairs produced clearly distinguishable bands in CMS lines and their fertile counterparts. The study confirmed that the region between 3' end of atp9-1/atp9-3 gene and 5' end of region of homology to Arabidopsis thaliana mtDNA is ideal for developing the trait specific markers. These new CMS lines have potential to use in hybrid development and molecular markers will be useful to confirm male sterility to rogue out fertile plants.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/anatomia & histologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Quimera , Citoplasma/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Daucus carota/anatomia & histologia , Daucus carota/fisiologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
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